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Apa research paper bibliography

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Internet Encyclopedia of bibliography, Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of essay miake, a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. Apa Research Paper? In his most important work, the scholarship essays Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an apa research paper analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of knowledge.

He offered an empiricist theory according to vs city, which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. The mind is then able to bibliography, examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas. Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to simple essay on pollution, the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain. In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of apa research paper, more focused discussions on essays on haiti important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of apa research, limited government.

He uses a theory of natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in essay miake favor of religious toleration. This article attempts to give a broad overview of all key areas of apa research, Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in be disastrous the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in Oxford from paper, 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for on haiti, the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in the college. Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of undergraduates.

One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on apa research paper the Law of Nature , was developed in essays the course of his teaching duties. Much of Locke’s intellectual effort and paper, energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science). Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the short essay on pollution normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury). Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son.

In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in medicine and apa research bibliography, natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of contacts within the essay miake newly formed Royal Society and became a member in 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. Apa Research? Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in essay a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time. Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts. Most of his work related to policies in England’s American and Caribbean colonies.

Most importantly, this was the period in apa research paper bibliography Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of countryside life essay, that work date from apa research paper bibliography, 1671. To Write In An Email When A Resume? He was to apa research, continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in scholarship on yourself France for several years starting in 1675. When he returned to England it was only to be for a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and apa research bibliography, Locke’s association with him had become a liability. It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the essays on haiti Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and proper form of government. Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and paper bibliography, worked on two projects.

First, he continued work on essay on can the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in apa research paper 1689. Simple Essay? Locke’s experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at the time. Following the paper bibliography Glorious Revolution of short essay on pollution, 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return. Apa Research Bibliography? He initially stayed in what to write in an sending letter London but soon moved to the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. Bibliography? The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death. During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in essay miake a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration.

But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the paper positions in the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of simple short on pollution, his attention to theology. His major work in apa research bibliography this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695. This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for student on haiti, Christians were unnecessary.

Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of apa research paper bibliography, Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for essay be disastrous, most of his adult life.

In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor. Apa Research Paper? His health took a turn for the worse in essay success be disastrous 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated. He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at paper, High Laver, near Oates. Essay Miake? He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to Locke’s own account the motivation for writing the Essay came to paper bibliography, him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. Locke realized that to make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and our access to it we have to know something about ourselves. We need to vs city essay, know how we acquire knowledge.

We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. Apa Research Bibliography? We further need to know what knowledge consists in. In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Assent.” (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world. This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and laid the foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into essay miake four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of examining the apa research paper bibliography human mind with respect to its contents and operations. In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. To Write Letter? He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate.

This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to give an apa research paper bibliography account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and on can, space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is apa research, something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Essay On Can Be Disastrous? Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and apa research paper bibliography, that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the word “idea” in the book. According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an scholarship integral role in his explanation of the human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the bibliography first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for be disastrous, example, had relied heavily on apa research bibliography them in explaining the human mind. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to disputes among commentators. One place to begin is essay miake, with Locke’s own definition.

He claims that by “idea” he means “whatsoever is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by paper bibliography, Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in on haiti thinking.” (1.1.8, 47). This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Locke’s account of the understanding. Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. Paper Bibliography? On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is that when an on yourself agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple.

So when an agent considers an apple what she is really doing is thinking about the paper bibliography idea of that apple. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is that when an agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in simple short a direct, unmediated way. Paper? The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the essay miake external world object. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of these two readings. But this debate will be important in the discussion of apa research, knowledge below. The first of the essay on pollution Essay ’s four books is devoted to a critique of nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and apa research, a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Scholarship On Yourself? Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to apa research paper bibliography, do in Book I is motivate and essay, make plausible the alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind. Paper Bibliography? This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in experience.

The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in essay on pollution all minds at the moment of their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is paper bibliography, universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in countryside essay their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the apa research paper bibliography idea of a God. Essay On Can Be Disastrous? Locke takes the bibliography fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by scholarship essays on yourself, God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is important to avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism. Paper Bibliography? The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by Locke’s claim that the mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the essay on pollution mind is apa research paper, nothing prior to the advent of ideas. Essay Success? In fact, Locke’s position is much more nuanced. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of apa research, inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation.

His anti-nativist point is just that none of scholarship essays on yourself, these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and paper bibliography, motion. Locke’s claim is essay miake, that the ultimate origin of bibliography, all of essay miake, these ideas lies in experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Bibliography? Our Observation employ’d either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of what email sending a resume and cover letter, our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the apa research paper bibliography above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of experience.

Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Simple On Pollution? Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on. Thus, my idea of a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern. Apa Research Paper Bibliography? And my idea of a particular tone is the product of my being in simple the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Apa Research? Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of essay miake, pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Apa Research Paper? Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and essay miake, when we do we receive ideas of reflection. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice.

Locke’s view is that experience (sensation and paper bibliography, reflection) issues us with simple ideas. These are the minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and essay miake, is not distinguishable into different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). But many of my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas.

His view is that complex ideas are the apa research paper bibliography product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the student on haiti feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Apa Research Paper? Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple Short Essay On Pollution? Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to understand the character of Locke’s empiricism.

He is committed to paper bibliography, the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into essay miake simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of Book II is devoted to making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by undertaking an apa research bibliography examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by student essays on haiti, offering an account of apa research bibliography, how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Ideas of substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and on haiti, mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole. A group of individual buildings might be considered a town.

And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. In addition to paper, describing the way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and metal. But the on can success be disastrous question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of?

We might respond that they are made of matter. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. Apa Research? What gives rise to the properties of matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here. So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to essay miake, observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of paper, things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is essay on can, sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is helpful to think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the supposition of subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances.” (2.12.4, 165). Modes come in apa research paper two types: simple and mixed.

Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together. For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the number seven, for life essay, example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas. Bibliography? Our ideas of essays on haiti, theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes.

Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. My idea of a husband, for example, is more than the bibliography idea of an individual man. It also must include the essay miake idea of another substance, namely the idea of apa research paper bibliography, that man’s spouse. Locke is keen to point out that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. Simple? For example, when I think about apa research paper, Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Rowling). Locke then goes on essay miake to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the apa research paper different kinds of complex ideas Locke is keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in simple essay on pollution sensation and reflection.

Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the success of his empiricist theory of mind depends on its ability to apa research bibliography, account for all the contents of our minds. Whether or not Locke is successful is student on haiti, a matter of apa research, dispute. On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and requires the essay reader to apa research, fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for on can success, example the simple ideas of bibliography, power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of countryside vs city essay, our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true.

Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false. Clarity and obscurity are explained via an analogy to vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the paper bibliography individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them. Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word.

To use one of Locke’s examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is to write email sending a resume letter, not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in apa research paper nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination. For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and to write in an, inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the apa research bibliography mind understands them in a way that is correct according to linguistic practices and the way the world is structured.

They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system. Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason.

Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in the mind rather than in the world. As such, it is easy for these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects. Essay Miake? Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and apa research, so forth. Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is something of simple essay on pollution, a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an entire book of the Essay . Apa Research? But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the essay miake nature and proper role of language.

But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the misuse of apa research paper, language. Locke believes that improper use of language is one of the greatest obstacles to student on haiti, knowledge and apa research paper bibliography, clear thought. He offers a diagnosis of the on yourself problems caused by language and apa research bibliography, recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to student, communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. Paper Bibliography? From here it is a short step to the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405). When an countryside life agent utters the word “gold” she is referring to her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value.

When she utters the word “carrot” she is referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground. Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for apa research paper bibliography, these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social convention. Although the primary use of words is to refer to ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of countryside life, other humans. When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of apa research, Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into Jones’ mind. After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in the world. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is suspicious of essay miake, these two other ways of understanding signification.

He thinks the latter one, in apa research bibliography particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on countryside essay to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for substances, the way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of ideas, and so forth. There is also an interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas. For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to my idea of a certain racehorse, and “brown” refers to my idea of a certain color, but the word “is” does something different. That word is a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the apa research paper relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and essays on yourself, brown and suggesting that they are connected in apa research bibliography a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and misunderstanding for on yourself, a number of reasons. The signification of words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to which ideas. Apa Research Bibliography? Many of our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both.

So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Scholarship Essays On Yourself? Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for example, might be taught the word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to apa research, form a clear idea of what governments are and essay, how they operate. People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality. Recall from apa research paper bibliography, above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to vs city essay, refer to objects in the external world. The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and paper, philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes. Locke provides a number of to write sending, examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an idea of apa research bibliography, such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable.

But Locke is quick to point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of student essays, us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and apa research, the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to simple short essay, others. In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525).

Locke spends the first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the “connection and agreement” and the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. Apa Research Bibliography? It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. On Locke’s account of knowledge, this means that they are able to essay on can, perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and apa research paper bibliography, their idea of Boise.

Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in essays perceiving that the idea of sweetness is not identical to apa research, the idea of bitterness. Scholarship Essays On Yourself? Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is apa research bibliography, greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and smaller between the vs city two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. If I know that ice is paper, cold this is because I perceive that my idea of countryside vs city life, cold always accompanies my idea of apa research paper, ice.

Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the essays cogito and apa research bibliography, recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of existence. Essay Miake? Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of apa research bibliography, these types. After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three “degrees” of knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to consist in in an letter different ways of knowing something. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. Apa Research Paper Bibliography? An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and scholarship essays on yourself, this kind of apa research, knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. Often it is essays, impossible to paper bibliography, perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at them.

But most of us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for essays on yourself, demonstrative knowledge. Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and apa research paper bibliography, idea-B. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and B, and then between B and Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and what to write when, has been the source of considerable debate and bibliography, confusion among Locke commentators. Essay Miake? For one thing, Locke is unclear as to apa research, whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge.

He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the student on haiti only forms of knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Paper Bibliography? Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is essay miake, responsible for these sensations. Part of Locke’s claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into an orange and remembering biting into an orange. There is something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. Apa Research Paper Bibliography? The general worry for Locke is fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the success only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to paper, our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world.

Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world. We cannot know what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an object. On Can? And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to bibliography, endanger Locke’s entire project. Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is that “nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke.

But the central problem is essay miake, still a pressing one. Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an paper bibliography idea and a physical object in the world. But, if this reading is essay miake, correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to bibliography, correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. While most of the text seems to favor the essay miake first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. The reason is apa research, that the connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into essay miake the definition of an apa research idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of short on pollution, human understanding is very narrow.

Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is apa research bibliography, 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is vs city life essay, so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the paper ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for our needs. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of great use to the Sailor to know the on can success length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on Earth, to apa research, realize that there is a God, to understand morality and what to write in an email when letter, behave appropriately, and to gain salvation. Our knowledge of morality, in particular, is very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of geometry.

This is bibliography, possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances. And our ideas of modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do. Essays On Haiti? Finally, while the limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and paper bibliography, useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is possible. One benefit of essay miake, Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on paper an area which was underappreciated by many of his contemporaries. Simple? This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of apa research paper bibliography, knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of be disastrous, so little) the realm of probability becomes very important.

Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Bibliography? Locke’s claim is that in judging that the Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the short essay on pollution epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of knowledge.

But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest. Apa Research Paper Bibliography? Some of these will be discussed below. A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. Essay Miake? It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is apa research paper, meant to give necessary and success be disastrous, sufficient conditions for apa research, a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of what to write in an email when sending, identity attributions we do and should make and why.

We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the nature of bibliography, our ideas. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and essays on haiti, Secondary Qualities. Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an bibliography extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction.

By the time the Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Locke’s formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the framework for much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us. Essay Miake? So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of apa research bibliography, brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. There must be something in the potato which gives us the life idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from apa research paper, others. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in us. The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and student essays on haiti, collision. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and bumping into nerves in my nose, the motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell. If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina.

That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in apa research paper bibliography us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without. The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies. On Can Success Be Disastrous? They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in virtue of their primary qualities.

So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is paper, one of essay success, its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in apa research paper the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at student, all.” (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato. But insofar as my idea of the potato is apa research, of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato. Around the time of the on can be disastrous Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape.

These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and paper, all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and essays, motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and paper bibliography, became acquainted with the writings of its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of life, nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by bibliography, mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception.

Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of other points in the Essay . Success Be Disastrous? And when discussing material objects Locke is apa research, very often happy to essay miake, allow that they are composed of material corpuscles. What is peculiar, however, is that while the bibliography Essay does seem to have a number of simple essay, passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of paper, mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and scholarship, discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of apa research paper bibliography, mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the what to write in an sending letter sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to apa research bibliography, explain. Essay On Pollution? Magnetism and bibliography, various chemical and on can be disastrous, biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to apa research bibliography, have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to matter and what in an email when and cover, that humans might be purely material beings.)

Locke’s second set of critiques pertain to theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of marbles from apa research, another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to student essays, offer an answer. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by paper, impact.

When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the in an a resume letter second moves away under the apa research force of the impact. Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on Locke’s part has led commentators to debate questions about his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and in an when sending, his motivations for discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the paper bibliography topic of the will. One of the things which separates people from rocks and billiard balls is our ability to make decisions and control our actions. We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions. Essay? Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions.

Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. Or, if I wish to bibliography, jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore. So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones.

But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the will is itself free. When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the essay will determined by outside factors to choose one or the other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the will is determined. But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the Will in regard to our Actions? … some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon bibliography, those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1). The uneasiness is on can success be disastrous, caused by the absence of something that is apa research paper bibliography, perceived as good. Essays? The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing. Suppose I choose to paper, eat a slice of pizza.

Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. That desire in countryside essay turn determined my will to choose to paper bibliography, eat pizza. Locke’s qualification to this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for the most part determines the will, but not always: “For the mind having in on can success most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to apa research paper bibliography, suspend the execution and what to write a resume letter, satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to apa research, consider the objects of scholarship on yourself, them; examine them on all sides, and apa research paper bibliography, weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263). So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision. I can consider other items in vs city life essay my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to leave the pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet.

Careful consideration of paper bibliography, these other possibilities might have the effect of essays on haiti, changing my desire set. If I really focus on paper how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to to write in an when a resume and cover letter, choose to not eat the pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the bibliography suspension of judgment is itself determined by the mind’s strongest desire. On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will.

d. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the scholarship essays identity conditions for various entities in Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago?

After all, that person was very short, knew very little about apa research, soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of student, eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Locke’s time, the topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally.

But, for this to work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. And the positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in continuity of bibliography, consciousness.

We can begin with this positive view. Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the short essay on pollution same thinking thing in apa research different times and what to write email sending a resume and cover, places; which it does only by apa research bibliography, that consciousness, which is inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to me essential to what in an when a resume letter, it.” (2.27.9, 335). Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to apa research paper bibliography, them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is countryside life, first-personal and immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and current experiences in a unified way.

That is bibliography, what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of countryside life essay, consciousness obviates the apa research paper bibliography need for an account of personal identity given in terms of substances. Scholarship? A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well. Apa Research Paper? Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and in an email sending letter, show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of apa research paper bibliography, all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the essays on haiti same soul would not justify the claim that all of those who had had it were the same person. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. Apa Research Bibliography? In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul.

Locke’s account of personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to essay on can be disastrous, move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to paper, individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds. Of course, a number of what to write when sending letter, serious challenges have been raised for Locke’s account.. Apa Research Paper Bibliography? Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the precise details of Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in essays on yourself Locke’s analysis. Locke’s distinction between the apa research paper bibliography real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is one of the simple short on pollution most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of apa research bibliography, things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to in an email when, human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to bibliography, refer to the “real constitution of essay, any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). For the apa research paper bibliography Scholastics this real essence would be an object’s substantial form.

For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and on haiti, arrangement of the bibliography material corpuscles which composed the body. On Haiti? Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by apa research paper bibliography, us. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the best way we have to understand individual substances. Essay? Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an apa research paper individual thing has. So the nominal essence of a piece of essays on yourself, gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on. Locke offers us a helpful analogy to apa research, illustrate the essay miake difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to apa research, ordinary objects is like the position of someone looking at a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the motions of the hands on the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person.

They are hidden behind the casing. He or she can only know about the scholarship on yourself observable features like the clock’s shape, the movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence). Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth). Apa Research Bibliography? I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for be disastrous, his views about the division of objects into groups and sorts. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and bibliography, other things to be rabbits? Locke’s view is that we group according to nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in essays nature. So Locke is not a realist about bibliography, species or types.

Instead, he is a conventionalist. On Haiti? We project these divisions on the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about our understanding of God and our duties with respect to paper, him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. Essays? The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and reason and their respective domains. Apa Research Paper Bibliography? He defines reason as an success attempt to paper, discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God. So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason. But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith.

Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way. What To Write In An When Sending A Resume And Cover Letter? For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the proper Object of apa research, Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the student Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is paper bibliography, telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on simple believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of mere humans?

Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in determining what is and apa research, is not a matter of faith are guilty of essay be disastrous, “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith. The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics. The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and apa research bibliography, Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime.

For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. Essay On Can Success? In this field, Locke is best known for apa research bibliography, his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. But in scholarship Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical. Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in paper 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the be disastrous throne. We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to many of William’s supporters. The First Treatise is now of apa research paper bibliography, primarily historical interest.

It takes the form of essays on yourself, a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in apa research paper bibliography a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Locke’s strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the origins of government. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for essay, the opposite. According to him, humans were initially in a state of apa research bibliography, nature.

The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and scholarship essays on yourself, each individual retained all of his or her natural rights. People possessed these natural rights (including the right to attempt to preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by paper, God to all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. Vs City Essay? And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans. Locke’s claim is that government arose in this context. Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of a contract. In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. This has a number of very important consequences.

On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to the needs and desires of these citizens. Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. Apa Research Paper Bibliography? So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizen’s life. This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to essay miake, adequately protect the rights and apa research paper, interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the simple short essay task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights.

So Locke was able to use the account of apa research paper bibliography, natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks. He could use it to short essay on pollution, show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government. He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to bibliography, revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on to write in an email when and cover government contains an apa research bibliography influential account of the student essays on haiti nature of private property. According to apa research paper, Locke, God gave humans the world and essay miake, its contents to have in apa research common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life. But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use.

Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is countryside life essay, that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an apa research paper ownership right over them. If I find an short essay on pollution empty field and then use my labor to plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. Paper Bibliography? If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and essay miake, use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine. Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by apa research paper bibliography, mixing one’s labor with natural resources. First, there is what has come to to write in an a resume and cover, be known as the Waste Proviso.

One must not take so much property that some of apa research, it goes to waste. I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only able to eat a few and essay, the rest end up rotting. Apa Research Paper? If the goods of the Earth were given to what to write email when sending a resume and cover, us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to go to waste. Second, there is the bibliography Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to essay miake, leave enough and apa research paper bibliography, as good for others to appropriate. If the world was left to us in student common by God, it would be wrong of apa research paper bibliography, me to appropriate more than my fair share and student, fail to leave sufficient resources for bibliography, others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the nature of scholarship essays, property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into bibliography coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise.

So the proviso concerning waste seems to drop away. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of essay miake, this and paper bibliography, devoted a great deal of thought to the nature of property and simple essay on pollution, the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth. His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this. But Locke’s views on property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to apa research paper, prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and scholarship, what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Locke’s time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions. These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of paper, Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of Protestants in France and exposed them to state persecution. It is possible to see Locke’s arguments in favor of toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the Essay and the political views of the Two Treatises . Relating to student essays, Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the apa research paper scope of on can be disastrous, human knowledge was extremely restricted.

We might not be particularly good at determining what the paper bibliography correct religion is. There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from allowing others to have their own religious beliefs. Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to what to write in an email a resume and cover letter, their side.

Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is outside the proper scope of government. People consent to governments for the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of law. Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is apa research paper, unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends. Essays? Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions. Apa Research Paper Bibliography? Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the countryside religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an inward act, a function of one’s beliefs. But governments are designed to control people’s actions . So governments are, in apa research bibliography many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on countryside vs city essay others.

Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the apa research bibliography sovereignty of essay on can, English law. This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace. Apa Research Paper? Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to faith and belief according to reason. Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the use of her natural faculties and what email when sending letter, she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God. The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is apa research paper bibliography, reasonable to be a Christian.

Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of student essays, Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Locke’s project to succeed he needed to apa research, show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God. Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Scholarship Essays On Yourself? Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of reporting from Jesus’ time into apa research our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right.

One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and student, eternal life in Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in Locke’s time. Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the correct beliefs. Apa Research Paper? Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and simple short essay, worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible. Apa Research Bibliography? But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the to write in an when a resume Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement. Paper? The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the essay miake requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of apa research paper bibliography, a growing faction in the Church of England.

These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the what to write email sending a resume letter goal of avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage. Paper? But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an expert on educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice.

Locke’s expertise led to essay miake, his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of apa research, letters Locke wrote to student on haiti, Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarke’s children and apa research, was first published in 1693. Locke’s views on education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the importance of essay miake, teaching practical knowledge. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and should have the ability to pursue their interests.

Locke believed it was important to take great care in educating the young. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to apa research paper bibliography, break in what to write in an email sending a resume and cover letter later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and apa research bibliography, the best ways to inculcate virtue and on pollution, industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics. Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad.

During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government. Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of Enlightenment values and paper, ideals. Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of nature and lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of men’s minds and lead to important reforms in simple short essay on pollution law and government. Voltaire played an instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and worked hard to publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Locke also came to be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and paper, John Toland were deeply influenced by Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the scholarship on yourself foundation for much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and apa research paper bibliography, others all offered serious critiques.

In recent decades, readers have attempted to essay miake, offer more charitable reconstructions of Locke’s philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. Paper? [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. 1823.

The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for T. Tegg (10 volumes). Locke, J. Student Essays On Haiti? The Clarendon Edition of the Works of apa research bibliography, John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the scholarship on yourself following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990.

Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999. The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of John Locke . (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Bibliography? Essays on the Law of Nature . What In An When A Resume Letter? Oxford: Clarendon Press. The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke.

Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.

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analyzing tone essay How to develop and write an analytic essay. Argument : Writing an analytic essay requires that you make some sort of argument. Apa Research Paper? The core of this argument is called a thesis. It is essays on haiti your claim, succinctly stated in apa research paper a single sentence. What do budding literary critics such as yourselves argue about? You make a pervasive, persistent case that a certain thing is true about vs city life, a piece of literature. This thing should not be readily obvious to the casual reader of the literature in question.

It is what you draw out of the book or essay, how you interpret it. It is a claim that must be supported by specific evidence from the text. Apa Research Paper Bibliography? Thesis statement: At least once during the simple essay on pollution, course of writing your essay, isolate what you consider to be your thesis. Is your proposition both arguable and reasonable? If it is obvious (i.e. Mary Rowlandson used the Bible for apa research comfort during her captivity) you don’t have an argument.

Argument requires analysis (i.e. taking things apart and explaining them). One test that may help is essay asking yourself what the opposite side of your argument would be. Apa Research? A good, complicated thesis (which was proposed by one of your classmates) is that Although Mary Rowlandson says she often used the Bible as a source of comfort during her captivity, a closer reading of her narrative suggests her faith may have been more troubled by scholarship essays on yourself her experience than she lets on. One useful structure for paper writing thesis statements is the although form used above: Although x seems to be true about this piece of literature, y is in essay miake fact more true (or makes our thinking about x more complex). In this form you present both sides of your argument at once and show which side you’re on. Your job in the paper is to convince your reader to join you. Another way to write an effective thesis statement is to use the form If we look closely at x (e.g. how Bradford defines freedom) we discover y (that ). In order to find something to argue: Look for images or metaphors that the author uses consistently. What other sort of pattern can you identify in the text?

How do you interpret this pattern so that your reader will understand the book, essay, poem, speech, etc. better? What philosophical, moral, ethical, etc. ideas is the author advocating or opposing? What are the consequences of accepting the author's argument? Explain how the apa research bibliography, work functions as a piece of rhetoric-- how does the author attempt to convince his or her reader of student essays, something? For instance, what widely held beliefs do they use to support their argument? How do they appeal to bibliography emotions, logic… Re-examine something that the text or most readers take for essays granted (that Thoreau’s book Walden represents his attempt to escape from paper society). Question this major premise and see where it takes you.

Ask yourself if an author’s literary argument is inconsistent with itself or is in essay success be disastrous some way philosophically dangerous, inadequate, unethical, or misleading. Examine how characters are presented in a story. Paper Bibliography? How do they help the main character to develop? Which characters are trustworthy? Which are not?

Why are they presented this way? What counts as evidence: Structure : How the parts of the book or essay follow one another; how the parts are assembled to make a whole? Why does the author start where they start, end where they end? What is the logical progression of thought? How might that progression be intended to affect the reader What effect might this progression of essays, ideas have on a generic reader or on a reader from the time period in which the work was written? Does the piece move from the apa research, general to the specific or vice versa? If you could divide the essay be disastrous, book/essay into sections, units of meaning, what would those sections be? How are they related to apa research bibliography each other? Note that chapters, while they form obvious sections can themselves be grouped.

Referring to what to write in an when a resume the text : In writing analytic papers that address any kind of literature, it is necessary to refer to the text (the specific words on apa research paper, the page of the book) in on can be disastrous order to support your argument. This means that you must quote and interpret passages that demonstrate or support your argument. Quotation is usually stronger than paraphrase. Remember also that your purpose in writing an essay is not merely to paraphrase or summarize (repeat) what the paper bibliography, author has said, but to make an argument about how the make their point, or how they have said what they have said. Language : includes the essay miake, way an author phrases his or her sentences, the key metaphors used (it’s up to you to paper explain how these metaphors are used, why these metaphors are appropriate, effective, ineffective, or ambiguous). Is the way a sentence is phrased particularly revealing of the author’s meaning?

Practical Essay-writing Hints: Please title your paper and make the title apt and enticing--I LOVE a good title. It puts me in a good mood before I start reading. Be clear about whether you’re writing about a book, an essay (non-fiction, short prose), a story (short fiction) a poem, a novel (book-length fiction), an autobiography, a narrative (as in Captivity Narratives) etc. Short Essay? Walden is a book comprised of chapters. Each of bibliography, these chapters could also be called an short on pollution, essay. Within these essays, Thoreau sometimes tells stories. The book itself is not a story, but closer to apa research a narrative, which is vs city life non-fiction. Always go through at least two drafts of you paper . Let your paper sit, preferably for 24 hours between drafts sometime during the process of your writing. Eliminate first person pronoun (I) in apa research bibliography your final draft (it’s OK for essay rough drafts and may help you write).

If your paragraphs are more a full page or more in length it is more than likely that they are tooooooo long . Probably you have too many ideas in the air at once. Consider breaking the paragraph in half--into two smaller, but related arguments. Your reader needs a break, needs more structure in order to be able to follow your meaning. If several of your paragraphs are exceedingly short (4-5 lines), it is paper bibliography likely that you are not developing your ideas thoroughly enough--that you are writing notes rather than analysis. Short paragraphs are usually used as transitional paragraphs, not as content paragraphs. (Short paragraphs can be used in the rhetorical devise of reversal where you lead your reader down a certain path (to show them one side of the argument, the one you are going to oppose) and then turn away from that argument to state the true argument of your paper.) Employ quotation often. One quotation per argumentative paragraph is usually necessary. Depending upon the length and complexity of the passage or topic you're dealing with, more quotations may be useful to prevent you from getting too far away from the text. Your quotations combined with your interpretations are your proof. Be sure that you show your reader how they should interpret these quotations in order to follow your argument. (Almost every quotation should be followed by an interpretation, a deeper reading of what is being said and how its being said. Student Essays On Haiti? This interpretation demonstrates how the quotation supports the claim you're making about it). Pay attention to apa research paper metaphor, phrasing, tone, alliteration, etc.

How is the author saying what they are saying--what does that teach us about the text? Remember to write directive (sometimes called topic) sentences for your paragraphs . The first sentence of any paragraph should give your reader an idea of what the essay miake, paragraph is going to say and how the paragraph will connect to the larger argument. Apa Research? It should have more to do with what you have to on can say about the paper bibliography, materials than what the author him or herself has said. Transitions between paragraphs : try to get away from using The next, First of all Another thing. to connect your paragraphs. This is the list method of structuring a paper--not an integrated, logical approach. Essay Miake? A really strong transition makes the logical connection between paragraphs or sections of a paper and gives the reader a sense that you’re building an argument.

To make sure you are making a well-connected argument, ask yourself how the last sentence of paper, each paragraph and the first sentence of the next are connected. Each of the sentences within your paragraphs should be related somehow (follow from, refer to, etc.) the one that precedes it, and the one which follows it. This will help the reader follow the success, flow of bibliography, your ideas. Simple Short Essay? The order of your paragraphs should reveal a developing argument. On the paper bibliography, most basic level, you should be able to consciously justify the presence and placement of essay miake, every word in every sentence, every sentence in apa research bibliography every paragraph, every paragraph in every essay . To repeat: in vs city life revising your papers after the first draft (which is bibliography always, inevitably to life essay some degree confused because you are involved in paper the process of working your ideas out), you should be highly conscious of what you are doing and countryside life why you are doing it.

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Ethological Attachment Theory: A Great Idea in Personality? This paper critically reviews the ethological attachment theory as proposed by Bowlby and apa research paper Ainsworth in on pollution, order to examine if attachment theory is a great idea in personality. The most important aspects of attachment theory are presented and paper two critical questions are posed. The first question is, Can attachment theory be supported by empirical evidence? To answer this question, a variety of studies will be reviewed, each of which examines a specific aspect of on yourself attachment theory. The second question is whether the phenomena explained by creators and proponents of apa research paper ethological attachment theory could have been explained differently, using other psychological mechanisms. Simple Short Essay On Pollution! These are two criteria that must be met if attachment theory is to be considered a great idea. Attachment is the strong emotional bond that develops between infant and caregiver, providing the infant with emotional security. By the apa research paper bibliography, second half of the first year, infants have become attached to familiar people who have responded to their need for physical care and stimulation. How this attachment develops has been a topic of intense theoretical debate.

Theories that attempt to explain attachment are abundant but scientifically verifiable explanations have been elusive. How does attachment develop and which factors affect it? Is attachment security a stable factor? How is attachment security measured? These are all questions of great theoretical and practical interest that can be answered from diverse perspectives. One group of clinicians and researchers, known as attachment theorists, claims that they have found some answers and are close to finding others. But although they have impressed many of letter their colleagues, and bibliography changed some of our most basic opinions about early child development, their accomplishments have often been met with skepticism and opposition.

The view that is widely accepted today is the ethological theory of attachment. According to Bowlby, the infant's relationship to on haiti, the parent begins as a set of innate signals that call the adult to the baby's side. As time passes, a true affectionate bond develops, which is paper bibliography supported by new cognitive and emotional capacities as well as a history of consistent, sensitive, responsive care by student essays on haiti the parent. Out of this experience, children form an enduring affectional bond with their caregivers that enables them to use this attachment figure as a secure base across time and distance. The inner representation of apa research bibliography this parent-child bond becomes an important part of personality. It serves as an internal working model, or set of expectations about the availability of attachment figures, the likelihood of scholarship on yourself receiving support from them during times of stress, and apa research paper the interaction with those figures.

This image becomes the basis for all future close relationships during infancy, childhood, adolescence, and scholarship essays adult life. In addition to critically examining the evidence brought forward by ethological attachment theorists we should investigate if attachment can be explained through other mechanisms. Maybe it is not just the caregiving style that affects attachment security. Maybe it is not the early experience or environment that matters at all. We need to look at the possibility that attachment security is influenced biologically in correlation with temperament.

If this were to be found true, the paper, basis of attachment theory could be challenged. The question is this: Can attachment theory withstand the challenge? Although the results of this study seem to on haiti, indicate that feeding is not the most important factor that ties an infant to a caregiver, we cannot say anything definitive about attachment in humans based on apa research paper bibliography this study. Because it would be unethical to conduct a similar experiment with human babies, it is impossible to predict the outcome with certainty. Essay Miake! However, observations of human infants reveal that they can become attached to bibliography, family members who seldom if ever feed them, including fathers, siblings and grandparents (Shaffer Emerson, 1964). In addition, a study was done that offered an interesting similarity to life essay, Harlow's, which showed that toddlers, usually in the Western world, who sleep alone and experience frequent daytime separations from their parents, sometimes develop a strong emotional tie to a soft, cuddly toy or blanket.

These objects of attachment are effective sources of apa research security that seem to substitute for scholarship on yourself special people when such people are not available (Passman, 1987), yet such objects have never played an important role in feeding. Another behaviorist explanation of apa research attachment is a model based on vs city life essay Skinner's principle of apa research paper bibliography operant conditioning. Skinner rejected Hull's idea that primary drive reduction is the only way to get children to when sending a resume, learn. According to Skinner, a child's behavior can be increased by following the behavior with a wide variety of reinforcers besides food, such as praise or a new toy. Certain behaviors can also be decreased through punishment, such as withdrawal of apa research paper bibliography privileges, scolding, or taking away a new toy.

According to the theory of operant conditioning, which emphasizes reciprocal responsiveness between the caregiver and baby, babies are reinforced to smile and essay miake look at their mothers, because in return they receive social interaction. The greater the number of infant behaviors that have been reinforced consistently, the apa research paper, stronger the attachment relation is (Gewirtz, 1969). This explanation seems to make sense, but it has a great weakness in that it cannot explain why children exhibit attachment behaviors even though their caregivers may seriously mistreat them. This phenomenon has been supported by animal studies, which showed that babies who were treated violently by their mothers continued to seek physical contact (Seay, Alexander, Harlow, 1964). Essay Miake! It is a well-known fact that children who are regularly abused often continue to make similar attempts to approach their abusive parents. Another critique of the behaviorist model of conditioning is that, according to this principle, the behavior should be extinguished if the stimulus stops occurring. Bibliography! We know this does not hold true. To Write Email When And Cover Letter! Even if you do not see the people you are attached to, you will most likely continue to have a desire to see them, and apa research paper will seek closeness with them. It seems that even though ongoing 'reinforcement' is non-existent, once attachment is student essays on haiti formed, it persists. It is clear that behavioral mechanisms simply cannot be used adequately to explain and apa research account for the most basic findings that support attachment theory. This question was answered by Ainsworth et al. (1978), who developed a measure to study the factors that influence attachment and its impact on later development.

The Strange Situation is the most widely used technique for measuring the quality of attachment between 1 and 2 years of essay miake age. The Strange Situation takes infants through eight short episodes during which separations from, and reunions with, the parent occur. By observing the responses of infants to these episodes, researchers have identified a secure attachment pattern and two patterns of insecure attachment (Ainsworth et al., 1978). Ainsworth noted three distinct patterns in apa research paper bibliography, the babies' reactions. One group of essay on can success infants protested and cried on separation, but when the mother returned, they greeted her with pleasure and were easy to console. She labeled this group securely attached. The second group of infants was characterized by a lack of distress during parental separation, and avoidance of the parent upon return. This group was called insecurely attached, and avoidant. The third group was labeled ambivalent or anxiously attached, and tended to be clingy from the beginning and afraid to explore the room. They became terribly anxious upon separation, yet displayed angry and apa research paper bibliography resistive behavior upon the parent's return. In designing this study, Ainsworth and her colleagues reasoned that if attachment had developed well, infants and to write in an email when and cover letter toddlers should use their parents as a secure base from which to explore their environments.

In addition, when a parent leaves the room for a brief period of time, the child should show separation anxiety, and an unfamiliar adult should be less comforting than the parent. This concept has been supported by studies that measure infants' reactions in the Strange Situation, which closely resemble their use of the parent as a secure base and their response to apa research bibliography, the separation in essay miake, the home environment (Blanchard Main, 1979). There is a variety of reasons why we should look at the results of Ainsworth et al.'s (1978) longitudinal study with caution. First of all, the sample of participants (26 infant-mother pairs) was small compared to the number of variables. A sample of 26 infants is simply too small to be divided up into 3 groups and 7 subgroups. It seems that the researchers easily could have overanalyzed trivial differences among the infants and, as a result, too many subgroups were created. In order to confirm that the 7 subgroups indeed exist, it would have been helpful if a second group of participants, possibly larger in size, had yielded the same results. This is apa research bibliography especially important because the initial measures were not derived on a priori theoretical grounds, but rather after an examination of the results.

Second of all, there was substantial opportunity for the data to be inaccurate, mainly because the observers who rated the children's behavior in the home were often inexperienced raters who were asked to make subjective evaluations of both the infant's and mother's behavior. Considering the fact that these home sessions occurred over a considerable length of time, it is easy to see how raters could have become biased in their ratings. Also, the raters used during the Strange Situation were sometimes the to write email when sending, same raters who had assessed the infants in the home setting, so one can argue that their measurements could easily be biased through their previous contact and experience, because raters already knew the child and mother, and may have had certain expectations. Considering that interrater reliability was never assessed, all results should be replicated in independent larger samples before they can be considered reliable. The most important question one should ask is if this study provides enough findings to base a theory on it. Can one base a theory on a measurement that highlights several minutes of reunion behavior in an unnatural and unfamiliar laboratory setting to reveal an apa research paper emotional history between parent and child of a whole year? In my opinion, the answer is countryside vs city no.

These findings can only obtain generalizability when replicated in independent studies in which bias is controlled and a priori predictions are tested and paper bibliography verified. Vs City Life Essay! Therefore, Ainsworth et al.'s (1978) study should be viewed as a study that generated hypotheses, not that tested them. In defense of ethological attachment theory, one must say that it has generated an incredible body of research focused on understanding the social, emotional, and interpersonal development of children. In addition, there is substantial empirical evidence that supports the apa research bibliography, existence of the short, core elements of attachment theory (Grossmann, 1985). An alternative to apa research, the Strange Situation was recently designed that could potentially increase the accuracy in determining attachment security across cultures and populations: the Attachment Q-set. An observer, the parent, or an expert informant sorts a set of what email when 90 descriptors of apa research bibliography attachment-related behaviors (such as, 'child greets mother with a big smile') into nine categories, ranging from highly descriptive to not at all descriptive of the child. The resulting profile indicates the what to write in an email sending a resume and cover, degree to which a child displays secure base behavior (Waters et al., 1995). Q-set assessments by apa research paper expert informants correspond well with the what to write in an email when letter, Strange Situation attachment classification; those by mothers do not (Van Dam Van Ijzenhoorn, 1988; Vaughn Waters, 1990). It certainly speaks well for ethological attachment theory that the classification results describing different attachment styles can be derived from more than one testing method. Apa Research! However, we should investigate if Ainsworth and Bowbly's findings can be explained from a different perspective, that of scholarship essays on yourself genetic influence. One could argue that attachment development is apa research paper bibliography not determined by the nature and quality of the infant-caregiver relationship but instead by the infant's temperament.

However, in order to critique a great theory, one should apply a reasonable approach, one that attempts to take into essay on can success be disastrous consideration a variety of mechanisms, one that is eclectic in nature. To claim that temperament is the overriding factor in apa research paper, the development of essays attachment would be a mistake. Studies have shown that most securely attached infants develop particular distinctly different attachment bonds with each parent and the infants' varied caregivers (Goossens Van Ijzendoorn, 1990). One could argue that if temperament were the overriding factor in establishing attachment quality we would expect attachment classification to apa research bibliography, be more constant across caregivers than it is. This should have led to the establishment of a similar attachment classification for all caregivers, but studies do not support this (e.g., Goossens Van Ijzendoorn, 1990). However, this is not to say that temperament has no effect on the establishment of attachment security. Given that attachment security describes the interpersonal relationship between infant and caregivers, one could easily see that personality traits and temperament play an active role in the dynamics of establishing this relationship. Attachment theorists recognize this aspect and essay miake note that it is exactly the concept of sensitive caregiving that forms an effective predictor of the quality of the attachment bond. A major reason that temperament and other child characteristics do not show strong relationships with attachment security may be that their influence depends on apa research paper bibliography goodness-of-fit. From this perspective, many attributes of children can lead to secure attachment, as long as the caregivers modify their behavior to simple essay, fit the bibliography, needs of the baby (Seifer Schiller, 1995).

But when a mother's capacity to do so is limited by her own personality or stressful conditions then infants with difficult temperament or problem behaviors are at risk for developing attachment insecurity. According to essay on can, attachment theorists, sensitive caregiving implies that regardless of the innate temperament of the infant, whether introverted or extraverted, whether shy or irritable, whether outgoing or confident, the care is adjusted to fit precisely the bibliography, need of that particular infant. It is this eclectic nature of ethological attachment theory that becomes another strength. Blanchard, M., Main, M. (1979). Avoidance of the attachment figure and essays social-emotional adjustment in day-care infants. Developmental Psychology, 15, 445-446. Bowlby, J. (1969).

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Potency of a social reinforcer as a function of satiation and recovery. Developmental Psychology, 1, 2-13. Goossens, F. A., Van Ijzendoorn, M. Sending! H. (1990). Quality of infants' attachments to professional caregivers: Relation to apa research paper bibliography, infant-parent attachment and day-care characteristics. Child Development, 61, 832-837. Harlow, H. F., Zimmerman, R. (1959). Affectional responses in success be disastrous, the infant monkey. Paper! Science, 130, 421-432. Hinde, R. A. Essays On Haiti! (1989). Ethological and paper bibliography relationship approaches.

In R. Vatsa (Ed.), Annals of child development (Vol. 6, pp. 251-285). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Kagan, J. (1989). Temperamental contributions to social behavior. American Psychologist, 44, 668-674. Kagan, J. (1989). Unstable ideas: Temperament, cognition, and essay on can success self. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Lorenz, K. Z. (1952). King Solomon's ring. Apa Research Paper Bibliography! New York: Crowell. Lutkenhaus, P., Grossmann, K. E., Grossman, K. Student On Haiti! (1985). Infant-mother attachment at twelve months and style of interaction with a stranger at the age of three years. Child Development, 56, 1538-1542. Main, M., Cassidy, J. (1988). Categories of response to reunion with the parent at apa research paper, age 6: Predictable from student essays on haiti infant attachment classifications and stable over a 1-month period. Developmental Psychology, 24, 415-426.

Owen, M. T., Easterbrooks, M. A., Chase-Lansdale, L., Goldberg, W. A. (1984). The relation between maternal employment status and the stability of attachments to mother and to father. Child Development, 55, 1894-1901. Passman, R. H. (1987). Attachments to inanimate objects: Are children who have security blankets insecure? Journal of Counseling Clinical Psychology, 55, 825-830. Plomin, R. N. L., Pederson, G. Paper! E., McClearn, J. R., Nesselroade, C. S. Bergman. (1988). EAS temperaments during the last half year of the essay miake, life span: Twins reared apart and twins raised together.

Psychology of apa research paper bibliography Aging, 4, 43-50. Posada, G., Waters, E., Crowell, J. A., Lay, K. (1995). Is it easier to use a secure mother as a secure base? Attachment Q-sort correlates of the essays, adult attachment interview. Monographs of the Society for apa research Research in Child Development, 60, 133-145. Schaffer, H. R., Emerson, P. E. (1964). The development of social attachments in student essays, infancy. Monographs for the Society for Research in Child Development, 29 (3, Serial No.

94). Sears, R.R., Maccoley, E.E., Levin, H. Bibliography! (1957). Patterns of childrearing. New York: Harper Row. Seay, B., Alexander, B. R., Harlow, H. F. (1964). Maternal behavior of socially deprived rhesus monkeys. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 69, 345-354. Seifer, R., Schiller, M., Sameroff, A. Essay On Can Success Be Disastrous! J., Resnick, S. Riordan, K. (1996). Attachment, maternal sensitivity, and infant temperament during the apa research, first year of life. Develomental Psychology, 32, 12-25.

Spitz, R. Essays! A. Apa Research! (1946). Essay On Can Be Disastrous! Anaclitic depression. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 2, 313-342. Thompson, R. A., Lamb, M. E., Estes, D. (1982). Stability of infant-mother attachment and its relationship to changing life circumstances in an unselected middle-class sample. Child Development, 53, 144-148. Van Dam, M., Van Ijzendoorn, M. Apa Research Paper Bibliography! H. What When Sending A Resume And Cover! (1988). Measuring attachment security: Concurrent and predictive validity of the Parental Attachment Q-set. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 149, 447-457.

Vaughn, B. E., Waters, E. (1990). Apa Research Paper! Attachment behavior at scholarship on yourself, home and in the laboratory: Q-sort observations and Strange Situation classifications of one-year-olds. Child Development, 61, 1965-1973. Vaughn, B. E., Stevenson-Hinde, J., Waters, E., Kotsafis, A., et al. (1992). Attachment security and temperament in infancy and early childhood: Some conceptual clarifications. Developmental Psychology, 28, 463-473. Wartner, U. G., Grossmann, K., Fremmer-Bombik, E., Suess, G. (1994).

Attachment patterns at age six in south Germany: Predictability from paper bibliography infancy and implications for preschool behavior. Child Development, 65, 1014-1027.