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by essay jury trial The Classic Critique Distinguishing 'Government' from 'STATE' A History of Lawless Government. An Essay on the. By LYSANDER SPOONER - 1852. Editors Note: This HTML presentation is scanned in from An Essay on the Trial By Jury by Lysander Spooner, First Edition, First Printing, in its entirety without textual change. Phrases which appear in italics in the original are shown in Red Italics. I have taken the liberty of consolidating orphan phrases of paragraphs, and the very extensive footnotes to the end of each chapter. Footnotes are hyper-linked to the text. Original Page Numbers are as shown. -- My gratitude to Brian March for the loan of the book. -- Barefoot -- HTML Edition Copyright, September, 1997.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1852, by. In the to save chimps essay, Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts. NOTICE TO ENGLISH PUBLISHERS. The author claims the copyright of this book in England, on Common Law principles, without regard to acts of the collector essay parliament; and if the to save goodall essay, main principle of the book itself be true, viz., that no legislation, in conflict with the Common Law, is of any validity, his claim is a legal one. He forbids any one to reprint the cari kerja, book without his consent. Chimps Jane Goodall Essay? New England Type and Stereotype Foundery, This volume, it is presumed by the author, gives what will generally be considered satisfactory evidence,- though not all the evidence,- of what the Common Law trial by jury really is.
In a future volume, if it should be called for, it is designed to corroborate the grounds taken in this; give a concise view of the English constitution; show the unconstitutional character of the existing government in England, and the unconstitutional means by which the trial by jury has been broken down in practice; prove that, neither in England nor the United States, have legislatures ever been invested by the people with any authority to impair the powers, change the oaths, or (with few exceptions) abridge the jurisdiction, of juries, or select jurors on any other than Common Law principles; and, consequently, that, in both countries, legislation is still constitutionally subordinate to the discretion and consciences of criteria for evaluating papers Common Law juries, in all cases, both civil and criminal, in which juries sit. The same volume will probably also discuss several political and legal questions, which will naturally assume importance if the trial by jury should be reestablished. OF THE JUSTICE OF LAWS. AS DEFINED BY MAGNA CARTA. AND DUTIES OF JURORS. Mere Courts Of Conscience.
JURIES IN CIVIL SUITS. MAJORITY BY THE TRIAL BY JURY. To Save Chimps Essay? THE RIGHT OF JURIES TO JUDGE OF THE JUSTICE OF LAWS. FOR more than six hundred years - that is, since Magna Carta, in 1215 - there has been no clearer principle of English or American constitutional law, than that, in criminal cases, it is not only the for research, right and duty of juries to judge what are the facts, what is the to save chimps goodall, law, and what was the moral intent of the accused; but that it is also their right, and their primary and paramount duty, to judge of the justice of the law, and to papers, hold all laws invalid, that are, in their opinion, unjust or oppressive, and all persons guiltless in violating, or resisting the execution of, such laws. Unless such be the right and duty of jurors, it is plain that, instead of juries being a palladium of liberty - a barrier against goodall, the tyranny and oppression of the government - they are really mere tools in its hands, for the collector essay, carrying into to save essay execution any injustice and oppression it may desire to have executed. But for their right to judge of the law, and the justice of the law, juries would be no protection to an dissertation don't, an accused person, even as to to save, matters of fact; for, if the government can dictate to a jury any law whatever, in a criminal case, it can certainly dictate to them the laws of evidence. That is, it can dictate what evidence is admissible, and what inadmissible, and also what force or weight is to be given to the collector, the evidence admitted.
And if the government can thus dictate to goodall, a jury the laws of evidence, it can not only make it necessary for them to convict on a partial exhibition of the evidence rightfully pertaining to the case, but it can even require them to convict on any evidence whatever that it pleases to offer them. That the rights and duties of jurors must necessarily be such as are here claimed for them, will be evident when it is considered what the trial by cari jury is, and what is its object. The trial by jury, then, is a trial by the country - that is, by the people - as distinguished from a trial by the government. It was anciently called trial per pais - that is, trial by the country. And now, in every criminal trial, the jury are told that the accused has, for trial, put himself upon the country ; which country you (the jury) are. The object of this trial by the country, or by the people, in jane essay preference to service literature review, a trial by the government, is to guard against every species of jane goodall oppression by paper on nelson mandela the government. In order to effect this end, it is indispensable that the people, or the country, judge of and determine their own liberties against the government; instead of the government's judging of and determining its own powers over the people.
How is jane, it possible that juries can do anything to protect the liberties of the people against the government, if they are not allowed to an dissertation, determine what those liberties are? Any government, that is its own judge of, and determines authoritatively for the people, what are its own powers over the people, is an absolute government of chimps goodall essay course. It has all the powers that it chooses to exercise. Criteria? There is no other - or at least no more accurate - definition of a despotism than this. On the other hand, any people, that judge of, and determine authoritatively for the government, what are their own liberties against the government, of course retain all the liberties they wish to enjoy. And this is freedom. At least, it is freedom to to save jane essay, them ; because, although it may be theoretically imperfect, it, nevertheless, corresponds to the collector, their highest notions of freedom. To secure this right of the people to judge of to save chimps goodall their own liberties against the government, the jurors are taken, (or must be, to make them lawful jurors, from the body of the people, by lot, or by some process that precludes any previous knowledge, choice, or selection of them, on thesis on nelson mandela the part of the government. This is to save, done to prevent the government's constituting a jury of its own partisans or friends; in other words, to prevent the government's packing a jury, with a view to maintain its own laws, and accomplish its own purposes. It is supposed that, if twelve men be taken, by lot, from the mass of the people, without the possibility of any previous knowledge, choice, or selection of them, on i need don't the part of the government, the jury will be a fair epitome of the country at large, and not merely of the party or faction that sustain the measures of the government; that substantially all classes of chimps jane opinions, prevailing among the people, will be represented in the jury; and especially that the opponents of the government, (if the government have any opponents,) will be represented there, as well as its friends; that the classes, who are oppressed by the laws of the government, (if any are thus oppressed,) will have their representatives in the jury, as well as those classes, who take sides with the oppressor - that is, with the government.
It is fairly presumable that such a tribunal will agree to no conviction except such as substantially the whole country would agree to, if they were present, taking part in the trial. A trial by such a tribunal is, therefore, in effect, a trial by the country. In its results it probably comes as near to a trial by the whole country, as any trial that it is practicable to on nelson, have, without too great inconvenience and expense. And. as unanimity is required for a conviction, it follows that no one can be convicted, except for the violation of such laws as substantially the to save, whole country wish to have maintained. Thesis Paper Mandela? The government can enforce none of its laws, (by punishing offenders, through the verdicts of juries,) except such as substantially the whole people wish to have enforced.
The government, therefore, consistently with the trial by jury, can exercise no powers over the people, (or, what is the same thing, over the accused person, who represents the jane essay, rights of the people,) except such as substantially the whole people of the mandela, country consent that it may exercise. In such a trial, therefore, the country, or the people, judge of and determine their own liberties against the government, instead of thegovernment's judging of and determining its own powers over the people. But all this trial by the country would be no trial at all by the country, but only a trial by the government, if the government 'could either declare who may, and who may not, be jurors, or could dictate to the jury anything whatever, either of law or evidence, that is of the essence of the trial. If the government may decide who may, and who may not, be jurors, it will of course select only its partisans, and those friendly to its measures. It may not only prescribe who may, and who may not, be eligible to be drawn as jurors; but it may also question each person drawn as a juror, as to his sentiments in goodall essay regard to the particular law involved in each trial, before suffering him to be sworn on criteria research the panel; and exclude him if he be found unfavorable to to save jane goodall essay, the maintenance of such a law.  So, also, if the government may dictate to the jury what laws they are to enforce, it is no longer a trial by the country, but a trial by the government; because the jury then try the accused, not by any standard of their own - not by their own judgments of literature review their rightful liberties - but by a standard. dictated to chimps goodall essay, them by the government. And the standard, thus dictated by the government, becomes the measure of the people's liberties. If the government dictate the standard of trial, it of the collector essay course dictates the results of the trial.
And such a trial is no trial by the country, but only a trial by the government; and in it the chimps jane goodall essay, government determines what are its own powers over essay, the people, instead of the people's determining what are their own liberties against the government. To Save Chimps Essay? In short, if the jury have no right to judge of the justice of criteria for evaluating research a law of the government, they plainly can do nothing to protect the people against the oppressions of the government; for there are no oppressions which the government may not authorize by law. The jury are also to judge whether the laws are rightly expounded to them by the court. Unless they judge on this point, they do nothing to protect their liberties against the oppressions that are capable of being practiced under cover of a corrupt exposition of the to save goodall essay, laws. If the judiciary can authoritatively dictate to a jury any exposition of the law, they can dictate to them the law itself, and i need writier don't, such laws as they please; because laws are, in to save goodall essay practice, one thing or another, according as they are expounded. The jury must also judge whether there really be any such law, (be it good or bad,) as the accused is charged with having transgressed. Unless they judge on this point, the people are liable to have their liberties taken from them by brute force, without any law at all. The jury must also judge of the resume, laws of evidence. If the government can dictate to a jury the laws of evidence, it can not only shut out any evidence it pleases, tending to vindicate the accused, but it can require that any evidence whatever, that it pleases to offer, be held as conclusive proof of any offence whatever which the government chooses to allege. It is manifest, therefore, that the jury must judge of and try the whole case, and every part and parcel of the case, free of to save goodall any dictation or authority on the part of the government. They must judge of the existence of the law; of the true exposition of the law; of the justice of the law; and of the admissibility and weight of all the evidence offered; otherwise the government will have everything its own way; the jury will be mere puppets in the hands of the government: and the trial will be, in reality, a trial by the government, and not a trial by the country.
By such trials the government will determine its own powers over the people, instead of the people's determining their own liberties against the government; and criteria for evaluating research papers, it will be an entire delusion to talk, as for centuries we have done, of the trial by to save jane jury, as a palladium of liberty, or as any protection to the people against service, the oppression and tyranny of the government. Chimps Jane Goodall? The question, then, between trial by thesis on nelson jury, as thus described, and trial by the government, is simply a question between liberty and to save chimps goodall essay, despotism. The authority to judge what are the powers of the government, and what the liberties of the people, must necessarily be vested in one or the other of the parties themselves - the government, or the people; because there is title page for research paper chicago, no third party to whom it can be entrusted. Chimps Jane? If the authority be vested in the government, the criteria for evaluating research papers, government is absolute, and the people have no liberties except such as the government sees fit to indulge them with. If, on to save goodall essay the other hand, that authority be vested in the people, then the people have all liberties, (as against the government,) except such as substantially the whole people (through a jury) choose to disclaim; and the government can exercise no power except such as substantially the whole people (through a jury) consent that it may exercise. The force and. justice of the preceding argument cannot be evaded by saying that the government is chosen by the people; that, in theory, it represents the people; that it is designed to do the will of the people; that its members are all sworn to observe the fundamental or constitutional law instituted by the people; that its acts are therefore entitled to be considered the acts of the people; and that to allow a jury, representing the people, to invalidate the writier, acts of the government, would therefore be arraying the people against themselves.
There are two answers to such an argument. One answer is, that, in a representative government, there is no absurdity or contradiction, nor any arraying of the people against chimps jane goodall, themselves, in requiring that the page paper chicago, statutes or enactments of the to save chimps jane goodall essay, government shall pass the ordeal of any number of separate tribunals, before it shall be determined that they are to have the criteria, force of laws. Our American constitutions have provided five of these separate tribunals, to wit, representatives, senate, executive,  jury, and judges; and have made it necessary that each enactment shall pass the ordeal of all these separate tribunals, before its authority can be established by chimps jane goodall the punishment of those who choose to transgress it. And there is no more absurdity or inconsistency in making a jury one of these several tribunals, than there is in making the representatives, or the senate, or the writier, executive, or the judges, one of them. To Save Jane Goodall Essay? There is no more absurdity in giving a jury a veto upon review, the laws, than there is in jane essay giving a veto to each of these other tribunals. The people are no more arrayed against cari, themselves, when a jury puts its veto upon a statute, which the other tribunals have sanctioned, than they are when the same veto is chimps jane essay, exercised by the representatives, the senate, the executive, or the judges. But another answer to the argument that the people are arrayed against themselves, when a jury hold an enactment of the government invalid, is, that the government, and all the mandela, departments of the government, are merely the servants and agents of the people; not invested with arbitrary or absolute authority to bind the people, but required to submit all their enactments to the judgment of a tribunal more fairly representing the whole people, before they carry them into execution, by punishing any individual for transgressing them. If the government were not thus required to submit their enactments to the judgment of the to save chimps goodall essay, country, before executing them upon i need writier, individuals - if, in other words, the people had reserved to themselves no veto upon the acts of the government, the essay, government, instead of being a mere servant and agent of the people, would be an absolute despot over the people. It would have all power in its own hands; because the power to punish carries all other powers with it. A power that can, of itself, and by its own authority, punish disobedience, can compel obedience and submission, and is above all responsibility for the character of its laws. In short, it is a despotism.
And it is of no consequence to research papers, inquire how a government came by to save chimps goodall essay this power to punish, whether by prescription, by inheritance, by usurpation. or by delegation from the people's If it have now but got it, the research, government is absolute. It is plain, therefore, that if the people have invested the government with power to make laws that absolutely bind the people, and to to save, punish the people for transgressing those laws, the people have surrendered their liberties unreservedly into the hands of the government. It is of no avail to say, in answer to this view of the thesis, ease, that in surrendering their liberties into the hands of the government, the people took an oath from the government, that it would exercise its power within certain constitutional limits; for when did oaths ever restrain a government that was otherwise unrestrained? Or when did a government fail to determine that all its acts were within the constitutional and authorized limits of its power, if it were permitted to determine that question for itself? Neither is jane goodall, it of criteria research any avail to say, that, if the government abuse its power, and enact unjust and oppressive laws, the goodall, government may be changed by the influence of service literature discussion, and the exercise of the right of suffrage.
Discussion can do nothing to prevent the enactment, or procure the repeal, of unjust laws, unless it be understood that, the discussion is to be followed by resistance. Tyrants care nothing for discussions that are to end only in to save jane discussion. Discussions, which do not interfere with the enforcement of their laws, are but idle wind to them. Suffrage is equally powerless and unreliable. It can be exercised only periodically; and the tyranny must at least be borne until the time for suffrage comes. Be sides, when the suffrage is cari, exercised, it gives no guaranty for the repeal of to save chimps goodall existing laws that are oppressive, and no security against the enactment of new ones that are equally so. The second body of legislators are liable and title page for research paper chicago, likely to be just as tyrannical as the first. If it be said that the second body may be chosen for their integrity, the answer is, that the first were chosen for that very reason, and to save chimps, yet proved tyrants. The second will be exposed to the same temptations as the the collector, first, and will be just as likely to prove tyrannical.
Who ever heard that succeeding legislatures were, on the whole, more honest than those that preceded them? What is there in the nature of men or things to make them so? If it be said that the first body were chosen from motives of injustice, that fact proves that there is a portion of society who desire to establish injustice; and if they were powerful or artful enough to procure the election of their instruments to compose the first legislature, they will be likely to be powerful or artful enough to procure the election of the same or similar instruments to compose the goodall essay, second. The right of suffrage, therefore, and the collector, even a change of legislators, guarantees no change of legislation - certainly no change for the better. Jane Goodall? Even if a change for the better actually comes, it comes too late, because it comes only literature, after more or less injustice has been irreparably done. Jane? But, at best, the right of suffrage can be exercised only periodically; and between the periods the legislators are wholly irresponsible. No despot was ever more entirely irresponsible than are republican legislators during the period for cari kerja, which they are chosen. They can neither, be removed from their office, nor called to account while in their office, nor punished after they leave their office, be their tyranny what it may. Moreover, the judicial and chimps jane goodall essay, executive departments of the government are equally irresponsible to resume kerja, the people, and are only responsible, (by impeachment, and dependence for their salaries), to these irresponsible legislators. This dependence of the judiciary and executive upon to save chimps jane goodall, the legislature is a guaranty that they will always sanction and the collector, execute its laws, whether just or unjust. Thus the legislators hold the whole power of the government in their hands, and are at to save chimps goodall essay the same time utterly irresponsible for thesis paper, the manner in which they use it.
If, now, this government, (the three branches thus really united in one), can determine the validity of, and enforce, its own laws, it is, for the time being, entirely absolute, and wholly irresponsible to to save jane, the people. But this is not all. These legislators, and this government, so irresponsible while in power, can perpetuate their power at pleasure, if they can determine what legislation is authoritative upon the people, and can enforce obedience to it, for they can not only declare their power perpetual, but they can enforce submission to resume, all legislation that is to save chimps goodall, necessary to secure its perpetuity. They can, for example, prohibit all discussion of the rightfulness of their authority; forbid the i need writier, use of the suffrage; prevent the election of any successors; disarm, plunder, imprison, and even kill all who refuse submission. If, therefore, the government (all departments united) be absolute for a day - that is, if it can, for a day, enforce obedience to its own laws - it can, in that day, secure its power for all time - like the queen, who wished to reign but for a day, but in that day caused the king, her husband, to be slain, and usurped his throne.
Nor will it avail to say that such acts would be unconstitutional, and that unconstitutional acts may be lawfully resisted; for everything a government pleases to to save essay, do will, of course, be determined to be constitutional, if the government itself be permitted to determine the thesis paper, question of the constitutionality of its own acts. Those who are capable of tyranny, are capable of perjury to sustain it. The conclusion, therefore, is, that any government, that can, for a day, enforce its own laws, without appealing to the people, (or to a tribunal fairly representing the chimps jane, people,) for their consent, is, in theory, an absolute government, irresponsible to the people, and can perpetuate its power at pleasure. The trial by jury is based upon a recognition of this principle, and resume kerja, therefore forbids the government to execute any of its laws, by punishing violators, in any case whatever, without first getting the consent of the country, or the people, through a jury. Goodall? In this way, the people, at all times, hold their liberties in their own hands, and i need writier, never surrender them, even for a moment, into the hands of the government. The trial by jury, then, gives to any and jane, every individual the liberty, at any time, to disregard or resist any law whatever of the government, if he be willing to submit to the decision of i need writier don't a jury, the questions, whether the to save jane, law be intrinsically just and obligatory? and whether his conduct, in disregarding or resisting it, were right in itself?
And any law, which does not, in such trial, obtain the unanimous sanction of twelve men, taken at random from the people, and judging according to the standard of justice in page for research paper their own minds, free from all dictation and authority of the government, may be transgressed and jane, resisted with impunity, by whomsoever pleases to transgress or resist it.  The trial by jury authorizes all this, or it is a sham and the collector, a hoax, utterly worthless for protecting the people against oppression. If it do not authorize an chimps jane essay, individual to the collector essay, resist the first and least act of to save chimps jane injustice or tyranny, on resume cari the part of the government, it does not authorize him to resist the chimps jane, last and the greatest. If it do not authorize individuals to nip tyranny in service the bud, it does not authorize them to cut it down when its branches are filled with the ripe fruits of plunder and oppression. Those who deny the right of a jury to to save chimps jane essay, protect an individual in resisting an unjust law of the government, deny him all defence whatsoever against oppression. On Nelson? The right of revolution, which tyrants, in mockery, accord to mankind, is chimps, no legal right under a government; it is only a natural right to thesis paper mandela, overturn a government. The government itself never acknowledges this right. And the chimps, right is practically established only when and because the government, no longer exists to call it in question. The right, therefore, can be exercised with impunity, only when it is exercised victoriously.
All unsuccessful attempts at revolution, however justifiable in themselves, are punished as treason, if the government be permitted to judge of the treason. The government itself never admits the style, injustice of its laws, as a legal defence for those who have attempted a revolution, and failed. The right of revolution, therefore, is chimps goodall essay, right of no practical value, except for those who are stronger than the government. So long, therefore, as the service review, oppressions of a government are kept within such limits as simply not to exasperate against it a power greater than its own, the right of chimps essay revolution cannot be appealed to, and is therefore inapplicable to the collector, the case. This affords a wide field for tyranny; and, if a jury cannot here intervene, the oppressed are utterly defenceless. Chimps? It is kerja, manifest that the only security against the tyranny of the to save chimps jane goodall, government lies in forcible resistance to the execution of the injustice; because the literature, injustice will certainly be executed, unless it be forcibly resisted. And if it be but suffered to be executed, it must then be borne; for the government never makes compensation for its own wrongs.
Since, then, this forcible resistance to the injustice of the government is the only possible means of to save chimps jane essay preserving liberty, it is indispensable to all legal liberty that this resistance should be legalized. It is perfectly self-evident that where there is no legal right to resist the oppression of the government, there can be no legal liberty. And here it is all-important to notice, that, practically speaking, there can be no legal right to resist the oppressions of the government, unless there be some legal tribunal, other than the government, and wholly independent of, and above, the government, to judge between the government and those who resist its oppressions; in other words, to judge what laws of the government are to be. obeyed, and what may be resisted and held for nought. The only tribunal known to criteria for evaluating, our laws, for this purpose, is a jury. If a jury have not the right to judge between the government and those who disobey its laws, and resist its oppressions, the government is absolute, and the people, legally speaking are slaves.
Like many other slaves they may have sufficient courage and strength to chimps, keep their masters somewhat in resume cari check; but they are nevertheless known to the law only as slaves. That this right of resistance was recognized as a common law right, when the ancient and genuine trial by jury was in force, is not only proved by goodall the nature of the trial itself, but is acknowledged by history.  This right of resistance is recognized by the constitution of the United States, as a strictly legal and constitutional right. It is so recognized, first by the provision that the trial of research all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by chimps jane essay jury - that is, by the country - and not by resume the government; secondly, by the provision that the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. This constitutional security for the right to keep and bear arms, implies the right to chimps jane essay, use them - as much as a constitutional security for the right to an dissertation don't, buy and keep food would have implied the right to chimps jane goodall essay, eat it. Service? The constitution, therefore, takes it for granted that. the people will judge of the conduct of the government, and that, as they have the right, they will also have the sense, to to save chimps goodall essay, use arms, whenever the necessity of the case justifies it.
And it is a sufficient and legal defence for a person accused of using arms against the government, if he can show, to the satisfaction of a jury, or even any one of a jury, that the law he resisted was an unjust one. In the American State constitutions also, this right of resistance to the oppressions of the government is recognized, in various ways, as a natural, legal, and constitutional right. In the first place, it is so recognized by provisions establishing the trial by jury; thus requiring that accused persons shall be tried by resume the country, instead of the to save chimps essay, government. In the second place, it is recognized by many of them, as, for example, those of Massachusetts, Maine, Vermont, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, by provisions expressly declaring that the people shall have the right to bear arms. In many of don't them also, as, for to save chimps, example, those of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Florida, Iowa, and Arkansas, by provisions, in their bills of rights, declaring that men have a natural, inherent, and service review, inalienable right of defending their lives and liberties. This, of course, means that they have a right to defend them against any injustice on the part of the government, and not merely on the part of private individuals; because the object of to save chimps goodall essay all bills of rights is to i need an dissertation writier don't, assert the rights of individuals and the people, as against the government, and not as against private persons. It would be a matter of ridiculous supererogation to assert, in a constitution of government, the natural right of men to defend their lives and jane goodall, liberties against private trespassers.
Many of these bills of rights also assert the natural right of all men to protect their property - that is, to protect it against the government. It would be unnecessary and silly indeed to assert, in a constitution of government, the paper chicago, natural right of essay individuals to protect their property against thieves and robbers. The constitutions of thesis paper on nelson New Hampshire and chimps essay, Tennessee also declare that The doctrine of non-resistance against arbitrary power and on nelson mandela, oppression is to save chimps jane goodall, absurd, slavish, and destructive of the good and happiness of mankind. The legal effect of an dissertation don't these constitutional recognitions of the right of individuals to defend their property, liberties, and lives, ' against the government, is to legalize resistance to all injustice and to save chimps jane goodall essay, oppression, of every name and nature whatsoever, on the part of the government. Resume? But for this right of resistance, on the part of the people, all governments would become tyrannical to a degree of which few people are aware. Constitutions are utterly worthless to restrain the tyranny of governments, unless it be understood that the people will, by force, compel the government to keep within the constitutional limits.
Practically speaking, no government knows any limits to its power, except the endurance of the people. To Save Jane Goodall? But that the people are stronger than the government, and literature review, will resist in extreme cases, our governments would be little or nothing else than organized systems of plunder and to save, oppression. All, or nearly all, the paper on nelson mandela, advantage there is in fixing any constitutional limits to the power of a government, is simply to give notice to the government of the point at chimps jane which it will meet with resistance. If the people are then as good as their word, they may keep the government within the bounds they have set for it; otherwise it will disregard them - as is proved by the example of all our American governments, in which the constitutions have all become obsolete, at the moment of their adoption, for nearly or quite all purposes except the appointment of officers, who at once become practically absolute, except so far as they are restrained by thesis paper on nelson mandela the fear of chimps essay popular resistance. The bounds set to the power of the government, by the trial by jury, as will hereafter be shown, are these - that the government shall never touch the paper, property, person, or natural or civil rights of an individual, against his consent, execution of a judgment, or decree, rendered by a jury in each individual case, upon such evidence, and to save jane, such law, as are satisfactory to their own understandings and service, consciences, irrespective of all legislation of the government. To show that this supposition is not an extravagant one, it may be mentioned that courts have repeatedly questioned jurors to ascertain whether they were prejudiced against the government - that is, whether they were in favor of, or opposed to, such laws of the government as were to be put in issue in the then pending trial.
This was done (in 1851) in to save chimps jane goodall the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts, by Peleg Sprague, the United States district judge, in empanelling three several juries for the trials of cari kerja Scott, Hayden, and Morris, charged with having aided in the rescue of a fugitive slave from the chimps goodall, custody of the resume cari kerja, United States deputy marshal. This judge caused the to save, following question to be propounded to essay, all the to save jane, jurors separately; and those who answered unfavorably for the purposes of the service, government, were excluded from the panel. Do you hold any opinions upon the subject of the Fugitive Slave Law, so called, which will induce you to refuse to convict a person indicted under it, if the facts set forth, in the indictment, and to save chimps jane goodall, constituting the offence, are proved against him, and page for research style, the court direct you that the law is constitutional? The reason of this question was, that the Fugitive Slave Law, so called, was so obnoxious to to save chimps jane goodall, a large portion of the people, as to render a conviction under it hopeless, if the jurors were taken indiscriminately from among the people. A similar question was soon afterwards propounded to the persons drawn as jurors in the United States Circuit Court for the District of Massachusetts, by Benjamin R. Curtis, one of the Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, in empanelling a jury for the trial of the aforesaid Morris on the charge before mentioned; and those who did not answer the question favorably for the government were again excluded from the panel. It has also been an habitual practice with the Supreme Court of Massachusetts, in empanelling juries for the trial of capital offences, to resume, inquire of the persons drawn as jurors whether they had any conscientious scruples against finding verdicts of guilty in such eases; that is, whether they had any conscientious scruples against sustaining the law prescribing death as the punishment of the crime to be trick; and to exclude from the panel all who answered in the affirmative. The only principle upon which these questions are asked, is this - that no man shall be allowed to essay, serve as juror, unless he be ready to enforce any enactment of the government, however cruel or tyrannical it may be. What is literature review, such a jury good for, as a protection against the tyranny of the government? A jury like that is palpably nothing but, a mere tool of to save chimps oppression in the hands of the government. A trial by for research chicago such a jury is really a trial by the government itself - and not a trial by the country - because it is a trial only by men specially selected by the government for their readiness to enforce its own tyrannical measures.
If that be the true principle of the trial by jury, the trial is utterly worthless as a security to liberty. The Czar might, with perfect safety to to save chimps jane goodall essay, his authority, introduce the trial by jury into Russia, if he could but be permitted to select his jurors from i need writier, those who were ready to maintain his laws, without regard to their injustice. This example is sufficient to show that the very pith of the trial by jury, as a safeguard to liberty, consists in the jurors being taken indiscriminately from the whole people, and in their right to hold invalid all laws which they think unjust.  The executive has a qualified veto upon the passage of laws, in most of our governments, and to save goodall essay, an absolute veto, in i need don't all of them, upon the execution of any laws which he deems unconstitutional; because his oath to support the constitution (as he understands it) forbids him to execute any law that he deems unconstitutional.  And if there be so much as a reasonable doubt of the to save chimps goodall essay, justice of the laws, the benefit of that doubt must be given to the defendant, and not to the government. So that the government must keep its laws clearly within the limits of justice, if it would ask a jury to enforce them.  Hallam says, The relation established between a lord and his vassal by the feudal tenure, far from containing principles of any servile and implicit obedience, permitted the compact to be dissolved in case of its violation by either party. This extended as much to the sovereign as to inferior lords. * * If a, vassal was aggrieved, and if justice was denied him, he sent a defiance, that is, a renunciation of fealty to the king, and was entitled to enforce redress at mandela the point of his sword.
It then became a contest of to save chimps jane strength as between two independent potentates, and was terminated by treaty, advantageous or otherwise, according to the fortune of war. * * There remained the original principle, that allegiance depended conditionally upon good treatment, and that an appeal might be lawfully made to arms against resume cari kerja, an oppressive government. Nor was this, we may be sure, left for extreme necessity, or thought to require a long-enduring forbearance. In modern times, a king, compelled by chimps his subjects' swords to abandon any pretension, would be supposed to have ceased to reign; and the express recognition of such a right as that of insurrection has been justly deemed inconsistent with the majesty of law. Criteria For Evaluating? But ruder ages had ruder sentiments. Force was necessary to to save chimps goodall, repel force; and men accustomed to see the king's authority defied by a private riot, were not much shocked when it was resisted in defence of public freedom. - 3 Middle Age, 240-2.
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To save chimps jane goodall essay long grove
Self Reliance and Other Essays Summary and Analysis of Nature. Ralph Waldo Emerson first published Nature in 1836. Jane Goodall Essay. The essay served as one of the founding documents of the Transcendental Club, whose members would come to include future Transcendentalist luminaries like Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, and Bronson Alcott. The Club convened its first meeting a week after the i need publication of Nature , led by Emerson. The critical reception of his seminal work has shifted over time. Nature was once dismissed as a gospel of selfishness, naive optimism, and narrow parochialism. However, scholars, with the benefit of hindsight, now understand his work as not only the harbinger of to save jane essay Transcendentalism, but also a modern rethinking of Stoicism, Plato, and Kant. In this essay, Emerson outlines his initial ideas about the service literature fundamental relationship of goodall essay humanity with nature, which he would develop further in later essays. Title Page For Research Chicago Style. His conception of this relationship was revolutionary for to save chimps goodall essay, its time when many thought of humanity as separate from and above the rest of the the collector natural world, and of nature as the mere reflection of human will/manipulation, a means for human ends. Introduction and Nature. Our age is goodall retrospective, Emerson begins.
It builds on the sepulchers of the fathers. It writes biographies, histories, and criticism. While earlier generations beheld God and paper on nelson mandela, nature face to face, the present merely sees the world through the eyes of the past. Troubled by chimps jane essay this trend, Emerson asks, Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and criteria for evaluating research papers, philosophy of chimps jane insight and title for research paper style, not of tradition, and a religion by to save goodall essay revelation to us, and not the history of theirs? After all, the sun shines to-day also. There is more wool and flax in the fields. There are new lands, new men, new thoughts. Let us demand our own works and laws and worship.
In this way, Emerson opens his essay with a sweeping dismissal of essay those tools of insight based on the past, and a demand to understand the world - that is, God and nature (two sides of the same coin for him) - instead through our own personal, direct relationship to and revelations about the world. The rest of the introduction is spent outlining what such an chimps goodall understanding would entail and require - its methods, aims, and on nelson mandela, definitions. As the title of his essay suggests, he grounds his approach to understanding the world in Nature, which along with the Soul, composes the universe. By Nature, Emerson includes everything that is not me (i.e., separate from the Soul), both nature [as conventionally understood, i.e., those essences unchanged by humans, like a tree or a river] and art [those essences mixed with the will of humans, like a house or a canal], all other men and my own body. Like the Stoics, Emerson believed that in to save jane goodall, nature could be found the source of moral principles and well being. However, in the present age, he argues, few adult persons can see nature. Most persons do not see the sun.
At least they have a very superficial seeing. For seeing/understanding nature entails not only asking what nature is or how it operates, but also to what end is nature? To pursue such an literature review understanding of nature - an inquiry he believes allied to science, all of which aims to find a theory of nature - he does not appeal to other authorities on the subject, past or present, but rather his own experience to craft a theory he believes self-evident and self-validating. While this may not seem scientific in to save jane goodall, terms of objectivity, he argues, Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is that it will explain all phenomena. His success in crafting such a theory arguably derives from essay, his ability to immerse his readers in his own experiences, as with the passage, Crossing a bare common, in snow puddles, at twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration. I am glad to the brink of fear. Another famous passage describes his experience as a transparent eyeball, a conduit for God as he stands in nature: Here [in the woods] I feel that nothing can befall me in life, - no disgrace, no calamity (leaving me my eyes), which nature cannot repair.
Standing on the bare ground, - my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space, - all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eyeball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or parcel of to save God. In the next sections, Emerson outlines in review, detail and in ascending order of importance the components of the relationship of humanity and to save chimps, nature: the common uses/aspects of nature (see Commodity, Beauty, and Language), our lived experience vis-a-vis nature (see Discipline), and the manifestation of the research universal/divine (what he calls, Reason) in to save jane goodall essay, nature (i.e., Transcendentalism; see Idealism, Spirit, and Prospects). The most obvious and tangible aspect of the relationship between humanity and nature is the practical usefulness of nature as a source of raw material and energy. Emerson observes that all parts of nature - as material, process, and result - work toward the benefit of humanity: “The wind sows the seed; the sun evaporates the sea; the criteria for evaluating research papers wind blows the goodall essay vapor to the field; the ice, on the other side of the planet, condenses rain on this; the rain feeds the plant; the plant feeds the animal; and thus the endless circulations of the divine charity nourish man.” He further illustrates this process in his admiration of the collector essay a tide-mill, which, on the seashore, makes the tides drive the wheels and grind corn, and which thus engages the assistance of the moon like a hired hand, to grind, and wind, and pump, and saw, and split stone, and roll iron.
However, Emerson argues the to save chimps use of nature as commodity is the lowest of benefits, and quickly moves on title for research style to less material gifts and aspects. In this section, Emerson describes the ways in which nature provides humanity with its ideas and standards of beauty. “The standard beauty is the entire circuit of natural forms the totality of nature.” Emerson asserts this is because such is the to save chimps jane essay constitution of things, or such the service literature plastic power of the human eye, that the primary forms, as the sky, the chimps mountain, the tree, the animal, give us a delight in and for themselves,” as evidenced by title for research chicago style the creations of artists (e.g., poets, painters, sculptors, musicians, architects). In other words, it is a given based on the relationship of humanity with the jane goodall natural world: The world thus exists to the soul to satisfy the desire of beauty.” Ultimately, no reason can be asked or give why the literature soul seeks beauty, which includes 1) physical beauty, 2) moral beauty (or virtue), and 3) intellectual beauty (or truth). As beauty is grounded in nature, so is language. Emerson asserts, Nature is the vehicle of thought, and offers three main components to chimps jane goodall essay this observation. First, words are signs of natural facts. Based on etymology, Emerson illustrates how not only words like apple are rooted in nature (i.e., the visible, concrete, and tangible aspects of the external world), but also most abstractions.
For example, supercilious is from the resume Latin super cilia , which means raising the eyebrow. Another example, not mentioned by Emerson, is consider, which comes from the Latin con siderare , meaning to study the stars. Next, Emerson says, “Particular natural facts are symbols of particular spiritual facts,” which emphasizes the use of nature to express our ideas. Every appearance in nature corresponds to some state of the mind, and that state of the mind can only to save chimps jane goodall be described by paper presenting that natural appearance as its picture. As enraged man is a lion, a cunning man is a fox, a firm man is a rock, a learned man is a torch. A lamb is to save chimps jane goodall innocence; a snake is subtle spite; flowers express to us the delicate affections. Light and darkness are our familiar expression for knowledge and ignorance; and heat for love. Emerson asserts that if you go back in history, language becomes more image-based, and in the earliest stages it is all poetry based on natural symbols. Criteria For Evaluating. In modern times, Emerson argues, our language has become corrupted by secondary desires - the desires for money, pleasure, power, and jane goodall essay, praise - rather than the simple and fundamental desire to literature review communicate our thoughts without loss (i.e., with the to save jane images and symbols of nature). As such, our language has ceased to create new images based on visible nature, the old words have become perverted and abstracted, and the obviousness of his point is difficult to see.
As he will later say in The Poet, language is now fossil poetry, filled with dead metaphors and words cut away from their roots. Finally, Emerson argues, Nature is the symbol of spirit, an assertion grounded in Platonist idealism. Basically, the reason why people, especially writers, can successfully use nature in their language (e.g., as image, trope, noun, verb) is not simply because of the meaning they confer upon nature, but rather because nature itself is a language. Have mountains, and waves, and skies, no significance but what we consciously give them when we employ them as emblems of our thoughts? The world is emblematic. Parts of speech are metaphors, because the whole of thesis on nelson mandela nature is a metaphor of the human mind. That is, nature is an expression of the to save chimps goodall laws and ideas (i.e., the metaphysics) that underpin the criteria for evaluating papers visible world. By tapping into the language of nature, humans are able to in turn express the laws and ideas of the world. Emerson suggests this is why popular proverbs of different nations usually consist of a natural fact, like a rolling stone gathers no moss, a bird in to save chimps jane essay, the hand is worth two in literature, the bush, and the last ounce broke the camel's back. In this section, Emerson describes how our lived experience vis-a-vis nature is a discipline, or rather, a multifaceted education for understanding intellectual truths (Understanding) and to save, moral truths (Reason). In regard to intellectual truths, Emerson observes that every aspect of our everyday engagement with the world (e.g., space, time, food, climate, animals) and matter (e.g., its solidity, inertia, form, divisibility) teaches us lessons that form our common sense about the world (e.g., about difference, likeness, order, particularity, generality).
Furthermore, each encounter teaches us about power, about the ability for humans to i need an dissertation writier don't shape nature according to to save chimps jane goodall their will. Nature is thoroughly mediate. It is made to title page paper style serve. It receives the dominion of man as meekly as the ass on which the Savior rode. Goodall. It offers all its kingdoms to resume cari man as the raw material that he may mold into what is useful. In regard to moral truths, our engagements with nature teaches us about the premonitions of Reason - by which Emerson means the goodall essay universal soul, his Transcendentalist conception of God - and thus shape our conscience. Therefore is literature review nature glorious with form, color, and motion; that every globe in jane essay, the remotest heaven, every chemical change from the rudest crystal up to the laws of the collector life, every change of vegetation from the first principle of to save jane growth in the eye of a leaf, to the tropical forest and antediluvian coal-mine, every animal function from the for evaluating papers sponge up to Hercules, shall hint or thunder to man the laws of right and wrong, and echo the Ten Commandments.
This entails that despite the infinite variety of natural processes and forms, they all embody a version of the to save chimps jane moral law of the universe, which illustrates the unity of Nature - its unity in variety. The river, as it flows, resembles the air that flows over it; the air resembles the light that traverses it with more subtle currents; the light resembles the heat that rides with it through Space. Creatures are only a modification of one another; the likeness between them is more than the an dissertation writier don't difference, and their radical law is one and the same. A rule of one art, or a law of one organization, holds true throughout nature. So intimate is this Unity, that, it is easily seen, it lies under the undermost garment of Nature, and betrays its source in jane goodall, Universal Spirit. Finally, Emerson asserts the amount of moral influence each encounter has on an individual depends on the amount of truth it illustrates to the individual, which cannot be easily quantified. Who can guess how much firmness the sea-beaten rock has taught the title page paper chicago style fisherman? How much tranquility has been reflected to man from the azure sky, over whose unspotted deeps the winds forevermore drive flocks of to save jane goodall essay stormy clouds, and leave no wrinkle or stain? In the preceding sections, Emerson focuses on title for research paper chicago style the uses and benefits of nature.
In Idealism and Spirit, he shifts to questions of to save goodall essay what nature is. Such questions are based on his Idealism, and thus do not mean what is don't nature composed of, but rather, is there a higher reality or law behind nature, and chimps jane, does visible nature really exist? In part, his new line of questions is one of epistemology - how do we know what we know? He first offers the claim of the radical Idealist, who believes reality is fundamentally constructed by the mind: In my utter impotence to test the authenticity of the report of my senses, to know whether the service impressions they make on me correspond with outlying objects, what difference does it make, whether Orion is jane up there in heaven, or some god paints the image in the firmament of the soul. However, he also denies the extreme conclusion that reality, and thus nature, does not exist independent of the mind: Any distrust of the permanence of laws [e.g., gravity] would paralyze the criteria for evaluating faculties of man. He settles the issue by showing how various aspects of culture - including 1) motion (which affirms the internal reality of the observer due to the feeling of the sublime that arises from the difference felt between the observer/human and to save chimps essay, the spectacle/nature, as when seeing the shore from a moving ship), 2) poetry (which affirms the reality of the soul by the way in which poets conform nature to their thoughts and makes them the words of the Reason or the soul), 3) philosophy (which like poetry, affirms the reality of the thesis paper on nelson mandela soul by the way in which philosophers animate nature with their thoughts and makes them the words of Reason, except in this case for Truth rather than Beauty), 4) intellectual science (which generates insight based on abstract ideas and thus the spirit), and 5) religion and ethics (which degrades nature and suggests its dependence on the spirit) - convince us of the reality of the external world, of jane goodall essay nature and spirit, and thus tend to imbue us with a moderate form of idealism: It is the uniform effect of culture on the human mind, not to shake our faith in the stability of particular phenomena, as of heat, water, and azote; but to lead us to resume kerja regard nature as a phenomenon, not a substance; to attribute necessary existence to spirit; to esteem nature as an to save jane goodall essay accident and effect. As a qualification to service literature review the discussion of Idealism in essay, the previous section, Emerson asserts that Idealism is ultimately an introductory hypothesis (like carpentry and chemistry) about nature.
If it only denies the existence of matter, or external reality, as with extreme Idealism, then it of service no use to chimps jane him, for it does not satisfy the demands of the spirit. In other words, Idealism is useful to think with insofar as it informs us of the distinction between the soul and the world/nature. By recognizing this distinction, and the existence of each, we can then understand their relation to one another - that is, how spirit (the Supreme Being, the Universal Soul) acts through us, as the life of the writier tree puts forth new branches and leaves through the pores of the old, and thus is goodall essay not subject to the human will, as with the rest of the world/nature. In this last section, Emerson argues it is better approach the world as a naturalist than as a student of empirical science. Compared to the precision and experiments of the scientist, the naturalist employs self-discovery and humility, and thus continues to learn about his relation to paper mandela the world, and to save jane, remains open to the secrets of resume cari kerja nature. The naturalist will pay attention to the truth and to the real problems to be solved: It is not so pertinent to man to know all the individuals of the animal kingdom, as it is to to save chimps jane know whence and whereto is this tyrannizing unity in thesis on nelson, his constitution, which evermore separates and to save goodall, classifies things, endeavoring to reduce the most diverse to the collector one form. Emerson uses this comparison as a metaphor for a more general criticism of the present approach humanity takes toward nature based on pure understanding (that is, of the intellect) without Reason (that is, with spiritual insight). However, there are occasional examples of how humanity might act with both: Such examples are, the traditions of miracles in the earliest antiquity of essay all nations; the literature review history of Jesus Christ; the achievements of a principle, as in religious and political revolutions, and in the abolition of the slave-trade; the miracles of chimps goodall essay enthusiasm, as those reported of Swedenborg, Hohenlohe, and cari, the Shakers; many obscure and yet contested facts, now arranged under the name of Animal Magnetism; prayer; eloquence; self-healing; and the wisdom of children. Until humanity begins to act with both understanding/intellect and reason/spirituality towards nature, to chimps jane essay repair its relationship with nature and the world, humanity remains disunited with itself and the world lacks unity.
To correct this trend, Emerson argues people need to acquire a new, educated way of seeing the world, by which he means the Transcendentalist approach he has laid out in the previous sections. So we shall come to look at the world with new eyes. It shall answer the endless inquiry of the intellect (“What is criteria for evaluating research papers truth?), as well as that of the affections (“What is chimps jane goodall good?”), by yielding itself passive to resume the educated Will. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/self-reliance-and-other-essays/study-guide/summary-nature in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Self Reliance and Other Essays Self Reliance and Other Essays Summary Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Self-Reliance Nature The Over-Soul Circles The Poet Experience The Divinity School Address The Dial Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A E-Text Mini-Store Ralph Emerson Biography. Self Reliance and Other Essays Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for Self Reliance and Other Essays is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. This speaks to a few themes.
I think that generally it speaks to man finding his own individuality and identity. The passage indicates that life is about being satisfied with one's plot of land and to save jane goodall essay, making the best of it rather than coveting other. What do you mean by dwlf? Study Guide for Self Reliance and Other Essays. Self Reliance and Other Essays study guide contains a biography of Ralph Emerson, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Essays for Self Reliance and Other Essays. Self Reliance and Other Essays essays are academic essays for citation.
These papers were written primarily by students and the collector, provide critical analysis of Self Reliance and chimps goodall, Other Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson. E-Text of Self Reliance and Other Essays. Self Reliance and Other Essays E-Text contains the the collector essay full text of Self Reliance and Other Essays.
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Jane Goodall: Urgent Action Needed to Save Chimps - Live Science
aid for trade essay The nature of chimps jane industries where unfair trade occurs that will be covered, involve a small community in a less economically developed country (LEDC) working to obtain a resource that is bought for resume cari a minute amount of money. It is then made into a product for more economically developed countries (MEDC) to mark-up the price and to save chimps, sell in i need don't stores. The specific products that will be covered are known for having a fair trade and chimps jane goodall essay, unfair trade counterpart. These are cocoa and cotton. These two have in common that they are grown on papers, plants and the produce requires hard labour to maintain and jane goodall essay, harvest. A way that trade could be made more fair for LEDC’s would be if some businesses that are buying the produce or product and chicago, have a large enough profit margin could be less greedy and give more money to the growers and people involved in the process. To Save Chimps Goodall Essay! If we spend our money wisely and look for fair trade certified products we can all have a contribution to fair trade. The relationship should include a reasonable set contract that everyone involved agrees to, safe working conditions and aid where needed.in return the producers must live up to deadlines and produce high quality items. The wage paid should be enough for the workers to live reasonably well and bonuses may be included for their communities.
In New Zealand we can buy Cadbury’s fair trade certified milk chocolate, some shops around the criteria for evaluating research, country like Micah clothing sell fair trade and organic certified jeans and other garments. As New Zealand eats the most bananas per capita in the world, All Good bananas are fair trade and to save essay, can be bought at major cities. Fair trade is the way forwards as it gives developing countries a chance to pull themselves out of poverty and for the people to support their families and communities. The Collector! It also means better working conditions for the people and better products for the customer. From the growing of the cotton by goodall essay the farmers to the processing of the denim into jeans there have been many unfair practises seen in the cotton trade, starting with the planting of the cotton all the way to the shop where the jeans are sold. In china blue the girl jasmine had to move to thesis paper the city to work in a jeans factory to to save essay help her family, we see her working in a factory for many hours per day for poor amounts of money. The Collector! The people who also worked in the factory seemed to hate what they were doing, they were crammed in and unappreciated for the work they did. These practices are really unfair on the workers; the fact that they have to work so many hours with little breaks would start to take psychological effects on chimps goodall, anyone. The little money that they did get was really needed just to live, it was like a bad cycle for them and the quality of life was poor. In many cases of the collector essay villages in LEDC’s working on cocoa plantations the jane goodall, workers are exploited and paid little for for evaluating research a huge job from planting, maintaining and harvesting many cocoa trees. The job has many hazards and with lack of appropriate equipment, many accidents happen.
In the Cameroon cocoa video on YouTube it is seen that children as young as 8 are doing hard labour jobs on cocoa plantations that aren’t even safe for goodall adults. Children have to drop out of school to earn money and do these jobs involving big machetes and poisonous chemicals. As with the criteria, cotton situation these circumstances are unfair beyond all means, the children involved lose out on a vitally important education and the work can permanently harm their bodies. The individuals have to chimps work very hard for little money, as for children it harms their development and education. The families only have enough money to survive and cannot advance in title for research paper style life. To Save Goodall! The communities will stay in poverty as the people can hardly contribute and the children of the people in the communities will get nowhere if they do not get an education. In the Cameroon cocoa video on YouTube the children had to i need an dissertation don't be sent to work to help their families, the effect on the children is that they can’t go to school as the money earned is need, the families can only just get by and as a village everyone is in this similar situation they won’t be able to advance and the poverty cycle will go on. These impacts are huge and go on and on, the children are stuck because if they go to school their family will not have enough money to to save essay live, but if they don’t get an education the cycle will never break.
Without the families and the village as a whole having more money than it costs to live, they will never be able to advance their lives and get out of poverty. A fair trade cotton option is Micah clothing; they make fair trade certified clothing. Cadbury's dairy milk chocolate is a version of fair-trade certified cocoa. The Collector Essay! Micah clothing has fair trade plans to to save chimps jane goodall essay help so that cotton farmers in LEDC’s don’t have to struggle and they keep fair, stable prices in place for them. Other things they do include organic crops so that their farmers won’t get sick from pesticides.
These plans that fair trade certified companies put in place are right and necessary. It is thesis paper, morally wrong if these people in LEDC’s are exploited, so these fair trade companies are putting down foundations for their better future. Micah clothing’s motto is to save, “If we are to better the future we must disrupt the present.” With fair trade the people can start to have an improved life and more fair working conditions. Page Chicago! In Cameroon cotton industry there is an chimps jane goodall essay, action to help the community, by giving them premiums as a group after certain periods of time; this enabled them to get 3 wells which allowed them to have clean water and to improve the quality of life. As long as they keep up good production they will get more benefits and all the people involved will be better off. These impacts are big as the thesis paper on nelson mandela, premiums would buy things that they would not be able to to save jane essay get otherwise, it is a group reward and the trade gives the buyer good quality cotton. Service Review! If people are educated on what fair trade is and how it works it would be easier for them to contribute. When we buy products we could do a little bit of research about it and see if there are fair trade alternatives, then where possible buy these products to support fair trade. To Save Goodall! Although fair trade can be more expensive, it is worth it to writier don't buy these products to help towards a better life for the people in poverty, so if it means you have to to save chimps goodall spend an extra $10 on research papers, a pair of Micah jeans it is worth it. The people in LEDC’s who work for unfair trade deserve a good life just as much as anyone else so we should look to the future with fair trade.
These two same industries, cocoa and cotton have people and essay, companies working towards fair trade, it is clear why these fair trade alternatives are right and why we should buy fair trader products. Trade worldwide needs to be made fairer for the people on the bad end of the bargain, if huge corporate businesses were less greedy it would not be such a problem. Though this is the way it is, it does not have to be the future, we can all have our contribution to fair-trade. “Where there’s a will, there’s a way.” The cotton, chocolate and banana industries also have companies using fair trade practices. These fair trade practices are used in order for thesis paper on nelson workers to chimps jane goodall essay get a fair deal. For example, some fair trade practices these companies use are: Pay the chicago style, workers a suitable wage, give them knowledge and equipment to protect themselves from hazards, and to use environmentally friendly farming practices. Goodall! These fair trade practices positively affect individuals, families and communities. These fair trade practices are used in order for workers to get a fair deal. For Evaluating Research Papers! Some examples of how these fair trade practices affect these individuals, families and goodall, communities are: We as individuals and consumers can make a difference to developing countries involved in these trades. We can make trade fair for LEDC’s if we all pitch in and do our bit. Some ways in which we could do this are: Buy only fair trade products where applicable. Promote awareness of unfair trade practices undertaken by organisations and promote all the literature review, benefits fair trade has to to save jane offer the consumer and the producers.
We should all consider fair trade more now and in the future, we shouldn’t dwell in literature the past. We are no longer living in an unconnected world, and to save chimps essay, know right from page paper wrong. We should be able to jane tell fair from unfair and realise all the for evaluating research, benefits that fair trade brings us and more importantly the producers in LEDC’s.
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english term papers Writing a Paper in chimps goodall English Corpus Linguistics 1. By Stig Johansson and Hilde Hasselgrd. A term paper (' semesteroppgave ') is an exercise in linguistic method. The object is to show that you can: define a research question account for your choice of theory and method select and analyse a limited material conduct a theoretical discussion of linguistic problems in English use secondary sources in a critical way. If you choose your topic wisely, you may also make a contribution to i need writier, English linguistics.
Your teacher may suggest possible topics that relate to the course you are taking. You can also propose a topic yourself or expand on one of the jane goodall essay tasks youíve been given during the course. Another possibility is to carry out a study similar to one that you have read about in the course syllabus. Resume Cari Kerja. It is important to be realistic and limit the topic, so that you can finish your paper within a reasonable period of time and write it up within the stated 10 standard pages. To Save Jane Goodall Essay. Contact your teacher at an early stage to draw up a plan for your paper.
The topic will often have to be restricted and modified as you go along. In choosing your topic and defining your research question, it may be useful to ask yourself the following questions: Will it be possible to find corpus material (or texts) that can help you answer the research question? Will it be possible to work through the project in the limited time that you have available? Do you know what else has been written on the topic?
Your paper should discuss some primary material and should not just be a review based on secondary sources. Primary material is the actual linguistic data you write about, such as written texts, transcriptions of spoken material, tape recordings, or elicited responses from native speakers. For a Corpus Linguistics course, you will be expected to get your primary material from a corpus. Secondary material is what has been written previously on the topic. 3.1 Secondary material.
Start by making a general survey of secondary material. This will show you what has been done before (which means that you do not have to do it) and will probably give you ideas on how you should (or should not) deal with your primary material, on problems that you had not thought of, etc. You can find secondary material in a number of don't places, such as: the reading list for to save chimps jane goodall essay the course you are taking general reference works such as grammars, handbooks, and dictionaries. reference lists in relevant articles databases from the University Library search engines such as Google Scholar In connection with a term paper there is i need writier of course a limit to chimps goodall essay, the amount of secondary sources you can be expected to go through. Consult your teacher, who may advise you on this point. In going through the secondary material, you should make notes and title chicago, collect excerpts as you go along. It is important to organize your notes in such a way that you can survey (and rearrange) them while you are working on your paper. Make sure you organize your paragraphs with headlines or keywords that will help you see immediately what the paragraph is to save chimps essay about. If you write on thesis paper mandela paper, write on one side of the paper, to chimps jane essay, make it possible to reorder the for research chicago notes or add to them. To Save Chimps Goodall. Make sure that you copy the excerpts correctly and write the name of the essay source and the page number immediately. This will save you a lot of extra work and trouble later on.
Getting the facts right is fundamental in scholarly procedure. 3.2 Primary material. Though it is important to study the secondary material carefully, your main task is to collect and analyse some primary material. Jane Goodall. You may draw your primary material from review corpora such as the LOB Corpus, the goodall essay British National Corpus (BNC), the paper mandela Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA), the English-Norwegian Parallel Corpus (ENPC), the Oslo Multilingual Corpus (OMC), the International Corpus of jane English (ICE), or the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE, including the Norwegian subcorpus NICLE). The corpus you choose depends on your research question. If you are interested in grammar, a one-million-word Corpus such as LOB or the ICE-GB will often be sufficient.
For lexical phenomena beyond the core vocabulary you will need a much larger corpus, such as the BNC. If you want to study translation or compare languages, you will find a good source in service the ENPC or the Oslo Multilingual Corpus (OMC). To Save Chimps Jane. Aspects of title paper style learner English can be studied on the basis of the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE) or VESPA. To use a corpus, you need a search programme. Many corpora can be searched by means of a general concordancer such as AntConc or WordSmith Tools (see Scott 2001), but for example, the BNC, ICE-GB (the British part of ICE), and the ENPC have their own search engines. It is often useful to make a pilot study first, i.e. to collect a small amount of material and to save goodall, analyse it along the lines intended. Service Literature. This will show you if your material is giving you enough data, and the right kind of data, or whether you may have to use different kinds of goodall essay material. Be careful in cari kerja registering your material. Normally an Excel file or even a Word file should be sufficient for the limited amount of material that can reasonably be dealt with in a term paper. To Save Chimps Jane. A database program such as FileMaker Pro can be useful for storing, surveying, analysing and retrieving your material efficiently.
Whichever system you use, make sure to copy each example correctly, to copy enough context, and to note the criteria research papers source correctly at once, to save time and trouble later on. To Save Jane. This is because you may want to look up the example in the corpus again (for example, if you need to look at the wider context) and because you should specify the paper on nelson source when you give quotations from your material. 4 The investigation process. We can broadly distinguish between the following stages: 4.1 The research question. Suppose you are interested in studying the position of the direct object with phrasal verbs; i.e. To Save Jane Essay. do you say she switched the light on or she switched on the light ? The secondary sources will tell you that a pronoun as direct object is service placed between the verb and jane essay, the particle (e.g. she switched it on ), while a noun or noun-headed phrase may appear either before or after the thesis paper particle. Goodall Essay. You decide to focus on the word order problem in the latter case. The working title of title for research chicago style your term paper could be What factors determine the placement of nouns and noun phrases as direct objects of to save chimps jane essay phrasal verbs? . 4.2 Data collection. To start your investigation you first need to collect relevant examples from a corpus.
The examples may be extracted in the form of papers concordance lines, sentences, or other units, depending on to save chimps your research question. Remember that each example should have a reference tag showing which corpus Ė and which part of the corpus Ė it has been taken from. In collecting the material you immediately meet a number of the collector problems. It is chimps jane goodall essay not always easy to distinguish phrasal verbs (e.g. Paper Chicago. she put on her coat ) from other superficially similar constructions, e.g. constructions with prepositional verbs (e.g. she called on Mr. X to speak ) or with prepositional phrases as adverbials (e.g. she called on jane essay Monday ). And what about examples like these (from the LOB Corpus): Dr Horn swayed two or three inches back , Ugo had his glasses off now , I own some land up in the foothills ? The first example looks superficially like a construction with a direct object, but should no doubt be analysed as containing an adverbial.
In the last example up clearly goes with the following prepositional phrase rather than with own . The second example is a real problem. Do we recognize have off as a phrasal verb? Collecting the primary material is research not easy. It is to save chimps jane essay necessary to be alert, so as not to miss out literature relevant examples or include irrelevant ones. If you have studied the secondary material carefully, you will have a good idea about to save chimps jane goodall, what to look for and how to distinguish relevant from irrelevant examples. Nevertheless, there will always be doubtful examples. Make sure to include these, with a note on the type of problem. Such material is usually important to review, discuss in your paper. As you go on you may discover that it is necessary to limit the material a great deal. For example, in a study of phrasal verbs, it may be necessary to limit the search to certain verbs with different particles, or to certain particles with different verbs. A dictionary of phrasal verbs will guide you in the process.
In a study of to save chimps goodall essay phrasal verbs (1986) Stig Johansson decided to focus on all examples in the LOB Corpus of six lexical verbs co-occurring with a noun or noun-headed phrase as direct object and resume cari, ten particles; see Table 1 . To find these, it was necessary to search for all forms of the relevant verbs followed within a certain span by jane goodall, one of the i need an dissertation don't ten particles. Such searches can be easily done using a program like WordSmith Tools. After irrelevant instances had been discarded, the material was as presented in Table 1. The table gives some useful information; it shows that there is one clearly dominant order ( V part O , i.e. verb + particle + direct object). But this is only the starting-point of the analysis. 4.3 Classification of the material. The next logical step in the investigation process is the classification of the material. It is natural to jane, start thinking about the classification while the material is being collected. To take our example with the order of service review direct objects with phrasal verbs, we classify each example according to the parameters which we suspect may affect the word order (based on the secondary reading or our own preliminary hypotheses); see Figure 1 . Here FileMaker (or a similar database program) is an to save chimps goodall, invaluable tool. Needless to page chicago, say, it may be necessary to to save chimps jane goodall essay, revise the paper on nelson classification in the course of the investigation and/or add new parameters. 4.4 The analysis. Having classified the examples, we can now rearrange and analyse the to save chimps essay material in essay various ways.
In a quantitative study it is usually best to draw up tables first, and then go on to describing and to save chimps jane goodall essay, commenting on the data. Note that you should not just present the tables; you must comment on them and give examples from your material. Make sure that each table is numbered and has a legend that says what the table is supposed to show and explains any abbreviations or codes. Be careful in using numbers. Do not give percentages without presenting the raw frequencies. If you give averages, also provide some measure of the collector dispersion. In addition to tables, you may wish to present figures or diagrams. These too should have a legend and adequate explanation. 4.5 Discussing the findings. To continue with our example case, see Tables 2-5 . These show that the less common order ( V O part , with the to save direct object between the verb and the particle) is on nelson more frequent with a short direct object, a definite form as direct object, and with a literal meaning of the verb plus particle combination.
We can now deal with each parameter in turn, illustrating the main tendencies and jane goodall essay, commenting on any deviations from the main tendencies. We find, for i need an dissertation writier don't example, that the four examples in Table 2 of V O part with a direct object consisting of three or more words are all definite and that the particle in three of the examples is followed by a prepositional phrase indicating direction, as in: (1) . bring these opulent days back to life . LOB F35:68. With respect to the seven examples in Table 3 of V O part with indefinite noun phrases, we find that the direct object is short (one to two words) and in several cases followed by a prepositional phrase indicating direction, as in: (2) The barman put two glasses down on to save chimps essay the counter. LOB L11:73. With both literal and figurative meaning ( Table 4 ) there is a clear preference for V part O , but the preference is much stronger in paper the latter case. Jane Goodall. The examples which deviate from the main pattern generally contain a particle followed by adverbial specification in an dissertation the form of a prepositional phrase, as in: (3) A final dividend of 10 p.c. To Save Jane Goodall Essay. brings the total distribution up to 17.5 p.c. . LOB A16:178. Such adverbial specification is also common in the V O part pattern with combinations used in a literal sense. Analysing the material means asking interesting questions about it . In our case we found three parameters which turned out to be important: the length of the direct object, the essay definiteness of the direct object, and chimps goodall, literal vs. figurative meaning of the verb + particle combination.
The minority pattern V O part is used particularly with short and on nelson mandela, definite noun phrases as direct object and when the verb + particle combination has a literal meaning. In the process of the jane essay analysis we discovered another important factor: the occurrence of adverbial specification after the particle in the form of title page for research chicago a prepositional phrase. To Save Chimps Essay. This strengthens the minority pattern V O part . The results may not always be clear-cut; see Table 5 . There seems to i need an dissertation, be a slight tendency for the minority pattern V O part to be more frequent in fiction. In such cases we need to bring in statistical tests. We must also consider whether the difference might be due to some other parameter.
Could it, for example, be a reflection of the length of the goodall direct objects? We could expect noun phrases as direct objects, like noun phrases in general, to be less complex in fiction than in informative prose. If there really is a difference between fiction and informative prose which is not due to paper, some other parameter, what might it be due to? These are the sorts of questions that must be asked. If our results are to be of real value, we should try to generalize beyond our data and find deeper explanations for the regularities observed. Do we have reason to goodall essay, believe that the regularities we have noted extend to phrasal verbs in general (and do not just apply to the six verbs and the ten particles we selected for our material)? Can we find a deeper explanation for the regularities observed? In our case we can relate two of thesis paper mandela our parameters to two general word order principles: end weight (cf. Table 2 ) and end focus (cf. Table 3 ; indefinite noun phrases are more likely to introduce new information and appear in final focus position). It seems reasonable to suppose that a figurative combination (cf.
Table 4 ) is less likely to to save chimps jane goodall, be broken than a literal one; we know that idiomatic combinations are characteristically more frozen. The parameter of adverbial specification can again be given a reasonable explanation. Note that there is a tendency for adverbial particles to be attracted to related prepositional phrases; the result may even be a compound preposition: into , up to thesis paper on nelson, , out of goodall , etc. An indirect result of this attraction is that we get the minority pattern V O part , with the particle plus prepositional phrase in final focus position. In other words, we have answered the question posed at the start of the study and have been able to relate our findings to the collector essay, other phenomena in chimps jane goodall the language. We have reached the final stage of the investigation process and can finish the writing of the i need an dissertation writier paper. The writing of the paper should not be deferred to the last day before the deadline.
It is chimps goodall essay natural to write notes while working on the material, such as comments on examples or notes or ideas that you think may become useful later. You might even have a brainstorming session at an early stage when you write down in telegraphic form whatever you think is relevant to thesis paper on nelson, the topic. At a fairly early stage it is useful to to save essay, write a brief outline of your paper, organized according to essay, some major headings (very often the ones taken up below will be useful) and with some notes under each heading. The challenge in writing the paper is to present it in such a way that it is suitable for your reader. What do you need to chimps goodall, explain? What can be taken for granted? It is often natural to skip the introduction and writier, write the main body of the paper first.
The first draft is . To Save. a draft. Make sure that there is a logical progression in your paper, without gaps in the argument. The Collector Essay. Ask your teacher or a fellow student to read your draft. And be prepared to re-write! There are at to save jane goodall least two ways of presenting your investigation (and they can be combined): inductive : let the title for research chicago reader take part in the process of to save chimps jane discovery; proceed gradually; do not start with revealing your results. deductive : you start with (a taste of) the conclusion, and i need writier don't, show how you have reached it. 6 Some characteristics of linguistic discourse. To a linguist (as opposed to a literary scholar), describing the language of a geographical area, a period, a genre, or a writer, is something that may be worth doing as such. This is exactly what descriptive linguistics is about: describing the language as it is actually used, not as certain people think that it should be used. Describing somebody's language therefore should not normally contain prescriptive comments. (An exception to this may be if you use learner data and want to identify errors in the learners' English.) By comparison, if you write about a novel or a poem, you will often have to make subjective interpretations which are not simply tied to words or combinations of words but to associations and chimps jane goodall essay, experiences of resume cari your own which may go far beyond the text itself.
Nevertheless, a linguistic description is jane essay not simply a presentation or summary of some material. Judgements have to be made at all different stages of the investigation, and page paper chicago style, these should be reflected in the written paper. What sort of to save goodall a problem are you dealing with? What material might be appropriate to thesis on nelson mandela, use as a basis of the investigation? How should it be delimited?
What method of analysis is appropriate? Example material may require interpretation. What patterns can you see? What do they mean? What is the effect of this or that construction?
The results of the analysis must also be interpreted. How do they fit in with previous knowledge about the language? To what extent have you been able to answer your research question? In order to describe and analyse the linguistic properties of discourse you need precise categories. You must also use the terminology correctly and to save jane, consistently.
Your secondary reading will provide guidance on research terminology. Note also that there are dictionaries of linguistic terms (such as Crystal 2008, Matthews 2007). There are situations where there is disagreement about terminology. Then it is an advantage if you know the criteria by which a category is pinned down. To Save Chimps Goodall Essay. There are also occasions when you cannot rely on ready-made categories; sometimes you may have to i need, define your own, in case the categories found in your reading are inadequate, or if the chimps essay topic is very specific. In this area, too, you will discover that language description is a complex matter.
There are many instances of fuzzy categories. For example, where do you draw the line between adjective and verb with forms ending in literature - ed and - ing ? How do you delimit phrasal verbs from related constructions? There are scales or gradients which show that differences can be graded, and jane goodall, that it is not always true that the distinctions are clear-cut. In sum, describing the language involves a good element of interpretation. 7 Supporting your statements. In your discussion, make reference to your own data and the secondary sources. When you quote, include as much as is necessary, but no more. If you need to abbreviate an example or a quotation from a secondary source, insert three dots (indicating ellipsis). Literature Review. Editorial comments can be added within square brackets. When you quote or make a summary in your own words, always give a reference to your source.
In giving examples from your primary material, you may find it useful to use numbered examples (as above). This makes it easier to refer to them in your discussion. To Save Chimps Jane. Each example should have an resume cari, identification of the source. Look at the articles on your syllabus to see how this is done. Distinguish between safe conclusions clearly validated by the data, and uncertain ones, for which you have inconclusive or incomplete evidence. Do not conceal data which may be difficult to account for. On the contrary, such material may require special comment.
Organize your paper into sections, with headings. This makes it easier to follow the steps in your investigation. It is often useful to number the to save jane essay sections (as in this paper). 8.1 Before the main text. On the title page, write the i need writier don't title of the paper, your name, the name of the department, the date (term), and chimps goodall essay, the course your term paper relates to. Make sure the title of the paper reflects its aim and title page paper chicago style, scope. If your paper is long, add a separate contents page. If you use a lot of to save chimps abbreviations (apart from the collector essay conventional ones), you should have a list of abbreviations.
If your paper includes many tables and figures, include a list of these. There should also be a signed declaration confirming that the paper is your own work. Essay. The declaration is normally available in the submission folder in i need an dissertation writier Fronter. 8.2 The main text. The main text can often be organized as follows (needless to say, the organization may vary depending upon the type of to save goodall topic): Introduction . State your aim briefly and give the reasons why the subject of your paper is worth writing about. Give a brief, critical survey of earlier work dealing with your subject.
Aim and scope . State your purpose in service review greater detail and tell the reader what aspect you intend to investigate as well as what will be left out. Jane Goodall. Material . State the nature and limitations of your primary material: whether you use a corpus, elicited material, etc. Literature Review. Describe your method of collecting data as well as the advantages and/or limitations of your material. To Save. Consider whether your choice of data is likely to affect the results in an important way. Method . (a) State along what lines your investigation will be conducted, and, if possible, give the page paper style most important sources of inspiration. (b) Define your terms and principles of classification. Explain your use of abbreviations and to save chimps, symbols (if these are numerous, give a list of service literature abbreviations/symbols at the beginning of your paper).
State any technical conventions you intend to follow. (c) If your investigation is long and complex, give a step-by-step description of goodall essay what you intend to for evaluating research, do. Analysis and discussion . First you present the results of your study of the primary material, and chimps, then you analyse them. You will probably want to present your results in the form of tables or lists of examples, or both. Focus on one aspect at page for research paper chicago a time. To return to our example study above, there were separate sub-sections on: overall distribution (cf. Table 1), length (cf. Table 2), definiteness (cf.
Table 3), literal vs. Chimps Jane Goodall Essay. figurative meaning (cf. Resume Cari. Table 4), adverbial specification, and text category (cf. Table 5). Support your arguments with reference to the data and to your secondary material. Long and complicated sections should have a short summary at the end. To Save. Conclusion . To what extent have you been able to answer the question raised at literature the beginning of the paper? Give a general summary of your results and state the conclusions you can draw on chimps goodall the basis of them. To what extent do your conclusions agree with what was known before?
If some of your results are inconclusive, e.g. because you have not had enough material, say so. Also indicate what aspects or areas require further study . 8.3 After the main text. Footnotes/endnotes . Short references consisting only i need writier of a page reference to a certain work are given in to save essay the text within brackets, e.g. (Quirk et al . Page Style. 1985: 243f.). Longer references and comments are given in footnotes (placed at the bottom of the chimps jane goodall relevat page) or endnotes. Endnotes should be placed just before the list of references.
References . Under this heading you list your sources in alphabetical order according to the author's surname. Title For Research Paper Chicago Style. The references may be divided into two sections, one for primary sources, and one for secondary sources. If you have used abbreviations for dictionaries or your primary sources, these should be clearly indicated in the list of references. Click here to see how you go about making references and reference lists. There is goodall essay also a useful site here: http://www.ub.uio.no/english/writing-referencing/ Appendices . It is often useful to relegate some material to appendices, e.g. long lists of examples or detailed tables. But examples and thesis mandela, tables which you comment fully on should be given in the body of the paper. 9 Some writing/formatting conventions. Writing about linguistic items: Use italic type to mark out a word or phrase that you are discussing and which is not an integrated part of the to save chimps goodall essay running text. Examples: (1) The most common word in the English language is the . (2) The word foot enters into on nelson mandela, a lot of more or less fixed phrases such as foot the bill , foot-and-mouth disease , put oneís foot in it and set foot in Ö . Quoting examples: Use normal type for the example. However, you may want to to save chimps jane, add emphasis (for instance by for evaluating research papers, using italics) for to save jane the part of the on nelson mandela example that is most relevant to jane essay, the discussion.
Examples should be numbered for ease of reference. They can be set with single spacing even if the rest of the text has double spacing. See further advice on how to quote examples. Chapter and section headings: You may use bold type or a different/enlarged font for chapter and section headings. Normally chapter headings are more prominent than section headings. In a term paper it will often not be necessary to subdivide sections (e.g. 2.1, 2.2, 2.3), but in an MA thesis this is often done, just as in linguistics books. Donít go over board with your decimals; as a general rule, try to thesis, avoid using more than two or three sublevels (so 2.1.1 and possibly 18.104.22.168 are all right, but not 22.214.171.124.2). Before you hand in goodall your paper, make sure that it is free of errors in language (grammar, vocabulary, spelling). Check that pronoun references are clear: do not overuse this and that in referring to paper on nelson, the preceding text.
Make sure the chimps jane verbs agree with their subjects. Avoid sentence fragments, without a subject and a verb. Research Papers. On the jane goodall other hand, do not use long run-on sentences, with main clauses loosely strung together. If you can replace a comma by a full stop, do so. Be careful with paragraphing #150; this contributes greatly to for research style, the clarity and to save chimps goodall, coherence of your paper. It is natural to adopt a fairly formal style. Avoid contractions ( she's , aren't , etc.).
Reduce reference to yourself to i need an dissertation don't, a minimum. Note that there are many ways of expressing opinions: I think/doubt/disagree , etc. may be regarded as too informal for an academic paper. Alternatives include such expressions as it is clear/doubtful/possible , clearly/possibly/no doubt , correctly/brilliantly/wrongly/mistakenly etc. Qualify your statements as appropriate, but note that too much hedging becomes ludicrous: 'It might perhaps seem doubtful . '. Say what you think is true, but no more and no less. It may be a good idea to to save jane, collect useful and/or elegant turns of phrase from books and articles about linguistics. Finally, to avoid boring your reader you should try to vary your language (but not at the expense of clarity!). Kerja. A synonym dictionary or a thesaurus may give you ideas for alternative ways of chimps essay expression. The English language, the title page for research chicago subject of to save chimps essay your paper, is a rich and flexible instrument, and it is good if this shows in your paper. This paper is essay based on Stig Johanssonís manuscript Writing a Term Paper in English Linguistics: Some Hints for Mellomfag and Hovedfag Students (unpublished, University of Oslo , 1997). To Save Chimps Essay. Sections 1, 3, and 7-8 of this paper are based on Altenberg et al . (1980). Section 6 draws on material provided by Kay Wikberg . For more detailed guidance on the writing of research papers in papers English linguistics, see Johannesson (1993).
Altenberg, Bengt , Jan Svartvik , and Gunnel Tottie . 1980. How to write a term paper in to save chimps jane goodall English linguistics. Department of English, Lund University . Unpublished. Crystal, David. 2008. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics . 6th ed. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell. Johannesson , Nils- Lennart . 1993. Thesis Paper On Nelson Mandela. English Language Essays: Investigation Method and Writing Strategies . 4th ed. English Department, Stockholm University . Johansson, Stig . 1986. Some observations on the order of adverbial particles and to save chimps jane, objects in the LOB Corpus.
In Sven Jacobson (ed.), Papers from the Third Scandinavian Symposium on Syntactic Variation, Stockholm , May 11-12, 1985 . I Need An Dissertation Don't. Stockholm Studies in to save chimps goodall essay English 56. Stockholm : Almqvist Wiksell . 51-62. Matthews, P.H. 2007. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics . Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Available at the UiO here] Scott, Mike. 2001.
Comparing corpora and for evaluating research, identifying key words, collocations, and frequency distributions through the WordSmith Tools suite of chimps jane essay computer programs. Thesis On Nelson. In Mohsen Ghadessy , Alex Henry, and Robert L. Roseberry (eds), Small Corpus Studies: Theory and Practice , 47-67. Amsterdam : Benjamins. © Stig Johansson/Hilde Hasselgrd and the Department of Literature, Area Studies and European Languages, University of Oslo.
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Heroes: What They Do Why We Need Them. By Scott T. Allison and George R. Goethals. Each year we celebrate Motherís Day, and this reminds us of the to save chimps jane essay, results of a study we conducted recently that underscored the importance of family members as heroes. Writier! In the study, people of all ages and jane goodall essay, from all walks of resume cari kerja, life were asked to list their heroes. We were surprised, yet pleased, to to save jane goodall essay see that family members were listed about a third of the time. Most importantly, one fourth of all people listed their mothers as their hero.
Mothers were mentioned more than any other person, including fathers. Motherís Day became a nationally recognized holiday in literature review 1914 because of the efforts of jane essay, Anna Jarvis, a West Virginian who campaigned to honor mothers after her own beloved mother passed away in 1905. Kerja! Ironically, by the 1920s Jarvis became disenchanted with the commercialization of Motherís Day and began campaigning against the holiday. To Save Essay! Still, we believe her initial sentiment was on target and we applaud the kerja, opportunity to recognize the heroic qualities of mothers everywhere. Many highly accomplished individuals are quick to attribute their success to their mothers. American presidents are especially likely to do so. Abraham Lincoln once noted that ďall that I am, or can be, I owe to my angel mother.Ē George Washington also observed that ďall I am I owe to my mother. I attribute all my success in life to the moral, intellectual and chimps goodall essay, physical education I received from her.Ē Andrew Jackson claimed that ďthere never was a woman like my mother. She was as gentle as a dove and as brave as a lioness.Ē Other celebrities also express their indebtedness to their mothers.
Seven-time Tour de France champion Lance Armstrong once said, ďMy mother gave me more than any teacher or father figure ever had.Ē With these words, Armstrong identified the precise reason why so many of us view our mothers as heroes. Itís all about the loving generosity of mothers. Resume! When the chimps jane goodall, participants in our study were asked why their mothers were heroic, they generated three main reasons: generosity with time, money, and love. There are many ways that mothers gave their time to page for research paper us. According to survey respondents, mothers tended to us when we were sick, accompanied us to school and soccer practice, made us dinner, and read stories to us. Our mothers made financial sacrifices, too. They wore old clothes so that we could wear new clothes; they took on part-time jobs to to save jane essay buy us gifts; they saved money for us to attend college; they gave us our weekly allowance; and research papers, they made sure we had food on to save the table. But the most important quality that distinguishes mothers from other heroes, including fathers, is the service literature, free offering of love that mothers give us. Mothers were there for us when we needed emotional support.
Mothers hugged us. They comforted us and let us sit on their laps. They kissed us on our cheeks before school and at bedtime at night. Why are mothers viewed as so heroically loving? There are at least two reasons.
First, research has shown that women tend to be more likely than men to possess communal traits such as lovingness, affection, warmth, and nurturance. To Save Chimps Jane! These communal traits are highly valued in i need don't the context of raising children and to save goodall essay, are associated with morality and service review, goodness. Second, it is well known that during childhood, mothers are our primary attachment figures. They are more likely than fathers to interact with, and to save jane goodall essay, bond with, infants. Our society is title page paper style, no doubt evolving toward fathers having more communal traits and showing more attachment behaviors, but mothers still hold the edge. And so on this Motherís Day, weíd like to acknowledge and thank Anna Jarvis and all the women who have given so much to us all. We wish everyone the to save jane essay, happiest of Motherís Days!
Do you have a hero that you would like us to profile? Please send your suggestions to on nelson mandela Scott T. Allison (email@example.com) or to George R. Goethals (firstname.lastname@example.org). 22 thoughts on “ Why Our Mothers are Our Heroes ” Mothers can be wonderful, or weird. To Save Chimps! In my case, both. Thesis! #128512; In the days when we were very poor, my Mother worked very hard to make sure we were all taken care of.
Not an easy thing to do when you canít afford to essay have the furnace fixed and ice is forming on the inside of a drafty old house. But we survived and I, for one, have many happy memories of those days. Some of my best memories are of my Mother reading with me, or the literature review, popcorn parties we had when The Munsters were on. I worked in Womenís Health for to save, 22 years and paper chicago, I saw many Mothers fight and sacrifice and suffer for their babies. These were inner city women who were poor and uneducated, often suffering from addiction or abuse, and to save chimps goodall essay, most of the collector, them didnít have a clue what to do. But they, most of them, would do whatever it took to make sure that their babies were born healthy and had a chance at a better life. To Save Jane Essay! Sometimes that meant working night and resume cari, day for to save chimps goodall essay, minimum wage, sometimes it meant struggling to overcome their addictions or dependencies, and sometimes it meant giving up those babies to the collector others who could give them more. Nothing could be more heartbreaking, or inspiring. Happy Motherís Day, everyone. To Save Goodall Essay! #128578; Hello.
Iím here again. I donít know exactly why our mothers are our heroes. Criteria For Evaluating! But I have a theory. Our mothers are the first person that we know when we born. The first person that we learn to love.
Sometimes this first person is not your mother. But a person who acts like her. Chimps Jane! And that to you is a person whom you will mirror in the future. My mother is my hero. Cari! Because she faces the worst situations and gave me a example. ďShe who believes will always achieve.Ē She taught me to keep the faith in myselfÖand believe in to save goodall essay everything that I want. She shows what is real love. And Iím sure that my siblings are proud of her, too.
Thank you for for research paper chicago, the history. I didnít know the context of this holiday. To Save Jane! But now I know. Congratulations for this post. And Happy Motherís day to every mother in criteria for evaluating the world.
What a wonderful tribute to all the to save chimps goodall essay, mothers. Mine has been gone for over 25 years, but she lives on in her legacy. She was a lady! Just for the record, I think she would have loved ALL of for evaluating research papers, these hero stories. Thank you for this one. And donít forget: Welll behaved women rarely make history!Ē (author unknown) I surfed whole internet to read comments about this subject. Best regards. I 100 percent agree with this blog. My mother is my hero; she is the reason who I am.
I respect all moms across the world, especially single parent moms. I have the most respect for my mom because she raised me and my two brothers on her own. I feel that I owe her my life, the jane goodall essay, sacrifices she made for my brothers and I are unthinkable. Resume! I wouldnít want to jane trade her for anything in the world. I would definitely agree that mothers are unsung heroes. I feel like we often overlook them as heroes since their influence is so obvious!
There are few that have greater influence in our lives. So when labeling people Ďheroesí we are overlooking whatís right under our nose, or in this case the one who gave us our nose in for evaluating research the first place. I would definitely consider my mother one of my heroes. She has spent a good part of to save jane essay, her life making my life as it is criteria research, now possible. She helped me to grow and develop into who I am now and has always been there for chimps, any type of support I may need. Criteria For Evaluating! My mother truly has helped me become the essay, person I am today. Mothers are a perfect example of the collector, how some degree of heroism is very personal.
Many heroes are only defined in the eyes of one individual Ė like mothers. To Save Chimps Goodall Essay! Does that make them any less heroic? Absolutely not. Also, Iíd like to add that that cookie cake looks delicious! My mom is by far one of my greatest heroes. She is the resume cari, mother of to save jane goodall essay, four girls, works as an RN and yet still makes time to come to every one of our sporting events and still have dinner ready for when everyone gets home.
I know that I do not thank her enough for all that she has done for me, but reading this blog just makes me realize how important she is not only to me, but to thesis paper on nelson my family as a whole. I would not be who I am today without my mom, and I know my family would not be either. To Save Chimps Jane! Great blog #128578; Wonderful posting. I really could not have explained that better. Criteria! I am not sure if everybody will go along with you, but it probably doesnít matter. Keep up the great work. My mom will always be my hero because of what she does for my family everyday.
She is the jane, sweetest lady i know, next to my grandma. She works extremely hard and does it for other people, not just herself. She works at a public school, where the kids are to poor to go to research any other school because their parents cannot afford to send their kids to to save chimps goodall any kind of school. So This school provides an education for them and my mom is the vice president of the organization. She means the world to me and resume cari, I am sure she is not just my hero. Chimps Goodall! Love you mom! Because they are our guardians, bodyguards, food providers, care takers, moral supporters, friends, etc,etc,etc, good post. Many thanks to Anna Jarvis Ė we are encouraged to stop for criteria for evaluating research, a moment and say ďthank youĒ to to save chimps jane all the Motherís in the world.
They deserve so much more, but a special day is paper style, just fine. My mom worked so hard to make sure my sister and I had an to save chimps jane essay education and we have never let her down. Strong when she needed to be, and compassionate and understanding when things got tough. I am lucky that she found love again after my Dad passed away. She is a remarkable person and I hope my sister and I enjoy many, many Motherís Day celebrations with her. Thanks for reminding us it took another strong woman to stand up and recognize Moms for all their hard work! #128578;
Mothers truly are some of the most unsung heroes of all time. They give their children what they need in so many different facets of their lives, which is what makes them so spectacular. The ability to provide emotional, financial, and even practical support such as cooking meals and doing housekeeping Ė these are all qualities that mothers tend to possess, and their ability to do all of this and stay sane is remarkable. Essay! Mothers are some of the most caring, selfless people on earth. They want what is chimps jane, best for i need writier, their children, and they keep their families united. It is from our mothers that we learn so much about to save goodall, how to behave and how to care for others, qualities that are some of the most important things we can learn as children.
It is no surprise that mothers are nearly always our attachment figures when we are children, because mothers are the review, ones who protect, nurture, and love us unconditionally. It is very fitting that we have a day to to save chimps honor them, but we should be praising our mothers, our greatest heroes, 365 days a year. I love my mom so much I wrote a paper on thesis on nelson her for one of my school projects. Everyone relize that a mom is the most important person in chimps goodall the world. I think most everyone can understand why mothers are unsung heroes. Thesis On Nelson Mandela! Even if you do not have a personally great relationship with your mom, you can see in chimps jane essay so many circumstances where mothers are excellent role models, and figures of thesis on nelson mandela, love and affection to so many people. Mothers are the reasons many people become the people they are, and to save chimps jane essay, many credit their mothers for developing and building their character. My mother is the collector, absolutely my personal hero. I admire her every day and hope to jane essay be more like her as I get older! I love this blog on mothers. My mother has been, and always will be one of my dearest heroes.
She has helped to shape and page style, transform me into who I am today. As I grow older, I hope to to save jane goodall see more qualities of my own mother in myself. The Collector Essay! I have the utmost respect for jane, my mom, and I am thrilled to criteria research see a blog honoring all mothers around the world. Mothers are the to save chimps jane goodall essay, comfort that kids need. My mother has overcome multiple obstacles and continuously puts others before herself. She was my high school field hockey coach and while she lead us to many championships she taught us a lot about literature review, life. To Save Goodall Essay! Her belief in others and charisma has given her the title of page paper chicago style, a hero, not just for to save chimps jane, me but for others too. In addition to my father, my mother is also one of i need, my biggest heroes. Chimps Jane Goodall! I think this blog is important because of how heroic mothers truly are. The term ďunsung heroĒ is perfect for mothers because I believe people tend to overlook how much mothers really do.
I love my mom and thereís nothing I could do to repay her for everything she has done for me. She will always be a hero in my eyes whether she knows it or not. I was very pleased when I came across this post. Thesis Paper Mandela! My mother is my hero for an abundance of reasons, and I feel that many motherís heroism goes unnoticed. I myself sometimes take my mom for granted. Chimps Essay! She has helped me form into the person I am today, and I canít imagine my life without her.
As both a mom a daughter Ė and as usual Ďodd one outí compared to the modern Western world norms Ė I can say I find it easier to BE a mother than to have had oneÖ Whilst I value the fact that without my now-deceased mother, I would not be as I am today, and that SHE fed me, clothed me, and cared about me, as well as gave birth to me Ė I was never close to, inspired by, or looking up to my Mom. I have to say that I rarely put Ďmyí Mom above other mothersÖ. or even recognized her role and value until becoming a mother myself. Page! It was not until I myself gave birth and had a precious human being to chimps essay care for, protect, look after, worry about, and Ďput firstí, that I even noticed that a Mom was anything special. I therefore wonder how many of us who ARE moms have changed our view of our OWN Mothers since becoming moms Ė and if this may make a difference to how highly we rate them. My mom is my hero, without you I would not. live .. good by criteria for evaluating papers mom ..
God bles with you. As a single mother, Iím hoping that one day thereíll be a day dedicated to recognize celebrate the heroism of single mothers who despite all odds, manage to stand ďon their own feetĒ. our mother is the loving soul to us.we are existing due to our mothers care.she sustains during emotional and hard situations.when we feel sick,she is the to save goodall, the only soul that remains sorrowful.so our mothers are the first god to us. Comments are closed. 500,000 VISITORS TO THIS BLOG (1) Activist Heroes (24) Artist Heroes (9) Celebrity Heroes (30) Commentary and Analysis (37) Fictional Heroes (16) Legendary Heroes (24) Our 1st Book ó HEROES (1) Our 2nd Book ó HEROIC LEADERSHIP (1) Our latest books on HEROIC LEADERS (10) Political Heroes (19) Science Heroes (15) Spiritual Heroes (11) Sports Heroes (20) Superheroes (9) Unsung Heroes (41) War Heroes (20)
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