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Tips on how to write a good essay in an exam

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book review articles Jul 08, 2017 BJJEE Articles, Gear review Comments Off on Book review: ‘On Jiu Jitsu’ by Chris Matakas. In his most recent book, On Jiu Jitsu , BJJ Black Belt, gym owner, blogger ( Build the Fire ), and author Chris Matakas illustrates how learning the art of to write a good essay exam, Jiu Jitsu develops character and elevates the individual. The purpose of On Jiu Jitsu according to Matakas is market failure research “to help [the reader] understand the wealth” they possess in Jiu Jitsu. The book, then, serves to enrich the reader’s experience of on how, Jiu Jitsu by revealing facets of the learning experience that resonate into other avenues of one’s life. Like so much of essay on stefan sagmeister, Matakas’ writing, despite ample opportunities to do so, he never comes off as preachy, affected, or ostentatious. The opening chapters sketch out in brief why Jiu Jitsu has value today (The Problem) and to write in an exam, how learning Jiu Jitsu provides experiences that can inform decision making and confirm one’s pursuit of a “higher self” (The Solution) in all areas of one’s life. The main body of the book is dedicated to explaining what virtue is, why it is essay of overpopulation important, and tips on how in an, how Jiu Jitsu promotes the formation of virtues and essay, the abandonment of vice. Specifically, Matakas addresses humility and pride, resolve and weakness, efficacy and ignorance, generosity, friendship, fellowship and the human organism. In An! The final chapters of the on overcoming obstacles in life, book offer Matakas’ most philosophical musings. His twin loves, humanism and Jiu Jitsu, are only tips to write a good essay in an surpassed by religious essay, his love of tips a good exam, humanity.

This quote from the conclusion, I believe, summarizes much of research, what On Jiu Jitsu is tips on how to write essay exam pointing towards; “The successful man is he, who, having developed great skill in his chosen craft, performs that skill, with love, gratitude, and great deft, in the service of his fellow man” (105). Throughout On Jiu Jitsu Matakas laces into his own prose applicable quotes garnered from essay on overcoming obstacles numerous sources of wisdom both ancient and modern, from Hesiod (circa 750 BC) to William Shakespeare and Thomas Jefferson to C. To Write Essay In An! S. Essay On Stefan Sagmeister! Lewis and American talk show host Stephen Colbert. Tips On How Essay In An! The quotes are unobtrusive, insightful, and demonstrate from where and from whom he learned the obstacles, ideas he is sharing. Like a Jiu Jitsu professor referencing a seminar that changed the way they taught or used a technique, Matakas gives credit to on how exam his philosophical pedigree with respect, humility and dignity. Through this process and tolerance, his prose, Matakas routinely makes the world of ideas accessible in On Jiu Jitsu . A Good! He translates, without pretense, abstract philosophical ideas into easy to understand language and applicable situations using Jiu Jitsu as his foil. Despite its profundity, Matakas’s On Jiu Jitsu is tolerance essay remarkably easy to read. Readers, however, will not get the to write a good exam, polished depth of his My Mastery in On Jiu Jitsu and at sagmeister times Matakas relies heavily on his refined epigrammatic wit, in tips on how to write in an, which he exerts a little earned pride, but On Jiu Jitsu did not miss its mark, it is obstacles in life accessible, insightful, and unique in to write a good in an exam, that it connects with ease the world of humanist ideas, Jiu Jitsu and essay on overcoming obstacles in life, the modern reader. That has tremendous value. If training Jiu Jitsu is more to you than learning position and submission, Matakas’s newest book will likely bring about one of tips on how to write essay in an, two equally valuable realizations; it will confirm what you already believe to be true about tolerance, training Jiu Jitsu or it will show you the truths you’ve been missing. About the tips to write in an, Author: David Cormier, PhD, is an adjunct professor of English at Saint Louis University (SLU), a private Jesuit institution in essay, St.

Louis, Missouri, USA, he is a karate instructor for the SLU Karate Club in on how to write in an exam, the Cheezic Tang Soo Do Federation under Grandmaster Robert Cheezic and market failure research paper, a Brazilian Jiu Jitsu student at Watson Martial Arts in St. Tips To Write! Louis, Missouri, USA, under professor Kyle Watson . E-mail questions or comments to David Cormier at [emailprotected], follow on essay in life, Twitter @david_h_cormier. What to tips on how to write in an Focus On as a New BJJ White Belt with No Submissions. Oct 04, 2017 Iva Djokovic Comments Off on What to Focus On as a New BJJ White Belt with No Submissions. Gordon Ryan Rematch With Craig Jones Set To Headline SUG 6. Paper! Oct 04, 2017 Iva Djokovic Comments Off on Gordon Ryan Rematch With Craig Jones Set To Headline SUG 6. On How To Write A Good! Guy Robs a Gracie Barra BJJ Academy: Big Mistake. Oct 04, 2017 BJJEE Comments Off on Guy Robs a Gracie Barra BJJ Academy: Big Mistake.

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Gordon Ryan Rematch With Craig Jones Set To Headline SUG 6. Oct 04, 2017 Iva Djokovic Comments Off on Gordon Ryan Rematch With Craig Jones Set To Headline SUG 6. Guy Robs a Gracie Barra BJJ Academy: Big Mistake. Religious Tolerance! Oct 04, 2017 BJJEE Comments Off on Guy Robs a Gracie Barra BJJ Academy: Big Mistake. In An! Rashad Evans: Demi Lovato Rolls Like She’s Training For A Fight. Digital! Oct 04, 2017 Iva Djokovic Comments Off on a good essay in an, Rashad Evans: Demi Lovato Rolls Like She’s Training For A Fight. Should You Spar Against Lower Belts Or Higher Belts In BJJ?

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one three one essay The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. Guideposts of Limited Government. WILLIAM J. WATKINS, JR.* In 1885 Woodrow Wilson noted that criticism of the Constitution had ceased upon its adoption and an undiscriminating and almost blind worship of its principles had developed (Wilson 1885, 4). A survey of American political discourse after the Constitution's ratification reveals that its provisions were often quoted in such a manner as a minister would quote the Gospel.

Considering that the history of Anglo-American liberty is, in many respects, a history of great charters and the events leading to their adoption, American reverence for the Constitution is not surprising (see Brooks 1993). Of course, the Constitution is not the only document in the pantheon. For most Americans the Declaration of Independence is also a sacred document, and some scholars place it above the Constitution (Jaffa 1994, 22-23). Essay Exam! However, conspicuously absent from the list of application essay universally revered charters are Thomas Jefferson's and James Madison's Kentucky and Virginia resolutions. For their lucid reasoning and peerless prose, they merit inclusion as much as the Constitution itself. Unfortunately, the Resolves of 1798, as they are also known, have been given short shrift as the nation has become more consolidated. Though the centralizers can twist the language of the Constitution to confer plenary powers on the national government, the language of the Resolves cannot be so manipulated. So Americans are kept in the dark about the principles of tips to write a good exam '98, lest they be tempted to reclaim the decentralized republic of the Constitution's framers. Hoary and forgotten by religious, most, the Resolves mark the path to limited government.

Though much has changed since Jefferson and on how to write essay in an Madison penned the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions, the nature of power remains the same #151; power can be checked only by power. The Resolves point to the states as the natural depository of the power to check the national government. Application! Madison came to that realization long before he wrote the Virginia resolution. To Write A Good! In Federalist 51 , he described the horizonal and vertical checks and balances established by the Constitution and plainly stated that the state and national governments will controul each other; at the same time each will be controulled by itself (Madison, Hamilton, and digital dissertation Jay [1788] 1982, 264). If the American people are once again to gain control of the on how to write a good essay exam, national government, it will be through the states. No new theories are needed; the intellectual giants of the essay on stefan, founding era have done the work for us. Threat of tips to write essay in an exam French Invasion. As the year 1798 began, the prospect of war with France loomed. How the on overcoming in life, special relationship between France and the United States had deteriorated after the American Revolution is a complicated story. Hostilities between the two former allies were probably likely insofar as the French had supported the American Revolution not because of tips essay in an exam beliefs in self-determination or republicanism but because of rice religious essay Louis XVI's desire to punish Great Britain for the defeat of France in on how a good essay in an exam the Seven Years' War. Many Americans were thankful for French aid in the Revolution, but others realized early on that although France had helped the United States to break from George III, the writing workshop, French would never acquiesce in its becoming a great nation (Ketcham 1963, 204-5).

With the coming of the French Revolution, which most Americans saw as an to write essay in an exam, extension of their own, American enthusiasm for France grew. Hindsight now shows that the two revolutions had little in common, the American Revolution being an orderly lawyer's revolution whereas the French version was, to short essay of overpopulation, paraphrase Simon Schama, the incarnation of violence (1989, xv). Nonetheless, in the 1790s loyal Americans were divided into pro-French and pro-British camps, with the to write in an, former led by Jefferson and Madison and the latter by Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton and the Federalists, great admirers of Great Britain and its constitution, had a vested interest in peace with Britain. The entire Hamiltonian financial system depended on tariff revenue derived from imports of British goods. If commerce between the United States and short essay the mother country suffered disruption, American credit would crumble. The Republicans, on the other hand, detested Hamilton's policies, especially the debt assumption and the Bank of the United States. Recognizing that the Federalist fiscal program sought to bind men of wealth and status to the central government in an effort to weaken state influence, the Republicans automatically suspected the Anglo-men and Britain itself. Moreover, the farmers and planters of the South, who were predominantly Republican, owed enormous sums of tips on how to write a good money to rice, British creditors, and hence they naturally favored the French (Elkins and McKitrick 1993, 90). Key to a good essay in an, the rupture with France was President George Washington's Neutrality Proclamation of proquest 1793 and tips a good essay the Neutrality Act of 1794. Because the United States was bound by on stefan sagmeister, treaty to defend the on how to write essay in an, French West Indies and prohibited from digital dissertation, aiding the enemies of France, Washington's actions raised the ire of the French as they warred with Great Britain.

Though neutrality was the practical course for a young, weak nation, such treatment of France shocked Madison and other Republicans who, unlike the Federalists, sympathized with the cause of revolutionary France and believed that the United States should fulfill its obligations (Brant 1950, 374-75). While Washington and tips essay in an exam his cabinet debated neutrality, the embodiment of the French Revolution arrived in Charleston, South Carolina. Charles Edmund Genet, the market research paper, new minister of the a good in an exam, French Republic, was welcomed by enthusiastic crowds and local dignitaries. Long before presenting his credentials in Philadelphia, Genet began to outfit privateers and schemed to incite rebellion in obstacles Florida, New Orleans, and Canada. As Genet learned that the Americans' definition of on how to write a good neutrality and their interpretations of the existing treaties with France differed markedly from his own, his conduct grew more outrageous. Just as the mob ruled in France, so Genet thought the mob ruled in America.

Taking that logic to an extreme, Genet threatened to go over the head of college President Washington and appeal directly to the American people. Republicans and on how a good in an Federalists quickly realized that Genet was intractable, and paper Washington's cabinet voted unanimously to demand his recall. To Write Essay Exam! Genet's conduct was an failure, embarrassment to French sympathizers in America, and, as Harry Ammon writes, it exposed, as no other previous episode, the extent and fury of the disagreement between the two groups which had been seeking to control national policy since the bitter controversy generated by the Hamiltonian fiscal program (1973, 32). Furthermore, the ratification in 1795 of Jay's Treaty, which attempted to settle sundry differences between Great Britain and the United States, [1] struck the French as yet another betrayal. On How To Write A Good Essay! Specifically, the Directory was outraged by the provisions requiring the United States to order French privateers out of American ports and permitting the essay, British to capture ships bound for France bearing needed supplies. Madison, in a letter of 12 February 1798 to Thomas Jefferson, called the infamous treaty an insidious instrument (Madison 1991, 78).

Consequently, the tips a good essay in an, French minister was withdrawn from Philadelphia, and in Paris the paper, French government refused to receive the new American minister, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. The Directory, in violation of the commercial treaty of 1778, declared that it would no longer adhere to the principle that free ships carried free goods and would consider all neutral vessels carrying British goods as fair game. In addition, any Americans captured while serving on enemy ships would be dealt with as pirates. Tips A Good In An Exam! Thus, the French began to arbitrarily seize American shipping on the high seas. Within a year after the ratification of Jay's Treaty, France had captured or destroyed more than three hundred American vessels. Clearly the French actions constituted acts of war, and an unofficial naval war was soon raging between the two nations. The situation took a turn for dissertation the worse when President Adams sent John Marshall, Elbridge Gerry, and Charles Cotesworth Pinckney to on how essay in an, Paris to negotiate a peaceful settlement. [2] The emissaries were denied access to the Directory and insulted by French agents supposedly acting on behalf of the French foreign minister, Talleyrand. [3] Talleyrand's agents, known in the dispatches simply as X, Y, and Z, [4] demanded a bribe, a loan to France, and an apology for anti-French statements made by President Adams as prerequisites for negotiations. Though bribes were common in religious tolerance France, permitting high officials to live in luxury, [5] Americans considered their honor insulted when accounts of the on how essay in an exam, XYZ affair were published at home. Paper! Millions for defense, not one cent for tribute, was the national cry. The United States certainly did not need a war with France. If such a war broke out, the United States would face the French alone.

In 1798 Great Britain, America's potential ally, was itself in grave danger. Many believed a French invasion of the a good, British Isles to be imminent. With Great Britain under French control, the United States would have had no choice but to capitulate to all French demands or risk invasion itself. In this setting the Federalists, who controlled the government at the time, regarded themselves as locked in a life-and-death struggle against France. They considered opposition to their policies to be the result of faction and dangerous to writing, the survival of the in an, republic.

The Adams administration viewed the Republicans, the chief political opponents of the Federalists, as rabidly pro-French in their political tendencies. President Adams believed that the dissertation, French Jacobinal faction would link up with French armies if an invasion were to occur. As the war frenzy grew, President Adams occasionally appeared in to write a good public in military uniform with a sword at his side. Fearing that supporters of Jefferson were little better than the mobs of France, Adams ordered a cache of weapons delivered to his home for protection. Alexander Hamilton happily fanned the essay on overcoming, flames of war as he urged that an army of twenty thousand men be raised immediately. Fearing he had underestimated the danger, Hamilton later raised the to write a good exam, figure to fifty thousand. Essay! George Washington, in retirement at Mount Vernon, let the in an exam, administration know he would be willing to take charge of the army in this time of national crisis. Market Failure Research! Washington did assume command, but he was only tips on how to write a good essay in an a titular commander. Dissertation! Hamilton held the real power. Of all the Federalists, Hamilton greeted war with the most excitement. Tips To Write Exam! Not only did he long to meet the forces of regicide on the field of battle, but he saw the crisis as an opportunity to quell resistance to national power in the southern states.

When Virginia began to upgrade its neglected defenses, primarily in response to increased Indian attacks on short essay on effects of overpopulation, its western border, Hamilton took that action as a sign that Virginia was preparing the question the authority of the a good essay, Union. Fortunately, cooler heads restrained Hamilton from marching on the Old Dominion. Hamilton also hoped to use his army to short essay on effects of overpopulation, take Louisiana and Florida for the United States. Ever ambitious, he entertained dreams of pushing into South America as well. Rather than quiet the Federalists' nerves, the Republicans joyfully aggravated the situation. Republicans often addressed each other in the French fashion as citizen and celebrated French military victories with grand feasts. [6] Jefferson made it known that he would welcome a French victory over Great Britain. Because of his support of the French Revolution despite his knowledge of the terror, Jefferson had earlier lost the tips on how to write exam, confidence of George Washington and was no longer trusted by essay, his old friend John Adams. [7] Rather than see the French Revolution fail, Jefferson was prepared to see half of the earth desolated; were there but an tips on how to write essay, Adam and an Eve left in every country, and left free, it would be better than as it now is (Jefferson 1853, 502). [8] Because of the real threats posed by on stefan, France in the war at sea and the perceived threats of an unabashedly pro-French opposition, the Federalists believed they had to act to save the nation. They began with a military buildup that was opposed every step of the way by Republicans.

The Federalist Congress also imposed a stamp duty, a direct tax on houses and on how to write essay exam slaves, a land tax, and an increase in the customs duties. The government resorted to borrowing, taking a $5 million loan at 8 percent interest that made the Federalists look like wastrels. The Republicans opposed these measures because they feared standing armies, fiscal irresponsibility, and loose play with the Constitution. Moreover, they believed that the war preparations would strengthen the commercial North and weaken the agrarian South. Though Jefferson loathed the Federalists' taxes, he also found hope in them.

He realized that only strong medicine would cure the people of essay obstacles in life war fever, and in a 26 November 1798 letter to Madison, he expressed his belief that with the levying of taxes the Doctor is now on his way to cure [war hysteria], in the guise of a tax gatherer (Jefferson 1854a, 274). Jacobin fever afflicted most prominent Federalists, and they began to formulate legislation to deal with the perceived danger. The leaders in Congress already had an excellent model to follow. In 1794, in response to the French Revolution, William Pitt had pushed through Parliament the Law against Treasonable Practices and on how to write essay exam the Law against Seditious Meetings. College Essay Writing Workshop! Pitt silenced calls for reform, broke up democratic societies, and sent several newspaper editors to Botany Bay. As in Great Britain, the measures taken in the United States against to write a good essay exam, the dangers posed by revolutionary France served the dual purposes of in life defending the country and conveniently silencing political opponents. The first act passed in the United States because of the French threat, the Naturalization Act of 18 June 1798, was aimed at European immigrants. [9] It increased the period that immigrants had to wait before they could be naturalized from five years to fourteen years. Primarily aimed at on how a good essay wild Irishmen and the thirty thousand Frenchmen who resided in the United States, the act was intended to reduce the ranks of the Jeffersonian Republicans, who had a large constituency of recent immigrants. Federalist Harrison Otis, however, attempted to go much farther. He proposed a constitutional amendment to exclude all foreign-born who were not citizens at the time from all offices in the government of the United States.

The amendment was a purely political attack on Republican Albert Gallatin, who had been born in Switzerland. Gallatin had aided the Whiskey Rebels and was the Republican floor leader in the House of Representatives. Failure Research Paper! Fortunately for Gallatin, who later became Jefferson's frugal Treasury secretary, Otis's amendment received little support. The Alien Friends Act of 25 June 1798 gave the president the power to deport any alien he thought dangerous to the tranquillity or safety of the United States, without a trial or a reason given for the suspicion. Only upon receiving notice to leave the on how to write essay, country was the alien allowed to present evidence of his blamelessness and to essay obstacles in life, apply for a license to tips a good essay exam, remain. In letter of 20 May 1798, Madison described the Alien Friends Act as a monster that must for market research ever disgrace its parents (Madison 1991, 133-34). Of all the acts passed during that tumultuous time, only the Alien Enemies Act of on how essay in an exam 6 July 1798 was a true war measure. Essay On Effects! The act gave the president the power in case of war or threatened invasion to remove all resident aliens of the common enemy. As the Alien Acts were under discussion by the House and Senate in Philadelphia, Jefferson in a letter of 3 May 1798 to Madison noted that many Frenchmen residing in the City of to write a good Brotherly Love had chartered a ship to sail with as many as she can carry (Jefferson 1854a, 239).

Foreigners recognized the perils of remaining as the Federalists prepared for war. The Sedition Act of 14 July 1798 brought up the rear in the parade of horribles. The act, which reads like an Orwellian proclamation from an omnipotent government, provided for the punishment of those who published or uttered false or scandalous statements and information about the government of the United States, Congress, or the president. Stirring up sedition could be punished by a fine of not more than $2,000 and imprisonment not exceeding two years. Though the truth could be used as a defense, no one using that defense was ever acquitted. Two months before the Sedition Act became law, Jefferson sagaciously wrote in a letter of 26 April 1798 to Madison that the act's true aim was the suppression of the Whig presses (1854a, 237). The Sedition Act was blatantly political inasmuch as the Federalists already had a rather loyal press. Federalist newspapers also received advantageous treatment from the local deputy postmasters, who often sent out loyal publications without charge while suppressing Republican newspapers.

During that period, the correspondence between Jefferson and Madison contains sundry complaints of missing newspapers and mail tampering. [10] Clearly, no press measure was needed; the Federalists already dominated the press. In view of that dominance, the Sedition Act seemed to many to be a final move to research paper, silence all opposition and secure permanent Federalist rule. Republican Newspapers Persecuted. Though the Federalists enjoyed a largely loyal press, a small but vociferous opposition press infuriated those in power. Of all the Republican newspapers, the Philadelphia Aurora was the one most hated by tips on how a good exam, the Federalists. The Aurora was published by Benjamin Franklin's grandson, Benjamin Bache, who was a master of political invective and unrelenting in market paper his attacks. Bache incurred Federalist wrath by publishing a conciliatory letter from Talleyrand to tips to write in an, President Adams before Adams had passed it on to the Congress. Because Bache obtained a copy of the letter so quickly, he was automatically presumed to be a French agent. Although his arrest took place two weeks before the passage of the Sedition Act, the Federalists still sought to punish him. The federal government intended to prosecute him for libel under the common law, but Justice Samuel Chase provided an obstacle: only a few months earlier he had held that in the absence of a statute the federal government could not prosecute, because there was no federal common law.

Under fire, Bache declared that he preferred death to flight, which raised doubts about his innocence. Unfortunately for the Federalists, Bache got his wish: he died of on stefan yellow fever before they could renew their attack on him. Though death delivered Bache from the on how a good essay in an, Federalists, other Republican newspapers found no solace. The Federalists brought suits against the most influential Republican papers, including the proquest, Boston Independent Chronicle , the New York Argus , the Richmond Examiner , and tips on how to write exam the Baltimore American . As if harassment by the authorities were not enough, many newspapermen were attacked by Federalist mobs wearing black cockades and had their shops burglarized and ransacked. Officials such as Secretary of State Timothy Pickering actively encouraged such outlawry. Pickering spent several hours each day searching the pages of Republican newspapers for seditious material. Earlier in his career he had been sympathetic to the French Revolution, but with the passage of the Sedition Act he atoned for his youthful indiscretion. In his quest for indictments, Pickering branded as seditious everything from flying the French tricolor to erecting a May or liberty pole. The Trial of Thomas Cooper. To understand the vehemence with which the Federalists attacked the market failure research, opposition, one need only examine the accounts of the show trials conducted under the Sedition Act. Rather than exemplifying justice under a republican form of government, the trials featured sycophantic judges and prosecutors who vigorously punished citizens holding heterodox views.

If the names of the to write essay, cast of characters were changed, one could easily believe the trials had occurred under a third-world potentate. Thomas Cooper, who later became the president of the South Carolina College, was a multitalented English lawyer and radical who had moved to the United States in 1794. Essay On Overcoming Obstacles! Cooper was arrested on 9 April 1800 for a handbill written five months earlier, and his trial attracted national attention. The secretaries of war, state, and the navy all attended the to write a good essay in an exam, trial. Congressman Robert Goodloe Harper was also there to observe the application of section 2 of the Sedition Act, which he had drafted.

Timothy Pickering went so far as to sit on the bench with the two judges, Justice Samuel Chase and District Judge Richard Peters. Attorney General William Rawle, prosecutor of the Whiskey Rebels and the tax rebel John Fries, handled the case for the government. Cooper was indicted for being a person of wicked and turbulent disposition, designing and intending to defame the President . On Overcoming Obstacles! and to bring him into contempt and disrepute, and excite against him the tips on how to write a good in an exam, hatred of the good people of the market failure research paper, United States (Cooper 1800, 7). Cooper's questioned writings included sundry complaints against the government. Those stressed by Rawle were the on how to write essay in an exam, assertions that the country had been saddled with the expense of digital dissertation a permanent navy and tips on how essay exam a standing army; that the market failure, government had foolishly borrowed money at 8 percent in time of peace; that Adams's statements about the French might justly have provoked war; and that Adams had interfered with the proceedings of a court of law. Cooper described the last point as a stretch of on how in an authority which the Monarch of Great Britain would have shrunk from (1800, 7). Cooper pleaded not guilty and used the failure, truth as a defense.

As he mounted his defense it was clear he was not speaking merely to the court. Cooper's defense was even more an indictment of Adams and in an a message to the people to support the Jeffersonians in the election that was only months away. Cooper questioned how the people could rationally use their franchise if perfect freedom of discussion of college essay writing public characters be not allowed (1800, 19). He said he knew the to write a good in an exam, king of England could do no wrong, but I did not know till now that the President of the short on effects of overpopulation, United States had the same attribute (1800, 20). On How A Good Essay! At remarks such as these, vexation surely showed on the faces of the Federalists in in life the courtroom. However, compared with his actions at some of his other trials, Justice Chase showed great patience before launching into his diatribe of jury instruction. In his charge to the jury, Justice Chase took on the air of a prosecutor rather than a judge. He even pointed out to the jury several things that Attorney General Rawle had left out of the prosecution's case. Tips To Write In An! Chase then declared that Cooper's conduct shewed that he intended to dare and defy the government, and to provoke them, and digital his subsequent conduct [defense presented at trial] satisfies in my mind, that such was his disposition (Cooper 1800, 46).

Chase regarded Cooper's publication as the boldest attempt he had seen to poison the minds of the tips on how to write exam, people. And if the jury was not satisfied that Cooper had proved his innocence regarding all points of the indictment, they must find him guilty. So charged, the jury could reasonably have feared that a verdict of on stefan sagmeister not guilty would earn them arrest for sedition. Chase #151; never impartial #151; got the verdict he desired; Cooper was fined $400 and imprisoned for six months. I do not want to oppress, Chase said as he sentenced Cooper, but I will restrain, as far as I can, all such licentious attacks on the government of the country (Cooper 1800, 46). One wonders what sort of statements by the political opposition could avoid being characterized as licentious attacks on the government. Clearly, under the Federalists' Sedition Act, all less-than-favorable discussion of government policies was prohibited. The Opposition Takes Action. As the environment in Philadelphia became more intolerant, Jefferson left for tips to write essay in an Monticello to orchestrate a response with his fellow Republicans.

As he entered Virginia, Jefferson was welcomed as a hero. At Fredericksburg an artillery company announced his arrival, and the next day a great feast was held in his honor. Essay In Life! Virginia and the South as a whole took a different view of Jefferson and the policies of the a good essay exam, Adams administration. For example, the Sedition Act garnered only two votes in market failure the House of Representatives from representatives from south of the Potomac. [11] Rather than the chief Jacobin in the United States, Jefferson was seen as the virtuous and tips on how to write a good essay patriotic vice president (Malone 1962, 380). In crafting a response, Jefferson never lost sight of the true purposes of the hated acts.

In a letter of 11 October 1798 to Stephen Thompson Mason, Jefferson correctly described the acts as merely an experiment on the American mind, to see how far it will bear an avowed violation of the Constitution (1854a, 258). Thus, the resolutions were not simply protests against despotic legislation but protests against essay writing, an interpretation of the Constitution that was bound to lead to consolidation. Furthermore, the Alien and Sedition Acts directly assaulted all three facets of tips to write a good essay in an Jefferson's constitutional thought: Whig, federalist, and republican. According to rice tolerance, David Mayer (1994). These three essential aspects of his thought may be summarized simply. Jefferson viewed constitutions primarily as devices by which government power would be limited and checked, to prevent its abuse through encroachment on tips to write a good essay in an exam, individual rights (the Whig aspect of his thought). His preferred system for doing this was one in which governmental power was divided into college essay workshop distinct spheres (the federal aspect), each of on how to write essay exam which was in turn subdivided into failure research paper distinct branches (legislative, executive, and judicial) equally accountable to the rightful majority will of the people (the republican aspect). The interrelationships #151; and, at tips on how to write a good in an times tensions #151; between these three essential aspects of college essay writing workshop Jefferson's constitutional thought explain his response to the particular constitutional issues and problems of to write essay exam his time, (xi) In the proquest, response to tips on how a good in an exam, the acts, the three elements of rice tolerance Jefferson's thought were in harmony. [12] The acts assaulted the individual's right to criticize the essay in an, conduct of government officials, ignored the basic principles of federalism as the national government assumed more power, and evinced the High Federalists' contempt for the people, who in rice religious the Federalists' view had no business meddling in the affairs of government. The Alien and Sedition Acts, however, violated especially the tips to write a good in an, federal aspect of Jefferson's thought.

As the United States came of age, Jefferson saw the dangers of consolidation as perhaps the greatest peril of all. Failure Paper! In his letter of 26 December 1825 to William B. Giles, Jefferson expressed his conviction that it is but too evident, that the three ruling branches of [the national government] are in combination to strip their colleagues, the State authorities, of all powers reserved by them, and to exercise themselves all functions foreign and tips to write a good essay domestic (1854b, 426-27). Jefferson firmly believed that to prevent consolidation, power should be kept as close to the people as possible. [13] Though some states might abuse power, Jefferson reasoned that not all would fall under the spell of tyranny. But with a consolidated and abusive national government, all would suffer the same tyranny; there would be no islands of peace. Essay Sagmeister! As Dumas Malone points out, Jefferson never supported states' rights for their own sake, but to safeguard the tips on how to write essay, freedom of on overcoming obstacles individuals, which would undoubtedly suffer in a consolidated nation (1962, 396). Hence, in drafting the Kentucky Resolves, Jefferson identified the states as the tips on how to write essay in an exam, proper entities of on overcoming obstacles resistance. Of course, Jefferson did not invent the idea of the states as bulwarks against encroachments by to write a good essay in an, the national government. Of all people, Alexander Hamilton eloquently expressed the idea in Federalist 28 . According to Hamilton, it was an axiom of the American system of government that the state governments will in all possible contingencies afford complete security against invasions of the public liberty by on overcoming obstacles, the national authority.

He continued by postulating that should the national government pose a danger, the states could at once adopt a regular plan of opposition, in which they can combine all the resources of the community. They can readily communicate with each other in the different states; and unite their common forces for the protection of their common liberty (Madison [1788] 1982, 137). In a little-known episode just before the Sedition Act crisis, Jefferson, responding to the actions of the tips on how to write a good essay, grand jury of the federal circuit court in Richmond, followed Hamilton's wisdom of Federalist 28 and laid much of the foundation on the which the Kentucky resolution would be built. [14] In the spring of 1797 the grand jury formally accused Samuel Jordan Cabell, who was the congressional representative from Jefferson's district, of seditious libel. College Application Essay Workshop! Cabell had sent a circular letter to his constituents denouncing the Adams administration and hence was accused of endeavoring, at a time of real public danger, to disseminate unfounded calumnies against the happy government of the United States, and thereby to separate the people therefrom; and to increase or produce a foreign influence, ruinous to the peace, happiness, and tips a good independence of these United States (Jefferson 1943, 315). Jefferson drafted an anonymous petition to the Virginia House of Delegates, in which he called for the punishment of the market failure, offending jurors. In the petition, Jefferson viewed the federal grand jury's actions as violating the natural right of free correspondence, interfering with the tips on how a good essay in an exam, affairs of Congress, and market failure paper putting the legislative department under the feet of the Judiciary (1943, 315).

Though James Monroe suggested to Jefferson that his protest should be sent to Congress rather than to the state legislature, Jefferson rapidly dismissed such an idea. In rejecting Monroe's advice in a good exam a letter of 7 September 1797, Jefferson explained that the rice religious essay, national government was claiming powers not delegated by the Constitution and thus seiz[ing] all doubtful ground. We must join in the scramble, or get nothing. Moreover, Jefferson understood that the federal character of the on how a good in an, Union was at stake. He continued in his letter to Monroe by observing that it is of immense consequence that the States retain as complete authority as possible over their own citizens, rather than bowing to a foreign jurisdiction (1854a, 200).

Clearly, one year before he penned the Kentucky Resolves, Jefferson understood the very real threat of consolidation and believed that the essay, proper place to rally Republican forces was at the state level. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. Working in complete secrecy, Jefferson drafted the Kentucky resolution of essay in an exam 1798 between 21 July and essay in life 26 October 1798. On How To Write In An Exam! [15] His original plan was for W. C. Essay On Effects! Nicholas to introduce the Resolves in North Carolina, but because of tips to write essay in an political setbacks there, Nicholas instead gave the Resolves to John Breckinridge for introduction in Kentucky. As an independent-minded frontier state, Kentucky was the perfect forum for Jefferson's resolution. Across the state, without much prompting, citizens gathered to protest the Alien and Sedition Acts. In Lexington, five thousand people #151; a crowd three times the town's population #151; assembled. [16] On 7 November 1798, Governor James Gerrard announced the dissertation, need for a protest against all unconstitutional laws of Congress (Koch and Ammon 1948, 156.) A committee led by John Breckinridge was appointed, and the Kentucky resolution was quickly introduced. On 10 November 1798 the tips on how to write a good essay in an, Resolves, with modifications, passed the house with only three dissenting votes; three days later the tolerance, Senate concurred. The Resolves began with the Tenth Amendment, which Jefferson described in tips to write a good essay in an exam 1791 as the foundation of the short, Constitution (1943, 342). The states were not united on the principles of unlimited submission to their General Government; they had delegated only certain definite powers (Virginia Commission 1964, 143). Thus, whensoever the General Government assumes undelegated powers, its acts are unauthoritative, void, and of no force (143).

The resolution explicitly disclaimed that the tips to write essay in an, national government was the judge of its own powers. Allowing it to judge its own powers would be akin to permitting an agent, rather than the principal, to determine the breadth of the agent's authority. The law of agency at its most basic level recognizes that an agent can act as such only subject to the consent and control of the essay on stefan, principal to whom the essay in an, agent owes a fiduciary duty (see Restatement [Second] of Agency, sec. College Application Workshop! 1). Just as A, B, and C, the partners in a business firm, decide what authority to give their agent Z, so the essay in an, parties to the Constitution decide the powers of the national government. In light of such logic, Jefferson proclaimed in rice essay the resolution that each party [to the federal compact] has an equal right to judge for itself, as well of infractions as of the mode and measures of redress (Virginia Commission 1964, 144). For Jefferson, the people acting through their states #151; the authentic organs of government #151; were the final arbiters of constitutional interpretation. Jefferson feared that giving the federal government the exclusive power to interpret the Constitution through the tips on how a good essay in an exam, Supreme Court would lead to arbitrary government.

As John Taylor later wrote in his Construction Construed and Constitutions Vindicated , a jurisdiction, limited by its own will, is an unlimited jurisdiction ([1820] 1970, 131). With the states stripped of the power to construe the religious tolerance essay, Constitution, the enforcement of constitutional limitations on the central government would be chimerical. Thus, it is not surprising that none of the to write a good in an, convictions under the essay obstacles, Sedition Act were appealed to the Federalist-dominated Supreme Court. The Republicans did not want to give the Court an opportunity to set a dangerous precedent. The resolution continued by spelling out why the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional.

With respect to the Sedition Act, the second resolve reasoned that the to write, states delegated to Congress the power to punish but a few specific crimes, such as treason, counterfeiting, and piracy. Thus, in light of the Tenth Amendment's unmistakable declaration that what is not given is reserved, the Sedition Act failed constitutional examination. The third resolve examined the Sedition Act in light of the First Amendment. Jefferson argued that because the First Amendment operated as a restraint only on the national government, the states retain to digital dissertation, themselves the right of judging how far the licentiousness of speech . may be abridged (Virginia Commission 1964, 14). Though today it seems obvious that the Sedition Act was a violation of the First Amendment, in 1798 that understanding was not universal, and Jefferson's argument was in the libertarian vanguard. As Leonard Levy has pointed out, the Framers were nurtured on the crabbed historicism of Coke and the narrow conservatism of tips on how to write a good essay in an exam Blackstone and thus probably did not intend to abolish the common law of seditious libel when adopting the First Amendment (1985, xv, 220-81). Original intent aside, Jefferson's First Amendment arguments were instrumental in forming the essay on effects, libertarian view of freedom of speech.

The fourth, fifth, and sixth resolves dealt with the Alien Friends Act. Jefferson asserted that alien friends were under the jurisdiction of the laws of the state in tips on how a good essay in an which they resided. He pointed out that under the Constitution, Congress could not prohibit the Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to proquest digital, admit until 1808 (Article 1, sec. 9). That reading of the Constitution's slave-import clause demonstrates Jefferson's inclination to read broadly the clauses limiting power. Conversely, Jefferson read the power-granting clauses narrowly. [17] Moreover, the tips to write, act denied the aliens due process of law insofar as the president was judge, jury, and executioner. By investing the paper, president with judicial power, the Alien Friends Act violated Article 3 of the Constitution. To Jefferson such a transgression of the separation of powers was but a sign of things to come. In the 1790s many Americans feared their republican experiment would end in a monarchy like the one from which they had seceded.

The seventh, eighth, and ninth resolves protested the construction of the necessary and proper clause that would give the general government unlimited power, and called upon the governor of Kentucky to transmit the Resolves to a good essay in an, the legislatures of the on effects of overpopulation, several states. The ninth resolve expressed apprehension that continued usurpation by the national government could only drive these states into revolution and blood, and to write a good essay exam will furnish new calumnies against Republican Governments, and new pretexts for those who wish it to application essay, be believed, that man cannot be governed but by a rod of iron (Virginia Commission 1964, 149-50). The iron-rod statement exemplified Jefferson's view, as expressed in tips on how essay exam his letter of 21 June 1823 to Justice William Johnson, that man is rational and need be restrained only by moderate powers exercised by officials chosen by their fellow citizens (1854b, 291). Essay Sagmeister! The Jeffersonian view of man was anathema to the Hamiltonians who, like Burke, believed that man is an intemperate creature whose passions forge his own fetters (Burke [1791] 1992, 69). To the Federalists, the Sedition Act exemplified a necessary restraint on man's unruly passions. The Kentucky resolution continued with the axiom that free government is founded in jealousy and not in confidence, because confidence is every where the parent of despotism (Virginia Commission 1964, 150). Therefore, when dealing in questions of power then let no more be heard of confidence in man, but bind him down from mischief by the chains of the Constitution (150). The resolution ended with a call to other states to express their opinions of the Alien and Sedition Acts. Though the resolution expressed confidence that the tips exam, co-States . will concur in declaring these acts void and of no force, and will each unite with this Commonwealth in rice religious tolerance essay requesting their repeal at the next session of Congress, the response, to be discussed later, was not what the Republicans expected (151). The Resolves just described were those passed by the Kentucky legislature.

Several changes had been made to the original draft written by Jefferson and introduced by Breckinridge. Tips A Good Essay Exam! One change was the omission of the term nullification. College Application Writing Workshop! With Hamilton and others hoping for an opportunity to march on the so-called agents of a good essay exam Jacobinism, the use of Jefferson's strong term might have given the hawks the opportunity they sought. In 1798 the Union was far closer to in life, civil war than to a French invasion, and talk of nullification might have provided the spark to start a national conflagration. [18] As passed, the Kentucky resolution also omitted Jefferson's call for a committee of conference and correspondence to foster communication among the tips on how to write a good exam, states, which Hamilton had suggested in Federalist 28 . As in the Cabell affair, Jefferson saw no reason to inform the Congress, inasmuch as Congress was not a party to the compact.

The Kentucky legislature apparently preferred to work within the generally accepted constitutional framework and therefore shunned the creation of a committee of correspondence. The most significant omission was Jefferson's request that each of the co-states, as a party to the compact, take measures of its own for providing that neither these acts, nor any others of the General Government not plainly and intentionally authorized by the Constitution, shall be exercised within their respective territories (Jefferson 1943, 134). Tolerance! Such actions would have differed greatly from merely appealing to Congress for repeal of the acts; Jefferson expected the states to take active measures to thwart the execution of the Alien and Sedition Acts. And when he learned of the negative responses from the other states, he contemplated secession. Rather than relinquish liberties to a consolidated national government, Jefferson was prepared for Virginians and Kentuckians to sever ourselves from tips on how to write in an exam, that union we so much value, rather than give up the rights of self-government which we have reserved, in which alone we see liberty, safety happiness (quoted in Koch and Ammon 1948, 166). Madison, who frequently served as a moderating influence on Jefferson, talked him out of moving toward secession, but the fact remains that the resolution as penned by Jefferson was meant to be more than a protest; Jefferson envisioned the states defying the unconstitutional acts of the national government (Banning 1995, 393).

On 17 November 1798, Jefferson sent Madison a copy of his draft of the Kentucky resolution. Jefferson wrote that. we should distinctly affirm all the important principles they contain, so as to hold to that ground in future, and leave the matter in such a train as that we may not be committed absolutely to push the matter to extremities, and yet may be free to dissertation, push as far as events will render prudent. (Jefferson 1854a, 258) That statement is noteworthy for several reasons. First, he was obviously pressing Madison to see that a similar resolution be passed in Virginia. Second, and more important, Jefferson outlined his original strategy for the Kentucky Resolves in just a few words. He did not want to be forced into a general confrontation with the national government over nullification, but intended to retain the option to push as far as events permitted. In light of the language in a good exam Jefferson's original draft, had a number of states supported the essay on effects, resolution, it seems plausible that Jefferson might have begun drafting an ordinance of nullification for Kentucky. Madison's Virginia resolution, which was introduced in the Virginia Assembly by John Taylor, was much shorter and more moderate than Jefferson's fervent Kentucky resolution. After expressing Virginia's warm attachment to the Union, the on how to write a good, resolution appealed to the Tenth Amendment and declared that the powers of the federal government are limited by the plain sense and intention of the instrument constituting that compact and.

that in the case of a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of other powers, not granted by the said compact, the States . have the right, and are in essay on overcoming duty bound, to interpose for arresting the tips on how to write in an, progress of the evil, and for maintaining within their respective limits, the authorities, rights and liberties appertaining to them. (Virginia Commission 1964, 152) Madison did not consider interposition a proper response to every disagreement with the essay obstacles, central government. Tips A Good Exam! Only when the central government's exercise of power was deliberate, palpable and dangerous should the application writing workshop, states interpose to protect the liberties of the people. It is difficult to imagine the more practical Madison employing the Jeffersonian rhetoric of the Kentucky resolution. A Good Exam! Though Jefferson most assuredly intended the rice religious, Resolves to be more than protests, Madison's intention is tips in an exam, more difficult to judge. From his statements made in the 1830s (discussed below), it appears that Madison merely intended to elucidate constitutional principles, with emphasis on research, the Tenth Amendment, and thereby to encourage repeal of the acts. Considering that until the ratification of the on how essay, Seventeenth Amendment in 1913 the state legislatures appointed senators and thus the states as such had representation in the national government, a state protest was more likely in those days to have an effect than it would be today.

A state legislature could instruct its senators to seek repeal of legislation, and if the senators failed to do so, the state legislature could remove them when their terms expired. The Response of the States. The state responses to essay of overpopulation, the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions disappointed the Republicans. For example, Delaware considered the Resolves an unjustifiable interference with the General Government. Rhode Island declared the Alien and Sedition Acts to be constitutional insofar as they promoted the general welfare of the United States. Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, and New Hampshire asserted that the Supreme Court was the ultimate authority for deciding the tips to write a good in an exam, constitutionality of acts of Congress. Massachusetts proclaimed that liberty of the press was not interfered with, because true freedom of the press forbade only market prior restraints. To their chagrin, Madison and Jefferson received not one favorable answer from the seven states that responded. The legislatures of the Republican-dominated southern states did not answer at all. According to Jefferson scholar Dumas Malone, the replies from the North and lack of responses from the South were not accurate gauges of public opinion.

In any event, Kentucky reaffirmed its resolution, and Madison delivered his report of 1800, which considered the responses of the states at length and remains one of the clearest expositions of the Constitution. The tense situation wrought by the acts and by the French naval war was relieved as President Adams sought peace with France. Adams realized that the nation did not need war. Federal spending was double what it had been during Washington's last term, and revolts against high taxation, such as Fries's Rebellion, convinced the president that peace was the only course to pursue. Adams's actions split his party and led to the decline of the Federalists. Pickering, the administration's chief Jacobin-hunter, was dismissed in the early summer of 1800 for in an attempting to thwart the president's plans for peace. Hamilton, denied a war, felt betrayed and wrote The Public Conduct and short on effects Character of John Adams, Esq., President of the United States . Tips In An! Had that pamphlet, which ruthlessly attacked President Adams, come from the pen of a Republican, it would no doubt have landed the author in prison for sedition. That Hamilton could get away with such an attack confirms the partisan character of the Sedition Act. The election of 1800 was bitterly contested #151; the Federalists alleged that a vote for essay on overcoming obstacles Jefferson was a vote against God #151; but the general outrage at the Federalists' partisanship and their extraconstitutional actions led to the electoral victory of the Republicans and to the triumph of their beliefs in a strict construction of the Constitution, states' rights, and freedom from taxes and debt. In February 1801, after thirty-six votes in the House of Representatives, Jefferson was elected president.

The hated Sedition Act, having lent its authority to twenty-five arrests and fourteen indictments, expired at midnight just before he took office. Jefferson ordered the termination of pending prosecutions, and tips on how to write in an he pardoned persons convicted under the act. The Influence of the college application, Resolutions. Though the doctrines of the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions are most often thought of as the staple of southern states' rights advocates, many states of both the North and the South have at some time either expressly approved the principles of the resolutions or acted in their spirit. What follows are but four examples.

In 1803 in tips on how a good in an exam the Olmstead case, the governor of Pennsylvania ordered the state's militia to defend two ladies against service of process by any officer of of overpopulation any Court of the United States. That stance was not abandoned until the chief justice of the to write in an exam, state court held that it was not clear the United States courts did not have jurisdiction (Kilpatrick 1957, 101-18). In 1809 Massachusetts was in an uproar regarding the market, Embargo Act and its enforcement. On How To Write Essay! The commonwealth legislature passed the college writing, following resolution: That the tips on how a good in an exam, said act of Congress . [is] . in the opinion of this Legislature in proquest many respects, unjust, oppressive and unconstitutional, and not legally binding on the citizens of this State (Kilpatrick 1957, 125-31). In 1820, when Ohio was fighting against tips on how to write exam, the unconstitutional Bank of the United States, it recognized and approved the doctrines asserted by the Legislatures of rice religious tolerance essay Virginia and Kentucky, in their resolutions of tips on how to write in an exam November and December, 1798, and January 1800 #151; and do consider that their principles have been recognized and adopted by a majority of the American people (Kilpatrick 1957, 144-58). South Carolina embraced the doctrines of the Resolves more firmly than any other state. The impetus for the state's espousal of nullification was the enactment of protective tariffs. As an agricultural state that sold its crops on the world market, South Carolina essentially bartered with Europe, exchanging agricultural commodities for manufactured goods. Because of the tariff, South Carolina paid much more for those goods and also feared a trade war in which Europe would retaliate against the American tariffs by placing duties on digital, southern exports. Exam! South Carolina's legislature rightly complained that the North discarded the teaching of the short essay on effects of overpopulation, classical economists regarding free trade whenever a factory was planned. Had the offending tariffs been imposed to pay the national debt, South Carolina would not have protested.

But because the avowed purpose of the tariff was the perpetuation of the American system of industrial protection, South Carolinians took themselves to have been wronged. On How A Good Essay In An Exam! Protection and redistribution of on stefan wealth for internal improvements were unconstitutional in their eyes. At the center of the movement for nullification was the same Thomas Cooper who had earned the wrath of the Federalists in the 1790s for his opposition to the Adams administration. Cooper served as president of the South Carolina College during the 1820s. As the on how exam, schoolmaster of essay on overcoming in life states' rights (to borrow a phrase from Dumas Malone), Cooper taught South Carolina about the dangers of consolidation. In 1827, as the tariff controversy grew, Cooper publicly questioned the benefit of the Union at a time when such talk raised eyebrows even in the Palmetto state. In a fervid speech, he described the South as the perennial loser and the North as the gainer in on how exam an unequal alliance. Viewing the question as a choice between separation and suppression, Cooper prophetically averred that South Carolina would in the near future be compelled to essay workshop, calculate the value of on how to write in an our union. According to Malone, the religious tolerance, idea that the South should withdraw from an unprofitable Union received its first extensive advertising as a result of that speech (1961, 309-10). [19]

Amid the on how a good in an exam, controversy over the protective tariff, South Carolina called a special convention in short on effects of overpopulation November 1832 and actually passed an ordinance of nullification in response to the 1828 Tariff of Abominations and the Tariff of tips on how in an exam 1832. Short On Effects Of Overpopulation! Notably, South Carolina took its action in a convention of the people acting in their sovereign capacity, just as it had when it entered the federal Union. The nullification was not an act of the legislature. [20] Margaret Coit succinctly sums up South Carolina's action: Nullification did not suspend a law for the nation, but only within the state that protested. Tips To Write A Good In An Exam! It was not an end in itself, but a method of appeal. It gave opportunity for short essay three-quarters of the states in convention to determine whether or not to confer the tips on how essay exam, questioned power upon in life the Union by constitutional amendment.

The nullifying state would then have to obey #151; or secede (1991, 188). The greatest champion of in an what many called the South Carolina doctrine was John C. Calhoun. Clyde Wilson, the editor of Calhoun's papers, writes that Calhoun began his career as, and always considered himself to be, a Jeffersonian Republican (1992, xix). The principles of the religious, Kentucky and Virginia resolutions were his guiding light as his state faced a belligerent President Andrew Jackson. Writing to Boiling Hall on 13 February 1832, Calhoun remarked that we are certainly more United against the Tariff, than we ever have been; and, I think, better disposed to enhance the old Republican doctrines of [17]98, which can save the Constitution (Calhoun 1978, 553). On How To Write In An! Jefferson himself agreed with Calhoun on the tariff and even prepared Virginia's own protests of 1825.

As Robert Y. Hayne remarked in a speech to the Senate in 1830, the South Carolina doctrine was not an innovation but the good old Republican doctrine of '98 (Hayne 1830, 28). To many patriotic South Carolinians it was the last and best chance to preserve the Union. In his South Carolina Exposition, Calhoun wrote that the in life, state had a sacred duty to interpose #151; a duty to herself #151; to a good essay exam, the Union #151; to present, and future generations #151; and to the cause of liberty over the world, to arrest the progress of a usurpation which, if not arrested, must, in its consequences, corrupt public morals and destroy the short essay on effects of overpopulation, liberty of the tips essay, country (Calhoun [1828] 1992, 361). For Calhoun the question revolved not around the dollars and cents of the tariff, though South Carolina felt that sting as much as any state, but around the college essay, future of liberty in the republic. Andrew Jackson, on the other hand, despised the idea of nullification and was willing to go to war over it. Rumors abounded in to write a good essay exam Washington that he had ordered the arrest of Calhoun and other South Carolina representatives.

Jackson then surrounded South Carolina with federal troops in an effort to maintain the supremacy of the Union at all costs. Fortunately, a compromise was crafted at essay on stefan the last minute in the Senate #151; by Henry Clay, the father of the American System #151; that gradually lowered import duties. South Carolina accepted it and repealed the ordinance of nullification. [21] Not until South Carolina seceded after the election of Abraham Lincoln was a state to go farther in accordance with the principles of the Kentucky and tips a good essay exam Virginia resolutions. Of course, it is debatable whether the South Carolina doctrine constituted faithful adherence to the principles of the resolutions. The old Jeffersonian Republican John Randolph supported the Carolina doctrine, grandiloquently stating that if because of senescence he could not participate in the possible armed conflict, he would at essay obstacles in life least be borne, like Muley Moluc, in tips on how a good in an a litter to the field of battle and short essay on effects of overpopulation die in your ranks (quoted in Houston [1896] 1967, 120-21). But apart from the approbation of the eccentric old Virginian, South Carolina received universal condemnation. Virginia reaffirmed the principle of 1798 but made clear that Madison's Virginia resolution did not countenance South Carolina's actions. In his waning years, Madison also denied any relationship between the principles of 1798 and the Carolina doctrine. In a letter of 29 August 1834 to Edward Coles, Madison characterized the Carolina doctrine as an anarchical principle that has the effect of putting powder under the Constitution Union, and a match in the hand of every party, to blow them up at pleasure (Madison 1910, 540-41).

In April 1830, Madison responded directly to Hayne, who had sent him a copy of tips on how in an exam speeches espousing nullification. The father of the Constitution rebuked his young understudy and asserted that the essay on overcoming in life, Virginia resolution contemplated only measures known to the Constitution (1910, 388). According to Madison, if a state considered a law unconstitutional, it could appeal to tips exam, the Supreme Court, urge impeachment of offending officials, or in the last resort seek to amend the Constitution. Only in essay extreme cases of oppression did Madison recognize that a state would be absolve[d] . from the Constitutional Compact to on how to write exam, which it is a party (1910, 383). Clearly, the Resolves, as used in 1798, did not sanction the actions of South Carolina. Virginia and short Kentucky did not attempt to interfere with federal officials or with the operation of the hated acts. On How To Write A Good Essay! Studies of the contemporary grassroots protests also indicate that the people did not countenance secession or nullification as they demanded redress (Smith 1970). As James Jackson Kilpatrick has pointed out, the refusal to consider more drastic means might have reflected the impending expiration of the essay on effects of overpopulation, Sedition Act in 1801 rather than a lack of innovative thinking (1957, 85-86).

In the same vein, one must question whether the inaction comported with the tips to write essay exam, spirit of the Resolves or whether, when confronted by tolerance essay, the objurgations of the Northern states, Virginia and Kentucky abandoned any thoughts of further action, declining to tips a good in an, push harder because of the essay on overcoming obstacles in life, staunch opposition. In his draft of the Kentucky resolution, Jefferson seems to have envisioned disobedience when he wrote that the co-states should enact measures to prevent the execution of the Alien and tips on how essay Sedition Acts within their respective territories. Moreover, though Madison persuaded him otherwise, Jefferson questioned the value of the Union in 1799 insofar as he expressed a preference for essay secession over the relinquishment of the rights of self-government. The states that responded to the Resolves also interpreted them more broadly than did the on how to write a good essay in an, aged Madison. Essay! Why would several of those states have responded that the Supreme Court was the final arbiter of constitutional questions if the Kentucky and tips on how to write a good essay Virginia resolutions were viewed as mere complaints? Had the southern states responded favorably to the Resolves and had Adams's popularity been greater (thus diminishing the chance of a revolution at the ballot box), the Revolution of digital dissertation 1800 might not have been bloodless. Implications for the Present.

Whether one approves of the tips on how to write in an, Carolina doctrine or not, the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions highlight a grave flaw in on overcoming obstacles in life the Constitution of tips on how to write essay exam 1787: it does not explicitly provide an umpire to settle disputes between the states and the central government. If the on overcoming obstacles in life, Supreme Court is the ultimate arbiter of the Constitution, as the tips a good, Court unanimously proclaimed in Cooper v. Aaron (358 U.S. Essay Sagmeister! 1 [1958]), then the caprice of the national government and not the Constitution is the tips on how to write a good, supreme law of the land. Clearly, if the national government is the essay on overcoming obstacles, judge of its own powers, it will construe them broadly and dispose of tips on how in an exam any hopes for limited government. [22] Jefferson inferred that in the absence of an umpire, the parties to the compact are the ultimate arbiters of the essay on stefan sagmeister, Constitution. Although his reasoning is sound even without a written provision in a good essay in an exam the Constitution, an amendment to the Constitution is needed to end the controversy once and for all. (See the appendix for a proposed amendment.) Unfortunately, Congress is rice religious tolerance essay, not likely to tips a good in an, propose an amendment that would divest the national government of the writing, luxury of determining the breadth of on how a good essay its own powers. That unsurmountable barrier brings us to yet another problem with the rice tolerance, Constitution: it contains no provision for the states to propose amendments except by a convention that could treat the Constitution as a blank slate. Currently, amendments may be proposed in two ways: two-thirds of in an exam both houses of Congress may propose amendments to the states, or two-thirds of the states may petition Congress for a constitutional convention. Under either method, no amendment is ratified unless three-fourths of the state legislatures or conventions approve it. Essay Of Overpopulation! As William Quirk and Robert Wilcox (1998) have explained, Article 5 of the Constitution as originally drafted by Madison eschewed the to write in an exam, dangers of a constitutional convention and forced Congress to submit amendments on the application of two thirds of the Legislatures of the several States (18). As the Philadelphia convention prepared to adjourn, Gouverneur Morris suggested the never-used and dangerous convention method that we now have.

Though Madison noted that the convention method might cause difficulties, he did not put up much of a fight, and rice religious essay thus the national government became the de facto agent of constitutional change. Under a Madisonian amendment process, the states #151; as the parties to the compact #151; could confer among themselves and offer amendments to the Constitution to curb the national government. Such an amendment procedure would obviate the need for more radical measures, because the states would have a voice in revising the Constitution in order to on how to write a good, defend the market research, exercise of the reserved powers and the liberties of the people. Article 5 should be amended to correspond with Madison's original draft. But what are the tips a good essay in an, states to do when a constitutional provision is in place and the national government ignores it? For example, what if a modern version of the sagmeister, Sedition Act were passed by Congress and signed by the president? The First Amendment is to write exam, already perfectly clear that Congress shall make no law . abridging freedom of speech.

This example demonstrates the weakness of any amendment process when the national government remains the college application essay writing, judge of its own powers. The parties to the compact cannot reverse the tips a good essay exam, victories of consolidation until the states claim a role in defining what powers are delegated and what powers are reserved. Essay! The amendment specified in the appendix would shift the power of interpretation while acknowledging the sectional differences that existed in Jefferson's time and that persist as the nation approaches the new millennium (see Cawthon 1997). Before any such amendment is added to tips on how to write, the Constitution, however, the spirit of 1776 must be rekindled in the people. Congress will never propose amendments that surrender the discretion of the national government to interpret the Constitution or that give the states a role in suggesting amendments unless a great popular demand arises. A revival of the spirit that animated the Revolution of 1800 is essay, needed again today. During the crisis of the tips to write in an exam, Alien and Sedition Acts, Jefferson wrote in letter of essay of overpopulation 12 March 1799 to Thomas Lomax: The spirit of 1776 is not dead. It has only been slumbering.

The body of the tips on how a good in an, American people is substantially republican. But their virtuous feelings have been played on by some fact with more fiction; they have been the dupes of artful maneuvers, and made for a moment to be willing instruments in forging chains for themselves. Tolerance! (1854a, 300) Like the early Americans who supported the unconstitutional acts of the Federalists, modern Americans have been dupes in forging their own chains. [23] Americans support programs concocted by the national government, such as Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid, which render the tips to write essay in an exam, recipients dependent on the national government. Entitlements are now so pervasive that they account for more than half of the national budget (Seib 1996, A16). Hilaire Belloc's predictions about the servile state have come true. [24] The fundamental question is whether the spirit of 1776 can be revived.

The leaders of both major political parties today agree that the present entitlements should be saved; their disagreements concern merely how to save them. In the twentieth century a progression of New Deals, Fair Deals, Great Societies, wars, and social upheavals has created the current Leviathan. Hollow victories such as the so-called Reagan revolution have left only debt and growing social programs in their wake. For true change to take place, Americans must once again conceive of paper their history as a struggle to create and maintain real freedom. Part of that reconceptualization would entail making a place for the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions in the pantheon of American charters. The resolutions articulate the fundamental principles of our government in an eloquent yet logical manner; in their import, they rank second only to the Constitution. Tips On How A Good In An! For Americans who would recreate a limited federal government of enumerated powers #151; the government created by the Founders #151; the resolutions can serve as an enduring inspiration. * William J. Watkins, Jr. is a student at rice essay the University of South Carolina School of Law and a member of the staff of the South Carolina Law Review . 1. At issue were (1) British troops still on American soil in the Northwest, despite the 1783 Treaty of Paris; (2) restrictions on American commerce more onerous than those borne by in an exam, the colonies before the Revolution; and (3) the British Order in Council of tolerance essay 6 November 1793, which led to widespread depredations on American commerce and to the confiscation of anything coming to on how in an, or going from the French West Indies.

For accounts of the Jay Treaty and events leading to the Jay mission, see Bemis 1923 and Combs 1970. 2. Evincing a spirit of reconciliation, Adams originally wanted Madison to join the others, but the cabinet threatened to on stefan sagmeister, resign if Madison were chosen (Sharp 1993, 164-65). 3. Pro-French factions in the United States were not convinced that X, Y, and Z were indeed acting on behalf of the French government or officials. Jefferson in his letter of on how a good 29 January 1799 described the event as cooked up with the obstacles, swindlers . made to appear as the French Government (1854a, 274). 4. There was a W (Nicholas Hubbard), but he made only a brief appearance and therefore is tips essay in an exam, often left out of accounts of the incident. The identities of X, Y, and Z were Jean Conrad Hottinguer, Pierre Bellamy, and short essay on effects of overpopulation Lucien Hauteval (Stinchcombe 1980, 115). 5. Historians estimate that in two years, Talleyrand received bribes totaling 14 million francs for such actions as expediting treaties and guaranteeing immunity for neutrals (Elkins and McKitrick 1993, 568). 6. The Democratic-Republican societies, which sprang up in the wake of the tips on how to write a good essay in an exam, French Revolution, especially worried the Federalists.

Washington attributed the Whiskey Rebellion to them. Members of the societies fervently believed that if the monarchs of Europe could combine to overturn the French Revolution, they could do the same to the American Revolution. Several societies helped to arm French privateers, and essay most of them encouraged American statesmen to emulate the virtues of the governing bodies of France (see Foner 1976). 7. The decisive event in precipitating the rupture was the American publication of on how to write exam Thomas Paine's Rights of Man . Jefferson, sending the book to market failure paper, the printer, enclosed a note expressing pleasure that something was at to write in an length to be publicly said against market failure research, the political heresies which had of to write essay late sprung up among us. He intended the note to short on effects of overpopulation, remain private, but the printer published the remarks as a preface to the book. Adams rightly took heresies to refer to his Discourses on Davila , in tips in an which he condemned the college application writing workshop, French Revolution (Peterson 1976, 57). 8. Though Jefferson continually expressed his wishes for the success of the French Revolution, as in the letter of 3 January 1793 to William Short (just quoted), Jefferson's only live exposure to that revolution occurred during its least violent and most moderate phase. On How In An! With an ocean separating him from the events, Jefferson (and many other Republicans) formed an idealized picture of the French Revolution that did not correspond to reality. Conor Cruise O'Brien's observation is appropriate: The only safe way of maintaining American enthusiasm for the French Revolution was to keep the French Revolution at a distance, seen through a warm haze. On Overcoming Obstacles In Life! Any whiff of the tips essay, real thing was fatal (1996, 178).

9. For the short essay on effects of overpopulation, full text of the acts, see Smith 1956, 435-42. 10. See, for example, Madison's letter of 8 February 1799 to Jefferson (Madison 1991, 29) and Jefferson's letter of 5 April 1798 to Madison (Jefferson 1854a, 231). 11. Sectional voting patterns developed long before the Sedition Act controversy, with New England showing the greatest cohesion (Bell 1973, 17-31).

12. The best evidence of Jefferson's political principles during the Sedition Act crisis can be found in his letter of 26 January 1799 to tips on how a good in an, Elbridge Gerry, in which he professes his belief in sagmeister the Constitution as ratified by the states, the necessity of preserving state powers, the evil of debt and standing armies, the benefits of free trade, the avoidance of entangling alliances, freedom of religion, and tips on how in an exam the success of the French Revolution (Jefferson 1854a, 266-74). 13. For Jefferson, resistance to consolidation did not stop at the state level. In a letter of 12 June 1816 to Samuel Kerchival, Jefferson wrote: We should thus marshall our government into, 1, the general federal republic for market failure paper all concerns foreign and federal; 2, that of the State, for what relates to our own citizens exclusively; 3, the county republics, for tips the duties and obstacles in life concerns of the county; and 4, the ward republics, for the small, and yet numerous and interesting concerns of the neighborhood (1854b, 13). 14. To Write A Good Essay! For excellent accounts of the Cabell affair and its influence on Jefferson, see Mayer (1994, 199-203) and Koch (1950, 182-84). 15. As Adrienne Koch and Harry Ammon have observed, secrecy was necessary because of the political situation. Had Adams learned that Jefferson was the author of the digital dissertation, Kentucky Resolves, Adams might have had Jefferson arrested and tried for sedition (1948, 149-50). 16.

For a thorough discussion of the protests of the tips essay in an exam, Kentucky yeomanry, see Smith 1970, 221. 17. I am indebted to David Mayer for this observation. See Mayer 1994, chap. 7. 18.

The term nullification was used in college the Kentucky resolution of on how essay exam 1799, but by that time tensions had been relieved somewhat. 19. Rice Religious Tolerance Essay! Of course, the idea that a state might leave the Union if the Union did not secure the safety and happiness of its people dates to the ratification of the Constitution. For example, in its ratification message, Virginia declared that the powers granted under the Constitution being derived from the People of the United States may be resumed by them whensoever the same shall be perverted to their injury or oppression (Virginia Commission 1964, 71). On How Essay In An! Likewise, New York averred that the powers of Government may be reassumed by the People, whensoever it shall become necessary to their Happiness (76). 20. As early as 1798, Madison appreciated the digital dissertation, distinction between the legislature and a convention. In a letter of 29 December 1798 to Thomas Jefferson, Madison postulated that because the states ratified the Constitution by conventions, a convention was the proper assembly for judging infractions of the compact (Madison 1991, 191). 21. When South Carolina repealed the ordinance of nullification regarding the tips on how to write in an exam, tariff, it passed another to void the Force Bill, which had been enacted to give the national government power to collect tariff revenue by force if necessary. With the compromise, however, the point became moot.

For discussions of the nullification controversy, see Bancroft 1966 and Houston [1896] 1967. 22. A prime example is the commerce clause. The Court has interpreted that clause as giving the national government the power to pass comprehensive civil rights laws ( Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States , 379 U.S. 241 [1964]) and criminal statutes ( Perez v. Dissertation! United, States , 402 U.S. 146 [1971]). Though the case ( United States v. Lopez , 115 Sup. Ct. 1624 [1995]) in on how which the Court struck down the Gun-Free School Zones Act as having no substantial relation to interstate commerce offers some hope of in life narrowing the scope of the commerce clause, commentators have noted that the Court's most expansive precedents would be upheld under the on how essay in an exam, test established in Lopez (see Hagen 1996, 1388 n. Religious! 209). 23. Tips A Good Essay Exam! Occasionally the people of the states do protest and prevail.

See Printz v. United States (117 Sup. Ct. 2365 [1997]), in of overpopulation which the tips essay exam, Supreme Court struck down an interim provision of the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act requiring local law enforcement officials to short essay on effects of overpopulation, conduct background checks. According to Justice Scalia, who wrote for the Court, residual state sovereignty was also implicit . in the Constitution's conferral upon Congress of not all governmental powers, but only discrete, enumerated ones . which implication was rendered express by the Tenth Amendment (2376-77). Just after Printz was decided, South Carolina protested the Driver's Privacy Protection Act (DPPA) in the federal courts and won a permanent injunction ( Condon v. Reno , 972 F. Supp. 977 [1997]). The DPPA requires that a State department of to write essay exam motor vehicles . Obstacles! shall not knowingly disclose or otherwise make available to any person or entity personal information about on how a good in an exam, any individual obtained by short essay on effects, the department in connection with a motor vehicle record.

South Carolina, already having a statute regulating access to motor vehicle records, took umbrage at the federal intrusion and sought a remedy in tips on how to write a good essay in an exam the federal district court. Relying on the Tenth Amendment, Judge Dennis Shedd found that the rice religious tolerance essay, DPPA exceeds the in an exam, power of the national government. The case is currently on appeal to the Fourth Circuit. 24. According to Belloc ([1913] 1977), The future of industrial society . left to market research paper, its own discretion, is a future in which subsistence and security shall be guaranteed for on how a good essay in an the proletariat, but shall be guaranteed at the expense of the old political freedom and by the establishment of that proletariat in a status really, though not nominally, servile (198).

The following is an rice religious essay, example of an on how to write in an exam, amendment that would embody Jefferson and Madison's principles in the Resolves of 1798 as well as John C. Calhoun's contribution to constitutional theory. Section 1 . The Constitutional Commission shall settle questions presented by the several States concerning the constitutionality of measures or actions taken by the government of the United States. Section 2 . The Constitutional Commission shall be composed of one Commissioner from each State chosen every second year by the people of the several States from two candidates chosen by the State Legislature, and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for the electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature; each Commissioner shall have one vote. Section 3 . Application Workshop! No person except a natural born citizen shall be eligible to the office of Commissioner; nor shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of tips a good in an thirty-five years, and application essay writing workshop been fourteen years a resident within the United States, and been nine years a resident of that State for which he shall be chosen. No person shall be elected to the office of Commissioner more than four times. Section 4 . Tips To Write A Good Essay Exam! When vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the essay on stefan, next meeting of the Legislature, which shall choose two candidates to present to the people to fill the vacancy. Section 5 . The Constitutional Commission shall assemble at least once in tips to write a good in an every year, and proquest dissertation such meeting shall begin at noon on the third day of tips a good essay January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. The Constitutional Commission shall choose their Chairman and other officers.

The Commission shall be the judge of the election returns and essay qualifications of its own members, and three-fourths of its members shall constitute a quorum to do business. The Commission may determine the rules of its proceedings. The Commission shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same. Section 6 . The Commissioners shall receive a compensation for on how to write a good in an their services, to be ascertained by law, and failure research paid out of the Treasury of the United States. No Commissioner shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to tips on how to write in an, any civil office under the on effects of overpopulation, authority of the United States. Section 7 . Whenever the Chairman of the tips on how to write a good, Constitutional Commission shall receive petitions from one-fifth of the legislatures of the several States requesting a ruling on the constitutionality of a specific measure or action of the government of the United States, the Commission shall convene. The act or measure of the national government shall be void and of no force if three-fourths of the failure research paper, Commissioners present vote against its constitutionality, or if three-fourths of the Commissioners from tips on how in an, one section of the United States shall vote against religious tolerance, the constitutionality of the act or measure. Section 8 . To Write A Good In An Exam! The three sections of the United States are defined as follows. The Western Section shall be composed of Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

The Southern Section shall be composed of essay Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia. The Northern Section shall be composed of Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Wisconsin. Whenever new States are admitted to the Union, the Commission shall make the necessary modifications to the sectional compositions. Section 9 . The Constitutional Commission shall not sit as a Convention as prescribed in on how to write a good essay Article 5 of the on stefan sagmeister, Constitution of the United States. Ammon, Harry. 1973.

The Genet Mission . New York: Norton. Bancroft, Frederic. 1966. Calhoun and the South Carolina Nullification Movement . Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith. Banning, Lance. 1995. The Sacred Fire of Liberty: James Madison and the Founding of the Federal Republic . Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. Bell, Rudolph M. 1973. Party and Faction in American Politics: The House of Representatives, 1789-1801 . Westport, Conn.: Greenwood. Belloc, Hilaire. [1913] 1977.

The Servile State . On How A Good Essay In An Exam! Reprint. Indianapolis, Ind.: Liberty Classics. Bemis, Samuel Flagg. 1923. Jay's Treaty: A Study in Commerce and Diplomacy . New York: Macmillan. Brant, Irving. 1950.

James Madison: Father of the Constitution, 1787-1800 . Market Failure! New York: Bobbs-Merrill. Brooks, David L., ed. 1993. From Magna Carta to the Constitution: Documents in the Struggle for Liberty . San Francisco: Fox and Wilkes. Burke, Edmund. On How Essay In An Exam! [1791] 1992. A Letter to a Member of the National Assembly. In Further Reflections on the Revolution in France , edited by market failure research paper, Daniel E. Ritchie. Indianapolis, Ind.: Liberty Fund. Calhoun, John C. 1978. The Papers of tips on how essay exam John C. Calhoun, 1829-1832. Edited by Clyde N. Wilson.

Vol 11. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. ---------. [ 1828] 1992. Rough Draft of What Is Called the South Carolina Exposition. In Union and essay obstacles in life Liberty: The Political Philosophy of John C. Calhoun , edited by Ross M. Lence. Tips On How To Write Essay Exam! Indianapolis, Ind.: Liberty Fund. Cawthon, William Larnar, Jr.

1997. The South as an Independent Nation. Proquest Digital! Southern Partisan (third quarter). Coit, Margaret, 1991. Tips On How To Write A Good Essay! John C. Rice! Calhoun: American Portrait. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. Combs, Jerald A. 1970. The Jay Treaty: Political Battleground of the Founding Fathers . Berkeley: University of California Press. Cooper, Thomas. 1800.

An Account of the Trial of Thomas Cooper. Philadelphia: John Boiren. Elkins, Stanley, and to write a good in an exam Eric McKitrick. 1993. The Age of Federalism. New York: Oxford University Press. Foner, Philip S., ed. 1976. The Democratic-Republican Societies, 1790 #151; 1800: A Documentary Sourcebook of Constitutions, Declarations, Addresses, Resolutions, and Toasts . Westport, Conn.: Greenwood. Hagen, Eric W. Research Paper! 1996.

United States v. Lopez : Artificial Respiration for the Tenth Amendment. Pepperdine Law Review 23 (May): 1363-93. Hayne, Robert Y. 1830. Speech of Mr. Hayne of South Carolina in the Senate of the United States January 21, 1830 . Portland. Houston, David Franklin. [1896] 1967. A Critical Study of Nullification in South Carolina . Reprint. New York: Russell and Russell. Jaffa, Harry V. 1994. Original Intent and the Framers of the Constitution: A Disputed Question . Washington, D.C.: Regnery Gateway. Jefferson, Thomas.

1853. A Good In An! The Writings of Thomas Jefferson . Rice Religious! Edited by tips essay exam, H. A. Market! Washington. Vol. 3. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Maury. ---------. 1854a. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson . On How To Write A Good In An Exam! Edited by H. A. Washington. Essay Writing Workshop! Vol 4. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and on how to write a good essay Maury. ---------. 1854b.

The Writings of Thomas Jefferson . Edited by college application writing, H. A. To Write A Good In An Exam! Washington. Short Essay On Effects! Vol. Tips On How Essay In An Exam! 7. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Maury. ---------. 1943. The Complete Jefferson . Edited by Saul K. Padover. New York: Duell, Sloan, and college essay Pierce. Ketcham, Ralph L. 1963. France and American Politics, 1763-1793. Political Science Quarterly 78 (June): 198-222.

Kilpatrick, James Jackson. 1957. The Sovereign States: Notes of a Citizen of Virginia . Chicago: Regnery. Koch, Adriene. 1950. Jefferson and Madison: The Great Collaboration. New York: Knopf. Koch, Adriene, and Harry Ammon.

1948. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions: An Episode in Jefferson's and Madison's Defense of Civil Liberties. William and Mary Quarterly 5 (April): 145-76. Levy, Leonard W. 1985. Emergence of a Free Press . New York: Oxford University Press. Madison, James. Tips To Write In An Exam! 1910. Paper! The Writings of James Madison . Edited by tips on how to write essay exam, Gaillard Hunt.

Vol. 9. New York: Knickerbocker Press. ---------. 1991. The Papers of James Madison . Edited by David B. Martin. Vol. 17. Charlottesville: University of short essay of overpopulation Virginia Press. Madison, James, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay. [1788] 1982.

The Federalist Papers. Edited by Gary Wills. Reprint. New York: Bantam Books. Malone, Dumas. 1961. The Public Life of on how a good essay Thomas Cooper 1783-1839. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. ---------.

1962. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty . Boston: Little, Brown. Mayer, David N. 1994. The Constitutional Thought of Thomas Jefferson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.

O'Brien, Conor Cruise. 1996. The Long Affair: Thomas Jefferson and the French Revolution, 1785-1800 . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Peterson, Merrill D. 1976. Adams and Jefferson: A Revolutionary Dialogue . Athens: University of Georgia Press. Quirk, William J., and Robert M. Wilcox. 1998. Proquest! Judicial Tyranny and tips on how to write essay Constitutional Change. Proquest Dissertation! Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture (February).

Schama, Simon. 1989. Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution. New York: Knopf. Seib, Gerald F. 1995. A Silent Beast, Lurking within Budget Debates. Wall Street Journal , November 1. Sharp, James Roger. 1993. Tips Essay! American Politics in essay the Early Republic: The New Nation in tips to write essay Crisis . New Haven: Yale University Press.

Smith, James Morton. 1956. Freedom's Fetters: The Alien and Sedition Laws and essay on effects of overpopulation American Civil Liberties . Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. ---------. 1970. The Grass Roots Origins of the Kentucky Resolutions.

William and Mary Quarterly 28 (April): 221-45. Stinchcombe, William. 1980. The XYZ Affair . Westport, Conn.: Greenwood. Taylor, John. [1820] 1970. Construction Construed and Constitutions Vindicated. Reprint. New York: Da Capo Press.

Virginia Commission on Constitutional Government. 1964. We the States: An Anthology of Historic Documents and on how essay exam Commentaries thereon, Expounding the State and Federal Relationship . Short On Effects! Richmond, Va.: William Byrd Press. Wilson, Clyde N. 1992. On How A Good Exam! Introduction to The Essential Calhoun . New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers. Wilson, Woodrow. 1885.

Congressional Government . New York: Houghton Mifflin.

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ny essay predictions What is to come, through the fair's eyes at least, is tips on how to write essay in an exam, wonderful. The direction in which man is traveling is viewed with buoyant hope, nowhere more so than at the General Electric pavilion. There the audience whirls through four scenes, each populated by cheerful, lifelike dummies that move and talk with a facility that, inside of proquest dissertation, a minute and a half, convinces you they are alive. The scenes, set in on how to write exam, or about 1900, 1920, 1940 and 1960, show the failure paper, advances of electrical appliances and the changes they are bringing to living. I enjoyed it hugely and only regretted that they had not carried the scenes into to write a good in an, the future. What will life be like, say, in 2014 A.D., 50 years from proquest digital dissertation now? What will the World's Fair of tips a good essay in an, 2014 be like?

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At the New York World's Fair of 2014, General Motors' Futurama may well display vistas of tips to write a good, underground cities complete with light- forced vegetable gardens. The surface, G.M. will argue, will be given over to digital, large-scale agriculture, grazing and parklands, with less space wasted on actual human occupancy. Gadgetry will continue to relieve mankind of tedious jobs. Kitchen units will be devised that will prepare automeals, heating water and converting it to coffee; toasting bread; frying, poaching or scrambling eggs, grilling bacon, and so on. Breakfasts will be ordered the a good, night before to be ready by a specified hour the next morning. Essay. Complete lunches and dinners, with the food semiprepared, will be stored in the freezer until ready for tips to write a good, processing.

I suspect, though, that even in essay writing workshop, 2014 it will still be advisable to have a small corner in the kitchen unit where the more individual meals can be prepared by hand, especially when company is on how to write in an exam, coming. Robots will neither be common nor very good in 2014, but they will be in college application, existence. The I.B.M. exhibit at the present fair has no robots but it is tips on how, dedicated to computers, which are shown in essay, all their amazing complexity, notably in tips on how to write in an, the task of translating Russian into English. If machines are that smart today, what may not be in failure research paper, the works 50 years hence? It will be such computers, much miniaturized, that will serve as the brains of robots. In fact, the I.B.M. building at the 2014 World's Fair may have, as one of its prime exhibits, a robot housemaid*large, clumsy, slow- moving but capable of general picking-up, arranging, cleaning and manipulation of tips essay, various appliances. It will undoubtedly amuse the fairgoers to scatter debris over the floor in order to see the robot lumberingly remove it and classify it into throw away and set aside. (Robots for gardening work will also have made their appearance.) General Electric at the 2014 World's Fair will be showing 3-D movies of its Robot of the essay on overcoming obstacles, Future, neat and streamlined, its cleaning appliances built in and performing all tasks briskly. (There will be a three-hour wait in line to see the film, for some things never change.) The appliances of 2014 will have no electric cords, of course, for to write a good in an, they will be powered by long- lived batteries running on radioisotopes.

The isotopes will not be expensive for they will be by- products of the fission-power plants which, by 2014, will be supplying well over half the power needs of humanity. But once the isotype batteries are used up they will be disposed of only essay obstacles, through authorized agents of the on how to write a good exam, manufacturer. And experimental fusion-power plant or two will already exist in 2014. Short Essay Of Overpopulation. (Even today, a small but genuine fusion explosion is demonstrated at frequent intervals in the G.E. exhibit at the 1964 fair.) Large solar-power stations will also be in operation in a number of desert and semi-desert areas -- Arizona, the Negev, Kazakhstan. In the more crowded, but cloudy and smoggy areas, solar power will be less practical. On How Exam. An exhibit at the 2014 fair will show models of power stations in short, space, collecting sunlight by means of huge parabolic focusing devices and tips on how essay in an radiating the of overpopulation, energy thus collected down to earth. The world of 50 years hence will have shrunk further. To Write A Good Exam. At the 1964 fair, the G.M. exhibit depicts, among other things, road-building factories in the tropics and, closer to college, home, crowded highways along which long buses move on special central lanes. There is every likelihood that highways at least in the more advanced sections of the world*will have passed their peak in 2014; there will be increasing emphasis on transportation that makes the least possible contact with the surface.

There will be aircraft, of course, but even ground travel will increasingly take to the air*a foot or two off the ground. Visitors to the 1964 fair can travel there in an aquafoil, which lifts itself on four stilts and skims over the water with a minimum of friction. This is surely a stop-gap. By 2014 the four stilts will have been replaced by four jets of compressed air so that the vehicle will make no contact with either liquid or solid surfaces. Jets of compressed air will also lift land vehicles off the highways, which, among other things, will minimize paving problems. Smooth earth or level lawns will do as well as pavements. Bridges will also be of less importance, since cars will be capable of on how a good in an exam, crossing water on their jets, though local ordinances will discourage the practice. Much effort will be put into the designing of vehicles with Robot-brains*vehicles that can be set for particular destinations and that will then proceed there without interference by the slow reflexes of a human driver. I suspect one of the major attractions of the 2014 fair will be rides on small roboticized cars which will maneuver in crowds at the two-foot level, neatly and automatically avoiding each other.

For short-range travel, moving sidewalks (with benches on either side, standing room in the center) will be making their appearance in downtown sections. They will be raised above the traffic. Traffic will continue (on several levels in some places) only essay on stefan, because all parking will be off-street and because at least 80 per cent of truck deliveries will be to certain fixed centers at to write, the city's rim. Compressed air tubes will carry goods and materials over local stretches, and the switching devices that will place specific shipments in specific destinations will be one of the city's marvels. Communications will become sight-sound and you will see as well as hear the person you telephone. The screen can be used not only to see the people you call but also for college, studying documents and photographs and reading passages from books.

Synchronous satellites, hovering in space will make it possible for you to direct-dial any spot on earth, including the tips on how a good essay, weather stations in Antarctica (shown in chill splendor as part of the '64 General Motors exhibit). For that matter, you will be able to reach someone at the moon colonies, concerning which General Motors puts on a display of impressive vehicles (in model form) with large soft tires*intended to negotiate the uneven terrain that may exist on workshop our natural satellite. Any number of to write essay in an, simultaneous conversations between earth and moon can be handled by modulated laser beams, which are easy to manipulate in space. On earth, however, laser beams will have to be led through plastic pipes, to avoid material and dissertation atmospheric interference. Engineers will still be playing with that problem in 2014.

Conversations with the moon will be a trifle uncomfortable, but the tips to write a good essay in an, way, in that 2.5 seconds must elapse between statement and answer (it takes light that long to essay of overpopulation, make the round trip). On How Exam. Similar conversations with Mars will experience a 3.5-minute delay even when Mars is at its closest. However, by 2014, only unmanned ships will have landed on Mars, though a manned expedition will be in rice tolerance, the works and in tips to write a good essay exam, the 2014 Futurama will show a model of an elaborate Martian colony. As for digital, television, wall screens will have replaced the ordinary set; but transparent cubes will be making their appearance in which three-dimensional viewing will be possible. Tips On How A Good Essay In An Exam. In fact, one popular exhibit at the 2014 World's Fair will be such a 3-D TV, built life-size, in which ballet performances will be seen. The cube will slowly revolve for viewing from all angles. One can go on indefinitely in this happy extrapolation, but all is short, not rosy.

As I stood in line waiting to get into the General Electric exhibit at the 1964 fair, I found myself staring at Equitable Life's grim sign blinking out the population of the United States, with the number (over 191,000,000) increasing by 1 every 11 seconds. During the tips a good in an, interval which I spent inside the G.E. pavilion, the American population had increased by nearly 300 and the world's population by 6,000. In 2014, there is every likelihood that the world population will be 6,500,000,000 and the population of the United States will be 350,000,000. Boston-to-Washington, the most crowded area of its size on rice essay the earth, will have become a single city with a population of over 40,000,000. Population pressure will force increasing penetration of desert and polar areas. Most surprising and, in some ways, heartening, 2014 will see a good beginning made in the colonization of the continental shelves. Underwater housing will have its attractions to those who like water sports, and will undoubtedly encourage the more efficient exploitation of ocean resources, both food and mineral. General Motors shows, in its 1964 exhibit, the model of an underwater hotel of what might be called mouth-watering luxury.

The 2014 World's Fair will have exhibits showing cities in the deep sea with bathyscaphe liners carrying men and to write a good essay in an supplies across and into the abyss. Ordinary agriculture will keep up with great difficulty and there will be farms turning to on stefan sagmeister, the more efficient micro-organisms. Processed yeast and tips on how to write a good essay exam algae products will be available in a variety of flavors. Essay Sagmeister. The 2014 fair will feature an tips on how to write a good exam Algae Bar at digital dissertation, which mock-turkey and pseudosteak will be served. It won't be bad at all (if you can dig up those premium prices), but there will be considerable psychological resistance to such an to write innovation. Although technology will still keep up with population through 2014, it will be only through a supreme effort and market paper with but partial success.

Not all the world's population will enjoy the gadgety world of the in an, future to the full. A larger portion than today will be deprived and although they may be better off, materially, than today, they will be further behind when compared with the advanced portions of the world. Dissertation. They will have moved backward, relatively. Nor can technology continue to a good essay, match population growth if that remains unchecked. Essay On Stefan. Consider Manhattan of tips to write a good essay in an exam, 1964, which has a population density of 80,000 per square mile at essay sagmeister, night and on how to write exam of over 100,000 per rice religious tolerance essay square mile during the working day. To Write A Good In An Exam. If the whole earth, including the Sahara, the Himalayan Mountain peaks, Greenland, Antarctica and every square mile of the ocean bottom, to the deepest abyss, were as packed as Manhattan at noon, surely you would agree that no way to support such a population (let alone make it comfortable) was conceivable.

In fact, support would fail long before the World-Manhattan was reached. Well, the earth's population is now about 3,000,000,000 and is doubling every 40 years. If this rate of doubling goes unchecked, then a World-Manhattan is essay on stefan sagmeister, coming in tips to write essay, just 500 years. All earth will be a single choked Manhattan by A.D. 2450 and society will collapse long before that! There are only two general ways of preventing this: (1) raise the death rate; (2) lower the college essay writing, birth rate. Undoubtedly, the world of AD. 2014 will have agreed on tips to write essay the latter method. Indeed, the increasing use of mechanical devices to replace failing hearts and kidneys, and repair stiffening arteries and breaking nerves will have cut the death rate still further and have lifted the proquest, life expectancy in some parts of the world to age 85. There will, therefore, be a worldwide propaganda drive in favor of birth control by rational and humane methods and, by 2014, it will undoubtedly have taken serious effect. Tips On How A Good Exam. The rate of increase of population will have slackened*but, I suspect, not sufficiently.

One of the more serious exhibits at essay obstacles, the 2014 World's Fair, accordingly, will be a series of lectures, movies and documentary material at the World Population Control Center (adults only; special showings for teen-agers). The situation will have been made the more serious by the advances of automation. The world of A.D. 2014 will have few routine jobs that cannot be done better by some machine than by any human being. Mankind will therefore have become largely a race of machine tenders.

Schools will have to be oriented in this direction. Part of the General Electric exhibit today consists of a school of the future in tips a good essay, which such present realities as closed-circuit TV and programmed tapes aid the teaching process. It is not only the essay writing, techniques of teaching that will advance, however, but also the subject matter that will change. All the high-school students will be taught the tips to write exam, fundamentals of computer technology will become proficient in binary arithmetic and will be trained to market failure paper, perfection in the use of the computer languages that will have developed out of those like the a good essay, contemporary Fortran (from formula translation). Even so, mankind will suffer badly from the disease of boredom, a disease spreading more widely each year and growing in intensity.

This will have serious mental, emotional and sociological consequences, and I dare say that psychiatry will be far and away the most important medical specialty in 2014. College Writing. The lucky few who can be involved in tips on how a good essay, creative work of essay on stefan, any sort will be the on how essay in an exam, true elite of mankind, for they alone will do more than serve a machine.

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Free Environmental Studies essays. Pollution is defined as “to make something impure”—in this case, the fresh water in lakes. The pollution of water restricts its use for some human need or a natural function in the ecosystem. Pollution affects the tips on how a good in an exam, water quality in freshwater lakes and other resources worldwide. It can take many forms, from industrial sources, agricultural and municipal; some common examples are pesticides, herbicides, wastewater and waste. Lakes often contain high levels of pollutants in relation to the landscape and environment. Rivers and streams draining the landscape of contaminants are concentrated in lakes and other water bodies. Aquatic organisms such as fish can be extremely high pollution, as some pollutants are not easy to resolve and diluting in water, and instead consist in organisms. Short On Effects Of Overpopulation? Certain species of aquatic organisms are particularly sensitive to pollution; they are used as indicators of tips on how essay, pollution and called bio-indicators.

Lakes drain a large natural landscape, reflecting the process and procedures to use. If chemicals are spilled, they are near streams flow downhill and can be carried into lakes. Physical water pollutants include particulate materials such as soil erosion landscape or washing paved areas by on stefan sagmeister running water, the. Tips On How To Write In An? Once in a river or lake, some particles settle out of the water and market research, bottom sediments. Chemical contaminants adsorbed (attached) to the particles are also in tips a good the sediment where they are buried or carried out by college application workshop the floods to other places to a good essay in an, be installed permanently.

Other physical contaminants discharged heat can be a source or output industrial hot surfaces in hot weather. Elimination of research, shade trees along the shore of a lake or river can also allow sunlight in the waters above the normal temperature range for heating. Fresh natural waters contain chemicals that flows dissolved in the soil and rocks. On How To Write? Major inorganic elements comprise calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, carbon, chlorine and sulfur, and religious, plant nutrients such as nitrogen, silicon and phosphorus. Derivatives of biological materials in decomposing organic compounds may also be present. In addition, the soft water contains almost all synthetic compounds, such as pesticides and other industrial and consumer products. Chemicals from human activities that can increase the concentration of specific compounds over natural levels cause pollution problems. Tips To Write A Good Exam? Too many plant nutrients in excessive plant growth leading, while synthetic organic compounds can physiological changes in aquatic organisms, or can be fatal at high concentrations is.

The pollutants can be absorbed by plants and animals by contacting the contaminated water or directly from sediment. Plants and organisms contaminate these sources of contamination of the food chain spread as predators eat. Although not generally considered contaminants, bacteria and plants living organisms, the proportions are increasingly harassment. The accidental release of cyanide from a recovery of precious metals in Romania polluted the Tisza in 2000, aquatic and terrestrial animals, as this horse has poisoned drinking water three weeks after the spill killed. Pollution not only rice essay, downstream traveled through Romania, Hungary and Yugoslavia, but also joined the Danube and ultimately to the Black Sea. The release of about 100 tons of cyanide caused what. Biological contamination may affect the use of fresh water. These problems often occur when plants die and decompose, when bacterial decomposition consumes oxygen needed by aerobic aquatic organisms.

Excessive algae or other plant material provides more decomposition and thereby decompose more oxygen reduction material. In addition, non-native plants and animals that are introduced as a result of in an exam, human activities alter the basic ecology of a lake or river that often great harm. Pollution is generally categorized by how it enters a lake – either point source or non-point source pollution. a) Point source pollution: Point source pollution is from pollutants that enter a body of water, which can be attributed to a source, place and specific authors. The point source pollution is easier to manage compared to non-point sources. b) Non-point sources: Non-point source pollution is from Pollutants that enter a body of water which cannot be attributed to digital dissertation, a specific source, place and authors. Rather, this pollution comes from many diffuse sources and often occurs in small amounts, but can focus on tips on how to write essay in an freshwater lakes and other resources. Examples of point sources discharging are industrial waste, sewage from essay wastewater treatment plants, dumping deposit and tips a good, other dangerous illegal chemical (nuclear waste). Heat can also be a contaminant.

For example, the central water often one of the components of the cool overheating. Once inserted, hot water is released into nearby lakes, where the temperature changes from the lake. This heat is a form of pollution, because it can be harmful and kill aquatic organisms including fish Species sensitive to tolerance essay, temperature change. Another example of widespread environmental contamination is the on how to write a good essay, legal discharge of waste water and other chemicals. Sagmeister? For example, Detroit, Michigan reports available more than 700 million gallons of wastewater per day and 150 million pounds of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxic each year in the Detroit River, which serves as a link between Lake Huron and Lake Erie2. Since the origin of the point source pollution is often it is on how to write exam, much easier to handle than non-point pollution sources. If the short on effects of overpopulation, pollution originates in tips a good remote locations from water point, or is there a large number of small diffuse sources, it is called non-point sources. No identifiable source such contamination is often difficult to manage; it is difficult to estimate how much pollution is actually happening and what impact. Tolerance? Diffuse sources include agricultural runoff (pesticides, fertilizers), acid rain deposition and on how to write essay exam, nitrate leaching from septic tanks.

Diffuse sources represent most of the impurities in rice tolerance the water systems. 3.4 Impacts of tips on how a good essay, lake pollution. Whatever the source of the contamination can affect aquatic life in many ways. In general, the pollution reduces the quality of water. It can also be the variety of wildlife; particularly sensitive species. Pollution of the failure research, lake has been documented as contributing to a variety of health problems and diseases in humans. It has also been shown to have significant negative impacts on wildlife and the environment as a whole. There are a few different effects of lake pollution, which are essential for humans. The effects of pollution of the lake are not always immediate. On How A Good? They are not always seen on the contaminated site. They are sometimes never known by the person responsible for the pollution.

A pollution of the lake, however, has a great impact on the lives of short essay, everyone. With the knowledge, testing and on how to write essay exam, preparation, water pollution can be reduced. It does not take much effort – just a little thought. Lake pollution can pose health dangers to research, humans who come into contact with it, either directly or indirectly. The risk of your health being negatively impacted by polluted drinking water in a developed country is tips a good essay in an, small in comparison with developing countries. However, it is digital, possible to become ill from contaminated water. For example, if you are walking, you can get giardiasis, which can cause severe nausea and vomiting as the presentation of on how to write essay in an, acute symptoms to develop. This infection is caused by water that has been polluted by untreated animal waste in the drinking waterways. In anthropogenic environments such as cities and villages, potential toxins are much more numerous. Another high risk of lake pollution is essay, Mercury contamination.

Mercury has been found to interfere with the development of the central nervous system in fetuses and on how to write a good exam, young children, which could potentially lead to a large amount of long-term side effects. 3.6 Impact of lake pollution on rice religious tolerance essay ecosystem. Lake pollution also causes negative effects within the environment to animals and their habitats. The entry of pollutants in lakes has a wide range of effects. It is possible for essay exam, pollutants, to change the water temperature enough to fish force in search of colder waters. This can even create an ecological dead zone. The pollution of market failure paper, lakes can also significantly increase the rate of algal blooms. These flowers create massive destruction of fish as oxygen is depleted in water and suffocate fish.

Fish can be killed, even if excessive algae get caught in their gills. 3.7 Definition of tips a good exam, lake maintenance. There are numerous reasons to pay close attention to the lake maintenance, including: a) Preventing fish kill; b) Reducing sediment buildup. c) Reducing aquatic weed growth. d) Reducing need for synthetic algaecides. e) Improving irrigation water quality. f) Reducing harmful gases like CO2 and Methane. g) Reducing mosquitoes. h) Increasing the Ozone content of the water. i) Reduce Bacteria and odor.

To maintain a high water quality the lake requires a maintenance plan. Apart from preventing nutrient inflows to the lake from the catchment or surrounding farm land and road runoff, a key element of that plan should be creating plans that will help the lake to maintain clean. 3.8 Contribution of lake maintenance to application essay writing, the future of aquatic system. Fresh water is essential to human life and tips to write essay exam, economic wellbeing, and on effects of overpopulation, societies draw strongly on rivers, lakes, wetlands, and underground aquifers to on how to write in an exam, supply water for religious, drinking, irrigating crops, and running industrial processes. The benefits of these extractive uses of fresh water have traditionally overshadowed the equally important benefits of water that remains in stream to sustain healthy aquatic ecosystems. There is growing recognition that functionally intact and biologically complex freshwater ecosystems provide many economically valuable commodities and services to society. Lakes provide people with many services: aesthetic enjoyment, recreation, fish, and on how a good in an exam, transportation, water for irrigation, drinking and proquest digital, dilution of pollutants.

Lake degradation results from excessive nutrient inputs, toxic substances, habitat loss, overfishing, species invasions and extirpations. The goal of to write a good, management is to balance the uses of lakes with conservation measures to sustain ecosystem services over time (Carpenter #038; Lathrop 1999). A degraded lake can have its water quality improved through implementing appropriate management strategies. Short Essay Of Overpopulation? This process is variously known as lake restoration, remediation or rehabilitation. 4.1 Lake restoration. It is important to recognize that the tips on how to write exam, restoration program will take time and rice tolerance essay, will not return the exam, lake to a once untouched condition that it may have had earlier in its life, but it could improve the essay on effects of overpopulation, water quality to meet a specified water quality goal. The ability to achieve that goal for a specific degraded lake will be determined by the nutrient budget (internal versus external loads), how well the in-lake processes are known, the degree of tips to write essay, restoration required to achieve the goal and the funding available to implement the management strategies required to achieve that degree of restoration.

Other than cost, there are few limits on digital the size, shape or depth of lake that can be restored. While there is an on how to write essay in an exam implicit expectation that restoration will return the lake to its original condition, the reality is dissertation, that some processes on the way to on how to write essay exam, degradation are irreversible (Carpenter #038; Lathrop, 1999). Consequently, the expectation of restoration needs to be tempered with the knowledge that the lake may never reach its original state and that the objective of a restoration project will be to rehabilitate the lake to improve the short essay, water quality and lake conditions to exam, an achievable level. This rehabilitation level then becomes a management goal. The goals need to be realistic and both socially and failure research paper, culturally acceptable. Restoring a degraded lake to a new desirable condition is an adaptive management process which must include a monitoring program to assess the success of management strategies employed to reach that goal, and a good essay in an exam, the flexibility to adapt the management strategies based on those monitoring results. Figure 4.1.a. shows the maintenance flow diagram for the rehabilitation of college, a lake. The issues, goals and measures of success can be filled in tips to write a good essay in an and additional sections listing the tools to rice religious, be used can be added. The role of the tips on how in an, environmental consultant at key points indicated by red arrows is optional depending on the competence of the lake manager and essay on overcoming obstacles, the size of the lake. A certified engineering consultant is mandatory for any structural changes to a dam.

4.2 Practical maintenance goals in on how to write a good essay Lake Restoration. Practical maintenance goals for essay of overpopulation, that lake would include: a. To reduce or eliminate the occurrence of nuisance cyanobacteria blooms. b. To improve the water quality of the lake from hypertrophic to super trophic or eutrophic. c. To reduce the abundance of in an exam, aquatic macrophysics in the lake to enable unimpeded use of the market failure paper, lake for contact recreation, and. d. To maintain or enhance the fishery in the lake and its tributaries. These goals are essential to restoring of the lake. They are closely linked that changes made to achieve one goal will interact with and affect the other goals. The following is a range of maintenance tools that have been used for the restoration of degraded lake. The most recent tool ‘Computer modelling’ uses environmental, climate and water quality / biogeochemical monitoring data from the lake to build a simulation of the lake to tips to write essay exam, estimate the likely benefits to the lake of applying one or more of the proquest digital, maintenance tools. These tools are including: The weight of evidence indicates that the key to restoring the water quality of tips to write a good, lake and its fishery is the failure, management of the lake weed.

There are four approaches to this issue: (1) Mechanical weeds harvesting; (3) Bio manipulation and. (4) Changing water levels. Before undertaking any strategy to control lake weeds, there needs to be a clear understanding of the goal and the consequences of each action. Tips On How To Write A Good? The weight of rice, evidence of the importance of lake weeds includes the fact that the tall weeds remove all the on how in an exam, NO3-N from the lake water during spring when there are high inflows of NO3-N enriched stream water. Essay Obstacles In Life? This evidence also suggests that under low flows the on how, weeds become N-limited and, being unable to sustain the amount of biomass with the nutrients available, they senesce releasing the college essay workshop, nutrients in the plants back into on how to write essay exam, the water. Waste water treatment uses holding ponds and wetlands for reducing the college application essay writing workshop, nutrient load before the water is released into an open waterway. The main disadvantages of the technique are that,

1) To be efficient they cover a large area to give sufficient contact time for nutrient and to write a good essay in an exam, sediment stripping, 2) They are less efficient at removing P than N, and. 3) They may not cope with flood flows and the stream short circuits directly to the lake with no renovation. Floating treatment wetlands (FTW) are a new restoration concept where emergent wetland plants are grown in college writing workshop buoyant rafts which are moored in a lake or stream. These rafts are constructed from recycled plastic (PET drink bottles) in various sized sections that could be 2 m by tips on how to write a good 3 m for ease of handling and joined together later. The plants are grown in recesses in the raft and their roots extend down into market, the water where they assimilate the N and P. The FTWs are aesthetically pleasing and blend in with the natural lake shore environment (Figure 4.2.a) and provide additional habitat for birds and koura. Onshore management to reduce nutrient inputs to the lake should look at to write a good essay exam, the sources of those nutrients. Digital Dissertation? However, because the lag time between the contamination of the groundwater and that contaminated groundwater reaching the lake, nutrient stripping of the groundwater at the lake edge is tips to write a good essay exam, also essential. This is best achieved using marginal wetland buffer zones (Figure 4.2.b). The surface or unconfined groundwater aquifer is the religious, most vulnerable to tips on how to write a good in an exam, contamination in the catchment as it receives the infiltrating rainwater percolating down through the soil. It is short, this surface groundwater layer that enters the lake at tips on how a good exam, the lake edge.

• This option may be more expensive and less culturally sensitive than entraining the drain flow through a shore line holding zone behind a wall of floating treatment wetlands. Another alternative is to essay sagmeister, divert the storm water into a “spill drain” behind the riparian buffer zone. Both of these options dissipate the energy of the on how to write in an, storm water inflow so that it does not move out into the body of the on overcoming obstacles in life, lake. Dispersing the flow behind the riparian buffer zone will cause all the sediment to remain on shore and tips on how to write essay in an, the nutrients in the storm water to be assimilated by the buffer zone plants. A stream diversion channel is proquest dissertation, a temporary practice to convey stream flow in an environmentally safe manner around or through a construction site while a permanent structure or conveyance is being installed in the stream channel. • Flushing – external source water. A simple expedient in small lakes overseas is to divert a proportion of a good in an, a clean stream or river through the lake to rice religious, reduce the residence time and thus flush the N and P in solution and in particulates, such as algae, down the outlet stream. An in-depth analysis of the water quality of the source water would be needed if this option was a serious consideration. • Enhanced flushing using fluctuating water levels. This technique requires manipulation of the weir on the lake to increase and decrease the lake water level at different times of the year to take advantage of on how to write essay, specific parts of the lake cycle. Seasonal changes in water level are potentially good for fisheries with the most productive fisheries having low water levels in proquest digital dissertation summer (J.

Boubee, NIWA, pers. comm.). Assuming that a suitable storage or dumping area could be found outside of the lake catchment, dredging would remove the sediment that contains the P, N and tips to write a good in an, carbon (C), that has accumulated in the lake over the past few decades. It would also remove the seed bank for essay, lake weeds. The advantages of on how a good essay in an, this option are that the nutrient legacy would be permanently removed and the lake would return to near its original depth. The disadvantages of application writing workshop, this option are the tips to write a good essay exam, cost to rice tolerance, remove the estimated 3 km3 of sediment, the on how essay exam, destruction of the existing ecosystem, and the release of nutrients and other toxic chemicals such as Sulphides during the essay on stefan sagmeister, process of dredging. The release of Sulphide into the lake water would eliminate most aquatic life in the lake. The removal of tips to write a good, lake weeds seed banks in college application the sediment would not be selective and desirable species for restoring the lake habitat would be removed along with the on how a good in an exam, undesirable species. Aeration replaces the oxygen consumed by decomposition processes and prevents the on stefan sagmeister, development of anoxic conditions which allow P release from the tips to write a good exam, sediments. This technique is often used in water supply reservoirs to prevent the anoxic release of P, which favors cyanobacteria growth, and the release of minerals such as iron and manganese, which would stain baths, toilets and hand basins in homes and would cause black marks on market paper washing as the tips essay in an exam, water re-oxygenates and these metals precipitate. The advantages of the technique is essay on stefan, that it is relatively cheap, requiring an air compressor, connection hoses and an aeration bar with anchor blocks, and only needs to run in summer when low oxygen concentrations develop.

In shallow lakes, giant discs pulled through the lake sediments open up the sediment allowing deep penetration of oxygen from the tips a good exam, water column. The concept behind this tool is that the P will be bound to the iron and manganese oxides in the sediment. This process can work where the bed of the lake has been smothered with organic matter such as the collapse of a weed bed. Modelling of this option (White #038; Gibbs 1991) indicates that the on stefan, beneficial effect for P binding is short lived because as soon as the sediments go anoxic once more, the P is released. The technique does introduce oxygen into the otherwise anoxic sediments. This can enhance nitrification and denitrification effectively reducing the N load in the lake. More importantly it supplies oxygen to the decomposition processes so that organic carbon content and tips to write a good, thus the essay on overcoming, sediment oxygen demand are slowly reduced. High sediment oxygen demand is the tips to write a good essay in an exam, main cause of bottom water anoxia which drives P release. However, to achieve a significant reduction in sediment oxygen demand, the dicing would need to be repeated frequently. There are three major disadvantage of dicing through weed beds: 1) The organic matter could be driven into sagmeister, the sediment raising the organic carbon content,

2) Every leaf node of most aquatic macrophysics can grow so the tips to write a good, dicing would most likely spread the college writing, weed more widely, and. 3) The dicing would devastate the benthic mussel beds destroying that part of the fishery. In some overseas restoration studies, concentrated nitrate is to write essay in an, injected into the sediment with equipment similar to the giant discs to rice tolerance, provide an oxygen source for decomposition processes in summer (Hemond #038; Lin, 2010). The advantages of on how to write essay, this technique are that the release of P is reduced and thus the dominant algal species are not cyanobacteria. The release of arsenic (As) is also suppressed. The disadvantages are that the increase in NO3-N concentration drives high rates of primary production and results in high algal biomass in the lake i.e., the religious tolerance, lake goes very green.

This particular piece of research draws attention to the problems of getting the N and P out of balance i.e., heavy metals such as As and lead (Pb) can be released from the sediments. • When a cyanobacterial bloom has developed, it is too late to use many of the restoration techniques and it is more appropriate to tips on how a good exam, treat the bloom directly to get immediate results. Religious? To that end, much research has focused on the use of tips on how a good essay, clay to floc the bloom so that it settles out of the water column (Sengco #038; Anderson, 2004; Beaulieu et al. 2005; Padilla et al. 2006; Zouet al.

2006; Biyu et al. 2010; Chen #038; Pan, 2012; Pan et al. 2012). While the technique works in the short-term, it does not solve the underlying eutrophication problem and may smother benthic organisms in the sediment. The phosphorus released from the lake sediments is in the form of essay, phosphate which is readily usable by plants, especially algae, for growth. Exam? While all plants use N and P in the ratio of 16 N to market, 1 P (Redfield 1958), the symbiotic bacteria inside blue-green algae, hence the name ‘cyanobacteria’, can convert N2 gas in tips a good essay exam the atmosphere to NO3-N which the algal host can use for growth. This gives cyanobacteria a competitive advantage over rice tolerance, all other algal species when there is a surplus of P and in an exam, a deficit of of overpopulation, nutrient N in the lake water, and they dominate the on how to write exam, algal species assemblage. Consequently, an excess of P in digital dissertation the water column is tips on how a good in an exam, said to favor the market failure research paper, growth of cyanobacteria and the formation of nuisance blooms.

Phosphorus inactivation is used to make that P unavailable for algal growth by binding it to a metal. The result is the reduction in magnitude or elimination of the cyanobacteria blooms (Cooke et al. 2005). There have been many documented applications world-wide and the general conclusion is that this method for treating lakes with high internal P loads can substantially reduce the internal P load. • Phosphorus inactivation with sediment capping. The alternative to alum is to use a granular P inactivation agent.

These products are designed to inactivate P either in the water column or at the sediment surface before settling on the lake bed as a thin (1–2 mm thick) layer. This is the layer referred to as the sediment cap. While a combination of these tools can address the internal problems in the lake, there is to write a good, also an essay on overcoming obstacles in life overriding requirement to address the sources of nutrients from the tips to write essay exam, catchment. The Great Lakes form the largest surface freshwater system on Earth. More than 30 million people live in the Great Lakes basin, and the impact of their daily activities, from the water consumed to the waste returned, directly affects the market research, Great Lakes environment.

EPA leads U.S. efforts to restore and maintain the quality and ecosystems of the on how a good essay exam, Great Lakes watershed. The Great Lakes (also called the Laurentian Great Lakes or the Great Lakes of North America) are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located in northeastern North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River. Consisting of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron (or Michigan–Huron), Erie, and Ontario, they form the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth, containing 21% of the digital, world’s surface fresh water by volume. The total surface is 94,250 square miles (244,106 km2), and the total volume (measured at the low water datum) is 5,439 cubic miles (22,671 km3). Due to their sea-like characteristics (rolling waves, sustained winds, strong currents, great depths, and distant horizons) the five Great Lakes have also long been referred to as inland seas. Lake Superior is the second largest lake in the world by area, and Lake Michigan is the largest lake that is entirely within one country. The southern half of the Great Lakes is to write a good, surrounded by the Great Lakes Megalopolis. The Great Lakes began to form at the end of the last glacial period around 14,000 years ago, as retreating ice sheets carved basins into rice essay, the land and they became filled with meltwater. The lakes have been a major highway for transportation, migration and trade, and they are home to a large number of aquatic species. Many invasive species have been introduced due to trade, and some threaten the region’s biodiversity. Contaminated sediments are a significant problem in the Great Lakes basin.

Although significant progress over the past 20 years has substantially reduced the discharge of toxic and persistent chemicals to the Great Lakes, persistent high concentrations of contaminants in on how in an exam the bottom sediments of rivers and harbors have raised considerable concern about on overcoming obstacles in life potential risks to aquatic organisms, wildlife, and humans. Tips On How To Write Exam? As a result, advisories against essay on effects of overpopulation fish consumption are in place in most locations around the a good essay, Great Lakes. These contaminated sediments have been created by decades of industrial and municipal discharges, combined sewer overflows, and failure, urban and agricultural non-point source non-point source Diffuse pollution sources (i.e., without a single point of origin or not introduced into tips to write, a receiving stream from a specific outlet). Market Failure Research Paper? The pollutants are generally carried off the tips to write a good, land by storm water. Common nonpoint sources are agriculture, forestry, urban, mining, construction, dams, channels, land disposal, saltwater intrusion, and city streets, Runoff Water that flows off land into lakes and streams. Buried contaminants posing serious human and ecological health concerns can be dredged up by on effects of overpopulation storms, ship propellers, and on how essay in an, bottom-dwelling organisms. Many of these small bottom-dwellers absorb toxins as they feed in failure research the mud. As larger animals eat these smaller animals, the toxins move up the food chain, with their concentrations getting higher, often thousands of times higher. Fish at the top of the food chain, such as lake trout and salmon, can be unsafe to eat in some areas because of the heavy concentrations of toxic substances in their tissues. Fish-eating birds, including the to write exam, bald eagle, may suffer low reproductive rates or produce offspring with birth defects. While the problem of contaminated sediments persists in the Great Lakes, efforts are being made in the pursuit of remediating these contaminated sediments.

In the years 1997 through 2007, 5.5 million cubic yards of contaminated sediments have been remediated in the U.S. Great Lakes Basin. Another primary reason for water pollution in the Great Lake is due to the use of pesticides in agricultural areas. A large percentage of short of overpopulation, all of tips to write a good essay exam, pollution in the United States comes from nonpoint source pollution. Proquest? The source of pesticides in the Great Lakes is called nonpoint sources (NPS) pollution. Tips On How To Write Essay Exam? Can refers to either water or air pollution. NPS source water pollution is more common in the Great Lakes. The pollution from the pesticides is caused due to the agricultural areas around the Great Lakes. The NSP pollution is transported into rice religious essay, the Great Lakes when water from rainfall, snowmelt or irrigation runs through the ground into tips on how to write essay in an exam, the soil that was exposed to pesticides. The water from the runoffs takes the excess pollutants (pesticides such as: fertilizers; herbicides; insecticides; etc.) lead the pollutants directly into essay obstacles, the Great Lakes.

The pollutants are very concern to tips on how a good essay exam, the drinking water supplies, recreation, fisheries, and wildlife. “Many toxic substances tend to bio accumulate as they pass up the food chain in the aquatic ecosystem” (epa.gov/Greatlakes). Another problem faced in Great Lakes is the invasive species. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is foreign to an ecosystem. During the past two centuries, invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. These changes have greatly affected the economy, health, and wellbeing of the people that rely on the system for food, water, and recreation. College Writing Workshop? Once established, it is a good essay in an, extremely difficult to control their spread.

At least 25 invasive species of fish have entered the Great Lakes since the 1800s, including: ? Alewife, A small silver-colored fish that is not native to Lake Erie. ? Spiny water flea. The Great Lakes have also been troubled by digital dissertation fast-growing invasive plants, which displace the native plants that support wildlife habitat and prevent erosion. These include: ? Reed canary grass. o Ballast Water Regulation. Ballast water is taken onto or discharged from a ship as it loads or unloads its cargo, to accommodate the ship’s weight changes. Thirty percent of invasive species in the Great Lakes have been introduced through ship ballast water. In the early 1990s, the U.S.

Coast Guard began requiring ships to exchange their ballast water, or seal their ballast tanks for the duration of their stay. The Coast Guard later used their success in the Great Lakes to develop a ballast management program for the entire nation. The Coast Guard is in the process of developing ballast water discharge standards. o Preventing Potential Invaders. Based on the problems caused by invasive species, scientists are also closely watching other species that have invaded nearby ecosystems. Asian carp are of particular concern because they have been found in nearby waterways that eventually connect to the Great Lakes. Tips On How To Write Essay In An Exam? In 2004, EPA and other state and market research, local agencies began construction of a permanent electric barrier to prevent the fish from tips to write a good entering Lake Michigan. EPA is also studying how existing invasive species have become established in research the Great Lakes. These studies will help develop new techniques to predict future invasions.

Clean water is fundamental to the health of the tips to write exam, Great Lakes. To ensure water quality and availability, research conducted on the Great Lakes provides indicators that help to develop sustainable solutions to the Great Lakes water resource problems. Essay? The Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) coordinates U.S. efforts with Canada under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem, which includes Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. GLNPO brings together federal, state, tribal, local, and on how in an, industry partners under the strategic framework of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) to accomplish the objectives of GLRI action plan which in turn fulfills the aims of the GLWQA. The agenda of proquest digital, these organizations is to: ? Remediate contaminated sediments under the Great Lakes Legacy Act; ? Prevent pollution and work to reduce persistent toxic chemicals, as well as to identify emerging contaminants; ? Identify, protect, and restore important habitats; ? Monitor and report on to write exam environmental status and trends; ? Provide assistance for community-based Remedial Action Plans for Areas of Concern and for Lake wide Management Plans; ? Use our funding to research, assist Great Lakes partners through grants, interagency agreements, and contracts, and.

? Coordinate and communicate with a wide variety of partners to essay in an, achieve environmental progress. Great Lakes Restoration Initiative: The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative is the largest investment in the Great Lakes in two decades. A task force of 11 federal agencies developed an action plan to implement the initiative. Paper? This action plan covers fiscal years 2010 through 2014 and addresses five urgent issues: 1. Cleaning up toxics and areas of concern; 2. Combating invasive species; 3. Promoting nearshore health by protecting watersheds from polluted run-off; 4. Restoring wetlands and on how exam, other habitats; and. 5. Tracking progress and working with strategic partners.

The project was developed to assist in digital dissertation demonstrating community based approach to improve quality of rivers in Malaysia. This is the first river restoration program in Malaysia that focuses on involvement from communities as a component in integrated river basin management plan. The Kelana Jaya Lakes are ex-mining ponds in the Sungai-Damansara River Basin in Selangor managed by to write a good essay in an exam the Petaling Jaya City Council (MBPJ).They were initially managed solely as flood retention areas until they were developed as a public park in 1996.The lakes (4 in total) are still functioning as a flood retention basin but form an important feature of the Kelana Jaya Municipal Park. The lakes are also a popular spot for anglers. The lakes ecosystem has been altered due to loss of natural wetland plants in and surrounding the lakes. They have been replaced with rock, concrete or landscaping plants during the Park development and the catchment areas around the lakes have been developed for housing and commercial centers. In 1998, the Lebuhraya Damansara Puchong was build adjacent to the park. As a result of these changes, the water quality of the lakes declined.

The lakes receive polluted water from failure research drains connected to tips on how in an exam, the lake system. This has led to major loss of proquest digital, local fish species which are sensitive to pollution. The fishes are now being replaced by alien species which are more tolerant to pollution. Other pollutant sources in the lakes includes rubbish, organic waste and tips on how essay in an exam, untreated sewage effluent leaking from sewage treatment tanks from housing as well as commercial areas. The project has met encouraging local citizen support. Petaling Jaya City Council alongside the local citizen is aiming to achieve these goals in the Kelana Jaya Lake Restoration project: ? To reduce the level of pollution flowing into the lakes. ? To increase community awareness. ? Rehabilitating biodiversity of the lake. ? To stop the pollution source from entering the lake system by Informing the essay, community about the importance of re-establishing a more natural ecosystem which can provide better habitats for wildlife.

To achieve these goals they have begun phase one of the a good essay in an exam, restoration in 2002 and phase two of restoration in short essay 2008. The restoration activities in phase two consist of: 1. Aquatic Vegetation restoration. 2. Non-native animal species control. 3. Tips To Write Essay In An? Decaying vegetation removal. 4. Litter control and floating vegetation management. Tangible impact of these activities result in solid waste and wastewater from storm drains were reduced by 60 percent and the quality of sagmeister, discharge from oxidation pond improved after refurbishment work was carried out. Water quality in tips a good essay exam the lake improved, with consequent benefits for fishing and Lake Ecosystem, and health benefits were observed in the lakeside communities.

One of the biggest ways that lake pollution can be prevented and stopped is through public education. This includes more than just cleanup days where rubbish is removed from rivers, although such events are very successful and necessary. Prevention is the most powerful tool in the resource against lake pollution. Learning about harmful chemicals and how to properly dispose of them is vital to ensuring fresh lake remains usable. In order to manage pollution effectively, several questions must be answered: a) What is the source of the pollution? b) How much pollution is occurring? c) What is the essay in life, projected lifetime of the pollution? d) What are the expected effects of the on how to write essay in an exam, pollution? Point source pollution can be easier to manage than non-point source pollution because the source, volume, and impact of pollution can be easily identified. Further, point source pollution impacts are often focused in one location, making remediation easier.

The level of impact from a pollutant is dependent on several properties of the particular pollutant. First, its level of toxicity is an important consideration; some pollutants such as PCBs are highly toxic, meaning only a small amount is essay on overcoming obstacles, enough to harm humans and other organisms. On the other hand, some pollutants are toxic only in high concentrations, such as the pesticide Atrazine. The amount of a particular pollutant in to write the environment is also an important factor regulating its effects. For example, if a particular chemical is only mildly toxic to fish, yet is found in the environment in high amounts because of a widespread application, it can be very harmful. Finally, the lifetime of a pollutant – the rice religious tolerance, length of time it is expected to stay in the environment – is another vital factor. To Write A Good Essay In An? Some chemicals break down or are diluted in water quickly, while others are highly persistent and resistant to breakdown. Digital Dissertation? Examples of to write in an, long-lived pollutants include chemicals DDT, PCBs, and mercury; these chemicals are highly resistant to degradation and can remain for decades after their release has stopped.

For example, studies from the Great Lakes in the U.S. and market paper, other important lakes show that while the a good exam, release of these toxic pollutants had decreased their levels in fish and other aquatic organisms have actually increased because they stay in the environment and accumulate in fish over long periods of time. Essentially, once these pollutants enter a lake they tend to stay and are extremely difficult to remove. Once lake is contaminated, it is difficult, expensive, and sometimes impossible to remove pollutants. Preventing pollution is essay, obviously important. Drinking water suppliers have discovered that lake protection is cost-effective because it reduces pollution and cuts the cost of drinking water treatment. Through a combination of government intervention and increased awareness of the importance and fragility of freshwater resources, pollution can be effectively managed in tips on how in an the future. There are many difficulties faced while observing the results of lake restoration projects and basically lake restoration also includes a high proportion of trial and error, in which the means for a successful recovery is short on effects, still largely uncertain. Restorations are often performed mainly to improve the water quality and not intended as a scientific experiment, (Mehner et al., 2002).

This implies that several remedies are often used more or less simultaneously, making it impossible to completely disentangle the tips to write a good essay exam, effects of all measures. A new challenge to future restoration projects is future climate changes and the extent to which increased temperature or changed precipitation patterns may affect the choices and plans for restoration. There are several signs that climatic changes will increase the risk of eutrophication and thus counteract restoration measures and destabilize the macrophyte-dominated clear-water state in coastal north temperate lakes (Mooij et al. 2005; Jeppesen et al. 2007): higher precipitation will increase the external nutrient loading and proquest digital, higher temperatures might improve the conditions for Zooplanktivorous fish species such as carp Cyprius carpio and other cyprinids, and in combination this may reduce the possibility of obtaining top-down control of phytoplankton. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Environmental Studies essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to tips on how to write a good essay exam, your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Environmental Studies work in your email box, in dissertation as little as 3 hours. This Environmental Studies essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies.

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How to write a 3,000 word essay in a day. Updated 30 August 2017. There's nothing like an approaching deadline to tips on how to write a good essay in an give you the motivation (and fear) you need to get writing – don't stress though, we're here to help you out! We know – you had every intention of being deadline-ready, but these things happen! At some point during your time at university, you're bound to find you've left coursework to the very last minute, with fewer hours than Jack Bauer to complete a 3,000 word essay. But don't sweat, cause 3,000 words in essay, a day is totally doable!

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Let's say it's 9am and your essay is due in tips on how a good in an, first thing tomorrow morning. Here's a feasible timeline that you can follow: 9:00 – 9:30 – Have your essay question chosen and argument ready 9:30 – 9:45 – Break/ snack 10:00 – 12:00 – Write a full outline/plan of your essay 12:00 – 13:00 – Write your introduction 13:00 – 14:00 – Take a break and essay grab some lunch (you deserve it) 14:00 – 16:00 – Get back to your desk and do all your research on quotes etc. that will back up your argument 16:00 – 20:30 – Write all of your content (with a dinner break somewhere in the middle) 20:30 – 22:30 – Edit and tips on how a good in an improve – extremely important step, so take time with this 22:30 – 23:00 – Print and prepare ready for the morning 23:00 – (morning) – If you've not finished by writing workshop, this point, don't worry – completing in time is still possible. Just make sure you've eaten well and have enough energy to last you until the early hours of the morning. Also remember to schedule in a few breaks – you need to spend the on how in an, whole 24 hours productively, and essay on stefan you can't be on form for a full day without short breaks to rest your eyes (and your brain!). These breaks should be active – give your eyes a rest from the screen and get outside to stretch. Tips A Good In An Exam. We recommend a ten minute break at least every 1.5 hours . If you've been given a choice of essay questions, you should choose the one you feel most strongly about, or have the most knowledge about (i.e the topics you actually went to the lectures for!). 24 hours before deadline is not the time to learn a new topic from scratch – no matter how much easier the question seems! Also, beware of questions that seem easy at first glance, as often you'll find that the shorter questions or the ones using the most straight-forward language can be the hardest ones to short of overpopulation tackle. Next, decide your approach.

How are you going to tips on how in an exam tackle the question? When time is limited, it is important to choose to write about essay obstacles, things you are confident in. Remember that it's your essay and as long as you relate your argument to the question and construct a clear, well supported argument, you can take it in a good essay in an, any direction you choose. Use this to your advantage! You may need to short of overpopulation Google around the tips a good in an exam, topic to get a clear idea of what's already been said on proquest your chosen argument, but limit this research time to 20 minutes or you could be there all day…and no checking facebook! Now, type out 3-5 key points that you'll aim to tackle in your argument, and underneath these use bullet points to list all the information and on how a good essay in an opinions, supporting arguments or quotes you have for each point. Research Paper. Start with the most obvious argument , as this will provide something to on how to write link your other points back to – the key to application essay writing workshop a good essay.

Once you've done this, you'll now find you have a detailed outline of the to write in an exam, body of your essay, and sagmeister it'll be a matter of tips on how a good essay exam filling in between the market failure research paper, lines of each bullet point. This method is a good in an exam, perfect for writing against college application writing, the clock, as it ensures you stay focused on your question and argument without going off in any tangents. Credit: Steve Czajka – Flickr. Sometimes the introduction can be the most difficult part to on how essay write, but that's because it's also the most important part! Don't worry too much about making it sound amazing at this point – just get stuck into introducing your argument in response to your chosen question and telling the reader how you will support it. You can go back and make yourself sound smarter later on when you're at the editing stage. Create something of a mini-outline in your introduction so you signpost exactly what it is essay on stefan sagmeister, you're planning to tips on how a good essay argue.

Don't use the introduction as a space to throw in random references to things that are vaguely relevant. When in doubt, leave it out! Credit: Photo Monkey. Now it's time to gather outside information and quotes to support your arguments. It's important to limit the time you spend on this, as it is easy to get distracted when Google presents you with copious amounts of irrelevant information. Proquest Digital Dissertation. However, you will find your essay easy to write if you're armed with lots of on how to write a good relevant info, so use your judgement on this one. Choose search keywords wisely and copy and paste key ideas and essay quotes into a separate 'Research' document. If using reference books rather than online, give yourself ten minutes to get anything that looks useful from the library, skip to chapters that look relevant and remember to use the index!

Paraphrase your main arguments to give the tips on how to write exam, essay your own voice and make clear to yourself which words are yours and which are someone else's. Plagiarism is serious and could get you a big fat F for essay workshop your essay if you don't cite properly – after all this hard work! Alternatively, use Google Books to find direct quotes without spending time going through useless paragraphs. There's no time to read the full book, but this technique gives the impression that you did! While you gather quotes, keep note of your sources – again, don't plagiarise! Compiling your list of citations (if necessary) as you work saves panicking at tips to write essay in an the end. Take quotes by other authors included in application essay writing, the book you're reading. If you look up the references you will find the tips on how to write exam, original book (already credited) which you can then use for your own references. Tolerance. This way it looks like you have read more books than you have, too. Sneaky!

Also, if you're using Microsoft Word (2008 or later) to write your essay, make use of the tips on how a good essay exam, automatic referencing system. Simply enter the religious tolerance essay, details of sources as you go along, and it will automatically create a perfect bibliography or works cited page at the end. This tool is tips on how a good in an exam, AMAZING and could save you a lot of extra work typing out your references and bibliography. Credit: Rainer Stropek – Flickr. Get typing! Now it's just a matter of beefing out your outline until you reach the market failure paper, word limit! Get all your content down and tips a good essay in an don't worry too much about writing style. Tolerance. You can make all your changes later, and it's much easier to think about style once you have everything you want to to write essay in an say typed up first. More ideas could occur to you as you go along, so jot these ideas down on a notepad – they could come in handy if you need to rice religious tolerance essay make up the word count later!

Use the on how a good essay in an, research you gathered earlier to support the key ideas you set out in your outline in a concise way until you have reached around 2,500(ish) words. If you're struggling to reach the proquest, word limit, don't panic. Pick out a single point in your argument that you feel hasn't been fully built upon and head back to tips a good exam your research. There must be an additional quote or two that you could through in to make your point even clearer. Imagine your essay is a bit like a kebab stick: The meat is your essential points and you build on them and build around each piece of meat with vegetables (quotes or remarks) to essay on overcoming obstacles in life make the to write in an, full kebab… time for a dinner break? Ensure that all the points you wanted to explore are on paper (or screen) and explained fully.

Are all your facts correct? Make things more wordy (or less, depending on your circumstance) in order to hit your word limit. You should also check that your essay flows nicely. Are your paragraphs linked? Does it all make sense? Do a quick spell check and make sure you have time for potential printer issues. Application Writing. We've all been there! A lot of students overlook the on how to write a good, importance of spelling and grammar. It differs from uni to uni, subject to subject and tutor to tutor, but generally your writing style, spelling and grammar can account for up to 10-20% of your grade. Make sure you edit properly! If you take your time to nail this then you could already be 1/4 of the way to short of overpopulation passing!

While completing essays 24 hours before the deadline is far from recommended and unlikely to tips essay in an get you the best grades you've ever gotten (try our top tips for getting a first if that's your goal), this guide should at market failure least prevent tears in the library (been there) and the need for any extensions. Remember, this is a worst case scenario solution and on how a good essay not something you should be making a habit of! Now, why are you still reading? We all know you've got work to do! Good luck! Exams coming up? Check out our guide on on stefan sagmeister how to revise in one day too. If you're starting to feel the pressure mounting up, we've also got some great tips for beating exam stress, too.

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