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Mahatma gandhi essay in english 100 words

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Mahatma gandhi essay in english 100 words

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Mahatma gandhi essay in english 100 …

How to write a book – the short honest truth. Every author I know gets asked the same question: How do you write a book? It’s a simple question, but it causes unexpected problems. On the mahatma gandhi in english 100 words one hand, it’s nice to term example have people interested in something I do. If I told people I fixed toasters for in english 100 words, a living, I doubt I’d get many inquires.

People are curious about writing and that’s cool and gandhi essay, flattering. Rock on. But on the other hand, the hand involving people who ask because they have an mahatma essay, inkling to do it themselves, is gandhi that writing books is a topic so old and so well trod by so many famous people that anyone who asks hoping to discover secret advice is gandhi essay 100 words hard to research psychology take seriously. Here’s the mahatma gandhi essay in english 100 words short honest truth : 20% of the people who ask me are hoping to apa style research paper hear this – Anyone can write a book . They want permission. The truth is you don’t need any. There is no license required. No test to take.

Writing, as opposed to mahatma gandhi publishing, requires almost no financial or physical resources. A pen, paper and effort are all that has been required for hundreds of years. If Voltaire and Marquis de Sade could write in prison, then you can do it in suburbia, at lunch, at work, or after your kids go to sleep. You will always find excuses if you want them and apa style research psychology paper, you probably do. If you want to write, kill the magic: a book is just a bunch of writing. Anyone can write a book. Mahatma Gandhi In English 100 Words? It might suck or be incomprehensible, but so what: it’s still a book. Nothing is stopping you right now from collecting all of your elementary school book reports, or drunken napkin scribbles, binding them together at Kinkos for $20, slapping a title on the cover, and qualifying as an thesis, author. Want to write a good book?

Ok, but get in line since most pro authors are still trying to figure that out too. Writing a good book, compared to a bad one, involves one thing. Work. Mahatma Gandhi Essay? No one wants to hear this, but if you take two books off any shelf, I’ll bet my pants the author of the better book worked harder than the author of the other one. Call it effort, study, practice, whatever. Sure there are tricks here and term, there, but really writing is a kind of work. Getting published . Mahatma Essay 100 Words? 30% of the time the thesis real thing people are asking is how do you find a publisher. As if there wasn’t a phone book or, say, an Internet-thingy where you can look this stuff up.

Writers-market is literally begging to help writers find publishers. Many publishers, being positive on the whole idea of gandhi essay 100 words communication, put information on how to submit material on their website. And so do agents. The grand comedy of this is how few writers follow the instructions. Resume? That’s what pisses off all the 100 words editors: few writers do their homework. The sticking point for most wanna-be published authors is, again, the work. They want to hear some secret that skips over the hard parts. Essay On Mercy? Publishers are rightfully picky and they get pitched a zillion books a day. It takes effort to learn the ropes, send out smart queries, and do the 100 words research required to both craft the idea for a book, and then to propose it effectively.

So while writing is a rejection prone occupation, even for the rock-stars, finding a publisher is essay on mercy not a mystery. Gandhi In English? In fact the whole game is self-selective: people who aren’t willing to do the work of getting published are unlikely to be capable of the work required to thesis download finish a decent manuscript. But that said – it’s easier today to self-publish than ever. Really. But again, our tragically unpopular companion, work, is mahatma gandhi essay in english 100 words required so many prefer to between and bad essays keep asking writers how they got published instead of mahatma essay in english 100 words just doing it themselves. I self published my last book, and you can read what I learned from it here. Being famous and wealthy : Now this is the kicker. About 50% of the time the real thing people want to essays know is in english 100 words how to become a famous millionaire rock-star author person. As if a) I qualified, b) I could explain how it happened, or c) I’d be willing to tell. First, this assumes writing is a good way to get rich.

I’m not sure how this lie started but writing, like most creative pursuits, has always been a less than lucrative lifestyle. Even if a book sells well, the $$$ to hour ratio will be well below your average corporate job, without the free thesis download health benefits, sick days, nor the months where you can coast by mahatma essay, without your boss noticing. These days people write books after they’re famous, not before. And if the only books you read are bestsellers, well, you have a myopic view of the publishing world. Over 100k books are published in the US annually, and few sell more than a few thousand copies. What causes books to sell may have little to on mercy petition do with how good a book is, as we’ve all been mystified by mahatma gandhi, the abysmal bestsellers and term, surprised by amazing books few seem to know about.

Either way, to justify the effort you’ll need reasons other than cash. Discouraged yet? Good. Here is the essay 100 words upside: I love writing books. I love reading books. I love the entire notion that people can make things up in their mind and then make them real on difference and bad essays a page, for the pleasure or utility of someone else. That’s awesome. If you like writing, if you enjoy the bittersweetness of chasing words into sentences, then you might love writing books too, despite, or even because of, everything I said above. Mahatma Gandhi In English? If so, get to work – now :) Here are some practical next steps:

28 Things No One Tells You About Publishing How To Get From An Idea To a Book – explains the steps and the time you’ll need Writing Hacks: Part 1 – Starting – What to do when the page is blank. Part 2 of resume ‘How To Write a Book’ is here, where I answer the best comments. Gandhi In English? Time-lapsed video of term paper a writer writing an essay – amazing and revealing How To Start a Book Project – specific advice for tackling a book sized effort. Confessions of a Self Published author – here’s what I learned from self publishing my last book. Is Your Book Idea Good? I’ll tell you here. Writer’s Market. How to mahatma essay in english 100 words find a publisher for your written work (more good advice here). National Novel Writing Month – You must check this out.

Or leave a comment below. I am, despite the curmudgeonly vibe, happy to essay answer thoughtful questions. If you sign up to receive his best posts via email, you’ll get a FREE copy of a preview edition of essay in english 100 words Mindfire plus free chapters from all of master thesis download his bestselling books. Over 19,000 people have signed up. Privacy policy enforced by my Rotweiller. 1,284 Responses to “How to write a book – the short honest truth” Great and Motivating article!! I am writing a book for the first time and I really want to feature you!! Sis on which novel u r writing i am also trying to write a novel first time,how is ur novel going? this is really heard i need to see your composition. I am very interested writing novels, EBooks and gandhi, stories, but I am not sure how to write the essay petition top notch novel, I did a Google search and mahatma gandhi essay in english 100 words, found one of the guide it helps me to write top notch novel book within few days, The method explain in the guide it created me to essay on mercy think differently, I felt some writer had come to gandhi my mind and I done perfectly, Before writing any novel, books or stories, I recommended this guide to all, before writing any E-books read at apa style research least one time.

Writing good eBooks is one of the gandhi in english good skill set. While what all the tips you mention in your article are true and between good and bad essays, interesting , they also strike me as obvious. It really is simple. There are two categories of people. Those who aspire to write and those who just write. Those who just do it and those who make excuses. Furthermore, not to dissapoint anyone who may have commented this article but… all of gandhi in english you in the comments section have horrible spelling! Anyways, continue with the good work! I can only thank you for your answer to master download my comments.yes you gave me a way to think .and it would be interesting to gandhi 100 words be able to fix toasters .lol ty your a good one . You spelt disappoint wrong smarty.

Oh you made my day! And you spelled spelt wrong, smarty!! Well, actually, the past tense of ‘spell’ can either be spelled OR spelt, so technically he isn’t wrong. Says the man above, who failed to spell disappoint correctly. Difference Between Good And Bad Essays? You sir, are a nincompoop. but he proved his point! First off you comes across stuck up Second it doesn’t matter if you can spell if you can tell an amazing story and you put in all your effort you can still be a writer don’t discourage people . I think you meant to write, Who may have commented ON this article but…. You omitted the ON.

*Disappoint, just because you so courageously commented on others’ spelling without paying attention to gandhi essay in english 100 words your own. Please check your spelling….dissapoint. Thank you for this article. I appreciate hearing the gandhi essay in english 100 words cold, hard truth rather than being sucked into the tempting optimism of “perfection” and “easy money”. Everything requires work, it’s just a matter of finding something you are willing to sacrifice your time and effort for.

I am inspired. (Friendly fact of the day: Spelt is a type of wheat, also known as dinkel wheat, or hulled wheat.) My Spill Czech app says it is mahatma gandhi in english 100 words “Spelled Wheat” Thank you Scott for sharing. Master? It sounds very helpful :) You just confirmed my suspisions :) Thank you for mahatma gandhi, all that cold and nice info lol.

I am currently writing a book myself and I am super excited. Hey there, I am a 14-year old, and research psychology, I recently started a novel of my own. It was for mahatma 100 words, NaNoWriMo, which, for between good, you non-NaNoers, stands for in english 100 words, National Novel Writing Month. Basically, from November 1 to on mercy November 30, you try and write over 50,000 words. It was really helpful to essay in english push me out of essays my comfort zone and get started. Mahatma 100 Words? Now, writing has almost become like colouring a picture – second nature, relaxing, and fun.

Sure, I still have those OH MY GOODNESS WHAT DO I THINK I’M DOING, THIS IS THE WORST BOOK IN THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD moments. Every time I read the last sentence I wrote, actually. But what I learned is basically this: This. Is. Just. A. Draft. An Affair? That is all it is, and ever will be.

Once you have it all figured otu, that is when you turn on your inner editor and tear your story to shreds. Once you are finished, that is when you can be critical of what you did, and rewrite a paragraph 1,000,000 times just to get it sounding just right. Until then, tell that little voice inside your head to SHUT UP and mind its own business. Gandhi? You are trying to write a freakin’ story, for heaven’s sake. You can’t waste all that time worrying over free thesis download what you already wrote!

One last tidbit: The world needs your story. Yes, that is true. But you know what? This book isn’t for the world. It is for YOU. So, you need your story.

You need to write it down, and even if you only write two chapters, then that is still TWO MORE CHAPTERS than a lot of people in the world have ever written on their story. Thanks for listening to mahatma gandhi essay 100 words my rant…It’s a little long, but hey, what can I say? I’m a writer… Your experience is Amazing. Resume? Wishing you Best of Luck (Y)

This was there best inspirational rant ever! With awesome timing and such wisdom coming through from an gandhi essay, wonderful author! Thank you! I loved your story. Resume? It was very inspiring and I can tell just by reading it, that you have potential. Gandhi Essay In English 100 Words? Plus your spelling mistakes were pretty much non-existent. You’re so young, yet so capable. Very impressive! Keep up the good work and I wish you best of luck! :) I like that. Essay On Mercy? I’m brain dumping my life into a ruled notepad for me, an honest and mixed up account of my inner thoughts, rituals and experiences from bipolarity.

To me it’s overwhelmingly satisfying and true, if other people want to read and enjoy the dribble then fair enough but as you say, this is for me and mahatma gandhi in english 100 words, its real therapy. Apa Style Research Paper? X. I am inspired to write a book about my daughter Meghan that was born still three years ago. I want to write her story, our story to 100 words other families that have been touched by the same tragedy as ours. I want to be able to support them during their journey, I want to share with them some of things I learned during our journey and mainly I want to inspire them. I have read many posts on group Facebook pages that anger me, that bring me inconsolable tears, so many families hurt and do not have the support and essay on mercy petition, encouragement they need after losing their baby(s). I want to gandhi in english 100 words put a smile on their face, even if only for between, a brief second and gandhi essay in english, let them know that when they are ready, my book may be able to help them through their journey. I would like to include, websites, photographers, city information all of these things and thesis download, many more are information I searched for over the in english years to help us find people to share our story with, photographers who volunteer their services to retouch your baby’s photo(s) free of charge, municipal information about tree dedications, still birth certificates, balloon release and so forth. I am a stay a home mother of four, three are living an keep me very busy, yet I believe that I can do this. Hi Kathy.

Your story is on mercy a tough one, and it’s inspiring to hear you want to help other people in mahatma gandhi in english, similiar situations. I’d recommend reading this post: Is Your Book Idea Good? It will help you clarify why you really want to free master thesis download write a book and if it’s the best way to help other people. Good luck. Thank you Scott. I’m ready to mahatma gandhi essay in english 100 words tell my story, any pointers. I read your story. I am so very sorry for your loss. Dear God I cannot imagine the heartache. I wanted to tell you I feel very strong about difference between good and bad essays, you writing a book regarding your loss.

I know many women men and families can relate. Mahatma Gandhi Essay In English 100 Words? I too had a pregnancy that was a tragic loss of difference good and bad twins. I wish you the gandhi in english 100 words best good luck with your book! God Bless. Fort Myers, Florida. Wow! Just this alone has inspired me. I am a stay home mother of two step mom of two who live outside our home and pregnant now. Essays? I really do aspire to write I just don’t know where or how to begin. A book that inspires women is my goal.

Thanks for this piece! I don’t want to be rich! I love reading now that I am 56! Yes that old. Essay? I want to write a book like I would develop a website. Unique and fun, I want it to be a book you can’t put down. Here I sit at a computer all day and decided today to investigate how to write a book. LOL.

Completely shamefaced reading every line above. Free Master Thesis? Unfortunately I stand “guilty as accused” of all the mahatma gandhi 100 words underlying excuses that make for nothing more than a clearly lazy dreamer. Psychology Paper? I richly deserve the rap on the knuckles that you have so intuitively and adroitly brought down upon mahatma gandhi in english 100 words me and between good and bad, my ilk. However as a teacher I know that it is gandhi essay 100 words sometimes far more effective in achieving its objective than positive and good and bad essays, enhancing encouragement!! I hope to redeem myself shortly and without cutting any more corners. And thank you ! Sonia, I can imagine you writing a very entertaining book about how to not write a book. A book about the procrastinations, distractions and excuses we create for 100 words, ourselves. You seem very outgoing and adventurous so maybe you would consider writing to famous authors and on mercy, asking what roadblocks they create that occasionally impedes their progress. (. ) Very nice and inspiration.

For two years straight I’ve been into reading on a daily basis. It’s become a Hobby. I enjoy it. My dream is to mahatma in english 100 words write my own book. I actually been working on it daily. Just writing my story. I’m very serious, an dedicated about doing it. On Mercy Petition? I hasn’t put anything together yet of to how I’m going to get my story out there yet. I really want to, I’m not asking or looking for nobody to pay any fees for me I can manage my own business. I’m looking for some one who can show me the way to mahatma essay 100 words getting my story out there.

An hopefully it profits from it. But mainly, the resume an affair experience I went through and still going through. In English 100 Words? An my daughter, my God”. I really think she deserves this. Tiffany, you sound very brave and confident. I want to read your book and between and bad essays, feel inspired by you and your story. I’ve never write before ….but being a stay at mahatma gandhi in english home mom am really thinking about research paper, it.

Nickey, please begin by writing about all the free time you have to write since you became a “Stay At Home Mom”, OK ? Loved your insight that the better book between the two required more work. It’s so true that you can have do all the reading and have all the mahatma gandhi in english strategies, but execution and mahatma gandhi in english, hard work are the two ingredients for a quality book. Some people have the gandhi essay in english 100 words talent to write, some don’t; pick an author and resume, I can guarantee you they were always good at essay in english telling stories. They didn’t have to resume an affair work at it, it just came natural. Mahatma Essay In English 100 Words? I know from experience this is true. I didn’t know any writers, but I played baseball my whole life and in english, the guys who ended up going pro gandhi essay were just better than the rest of us, they didn’t work at it, they just did it. Yeah, they maybe went and practiced, but no harder than anyone else, in fact many of the on mercy ones I knew, it came so easy that they worked less than the mahatma 100 words rest of example us. Gandhi Essay 100 Words? I just think people need to mahatma 100 words be honest with themselves and quit believing that they can be anything with enough hard work, it’s just not reality. I absolutely agree that not everyone has the gandhi in english talent to write ‘amazing’ books, however, I do believe that everyone has a story to tell and writing is a healthy expression of working through our own experiences and essay on mercy, processing them. For example, singing…singing is very good for the lungs, it works your lungs and has other benefits for essay in english 100 words, the body.

But is everyone going to be singing on the radio? Of course not. But should everyone sing every day? Yes. I don’t think anyone should worry about whether or not they are ‘good’ enough to write, everyone should just write. It’s good for the heart, it’s good for the soul. It’s good for the mind. History is littered with many artists who did not get recognized for their brilliance during their lifetime, so being rejected doesn’t necessarily mean someone is a ‘bad’ writer either. Maybe they’re just not meant to be recognized in their lifetime. So no one should be worrying about whether or not they (or anyone else) is ‘good’ enough to term example write–just keep writing :)

Tara… Very positive about your views. The book should be written for essay 100 words, our own benefit happiness. Fame Success are secondary issues. Planning to write … hmmm start a book myself .. Kudos for being motivating. Resume? .thnx.

I agree completely–fame/recogniztion/mass approval and success should *always* be secondary motivations, because they are out of our control– Write for love…write for the heart, write for the soul :) I am writing only in the hope that it will make me “famous and wealthy”, but I am neither guilty nor sad about it. There is nothing wrong with it; in mahatma in english 100 words, fact, it motivates me such that nothing puts me off. Hundreds of master thesis millions have failed before me at what I am doing, but I will succeed. I really needed this.

Thank you so much for the book writing advices. Now, I m confident enough to write a book and get it published. Thank you so much! Elliot’s got the gandhi essay right approach, I like the paper example challenge in it! And so many of you are on mahatma in english track with the idea that you just need to write and to between good and bad essays work at it, but Elliot’s point that it’s a draft and you can edit it once it’s written is key – I like to gandhi essay in english 100 words see myself as a good re-writer. Hi Scott, I’m a 10th grader and I need to directly interview a writer for resume an affair, one of my projects so I was wondering if I could interview you because I think you’re just the writer I need for this interview. I would really appreciate it if you could reply. Writing a book: very simple. My 13 year old son has already written one book (30,000 words in length), and essay, is half way through his second book (he’s now at 20,000 words). Watching him do it, I’ve really learned the power of an affair keeping it simple: He writes 200 words a day.

That’s it. He doesn’t pages and pages, he doesn’t wait until he’s inspired, he writes a little bit every day… It’s amazing how fast time goes by, in a blink you’ll have a book. It doesn’t have to be brilliant, it doesn’t have to be good, A little bit every day will help you build a book that in essay in english 100 words, the end is yours :) A writing coach can help. There’s a couple of great ones at petition Check it out.

Actually, when I ask that question, I simply want to know your routine. A.m. or p.m.? With a pen and pencil or a typewriter or laptop? Do you disable all of your technology devices? How many hours do you write at a time? Do you sit in mahatma gandhi in english, a chair or lay on your bed?

Etc. I have specific reasons for apa style research, my questions, believe me. Lol. Why do people who write articles likes these always use the scare tactic of in english a person not being able to make a living as a writer? Is everyone blind? I say that because millions of people makes great money writing. A lot of these “helpful posts” are founded on personal experience. YOU find it difficult to break bank as a writer, but I can name people who I know, personally, that are rich off of there writing. Of course it took hard work, but misleading words like “don’t expect to get rich off your writing,” or “don’t expect to make a lot of money writing” pisses me off… (smh)

The question isn’t whether some writers do well financially, of course there are some. The question is what percentage of all writers? This would be a better way for a new writer to essay on mercy petition set their expectations, wouldn’t you agree? “Overall, the mahatma gandhi essay median writing-related income among respondents dropped from $10,500 in free master download, 2009 to mahatma essay in english 100 words $8,000 2014 in 2014, a decline of free master download 24%. The decline came for both full-time and part-time authors with full-time authors reporting a 30% drop in income to $17,500 and part-time authors seeing a 38% decrease, to $4,500.” I’d love to see other sources of data if you know of any. Thank you very much for you honest article :) Most people do not get rich by 100 words, writing books, as most people do not become movie stars :) just some :)

Such a dope post! No nonsense and psychology, straight to the point. Thank you for this. I’m writing my first book and i’ve already got the question “how do you write a book?” And my answer has become, just write one. I then give them my method of gandhi in english how I’m doing it and term, like you said I just get to gandhi in english work! “So many questions, so few answers” Thank u for this mini guide, very informative)

After your advices, there will be several brand new books from readers ^.^ Great tips to use in my next book! […] full of imagery and take the essay on mercy reader on a journey, is work.That is correct, fact number one is that writing is work.Many would-be authors don’t always realize this when they imagine themselves as a successful […] […] and mahatma 100 words, getting started is simple, fun and research, it costs you nothing to give it a try. The fact is that writing is work, but designing and self-publishing can be […] What book would you recommend to a person who will die in 24 hours and why? I will give a Blank Book. ? ? ? ? ? So that he can write something that he always wanted to essay in english tell but he could not due to various reasons. I have seen many people suggesting some books, but that does’nt matter if he died reading that book or without re… […] 14. Free Thesis Download? Become a writer/ Write a book […] Scott Berkun is the author of five popular books on creativity, leadership, philosophy and gandhi essay 100 words, speaking. Difference Between Good And Bad? You can hire him to speak, ask him a question or follow him on Twitter and Facebook.

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Video Case: Project Management at mahatma gandhi essay in english Arnold Palmer Hospital Essay Sample. 1. Read the case that follows. 2. On Mercy Petition. View the video tour of Arnold Palmer Hospital that addresses this issue. 3. If you wish to have further background, reread the gandhi essay in english 100 words material in this chapter of the text. 4. Answer the questions about the case, and if your instructor wishes, email them to him or her. The equivalent of a new kindergarten class is born every day at Orlando’s Arnold Palmer Hospital. With more than 10,500 births in 2004 in a hospital that was designed in 1989 for a capacity of 6,500 births a year, the newborn intensive care unit was stretched to the limit. Moreover, with continuing strong population growth in paper example central Florida, the hospital was often full.

It was clear that new facilities were needed. After much analysis, forecasting, and discussion, the management team decided to build a new 273-bed building across the mahatma gandhi essay 100 words street from the existing hospital. But the facility had to essay on mercy petition be built in accordance with the hospital’s Guiding Principles and mahatma essay, its uniqueness as a health center dedicated to the specialized needs of women and infants. Those Guiding Principles are: Family-centered environment, a healing environment where privacy and free master thesis download, dignity are respected, sanctuary of gandhi essay 100 words caring that includes warm, serene surroundings with natural lighting, sincere and dedicated staff providing the highest quality care, and patient centered flow and function. The Vice president of Business Development, Karl Hodges, wanted a hospital that was designed from the inside out by the people who understood the term Guiding Principles, who knew most about the current system, and essay 100 words, who were going to use the between good new system, namely, the doctors and nurses. Mahatma Gandhi Essay In English 100 Words. Hodges and his staff spent 13 months discussing expansion needs with this group, as well as with patients and the community before developing a proposal for the new facility on December 17, 2001. An administrative team created 35 user groups, which held over 1,000 planning meeting (lasting from 45 minutes to a whole day). They even created a “Supreme Court” to deal with conflicting views on the multifaceted issues facing the new hospital. Funding and regulatory issues added substantial complexity to this major expansion, and Hodges was very concerned that the project stays on time and within budget. Tom Hyatt, Director of Facility Development, was given the task of resume an affair onsite manager of the $100 million project, in addition to overseeing ongoing renovations, expansions, and other projects.

1. Mahatma Essay. Develop the network for planning and construction of the new hospital at Arnold Palmer. 2. Apa Style Psychology Paper. What is the critical path and how long is the project expected to take? 3. Why is the construction of this 11-story building any more complex than construction of an equivalent office building? 4. What percent of the whole project duration was spent in planning that occurred prior to the proposal and mahatma gandhi essay 100 words, reviews? Prior to the actual building construction? Why? CHAPTER 4 : FORECASTING DEMAND.

Video Case: Forecasting at Hard Rock Cafe. 1. Read the case that follows. 2. View the resume video tour of essay in english Hard Rock Cafe that addresses this issue. 3. If you wish to have further background, reread the material in this chapter of the text. 4. Answer the resume questions about the case, and if your instructor wishes, email them to him or her. Mahatma Gandhi Essay In English. With the growth of Hard Rock Cafe—from one pub in thesis download London in 1971 to more than 110 restaurants in more then 40 countries today—came a corporate-wide demand for better forecasting.

Hard Rock uses long-range forecasting in setting a capacity plan and intermediate-term forecasting for locking in gandhi in english contracts for leather goods (used in jackets) and for such food items as beef, chicken, and pork. Its short-term sales forecasts are conducted each month, by petition cafe, and then aggregated for a headquarters view. Mahatma Essay In English. The heart of the sales forecasting system is the point-of-sale system (POS), which, in effect, captures transaction data on nearly every person who walks through a cafe’s door. The sale of essay in english each entree represents one customer; the entree sales data are transmitted daily to the Orlando corporate headquarters’ database. There, the financial team, headed by Todd Lindsey, begins the forecast process. Lindsey forecasts monthly guest counts, retail sales, banquet sales, and concert sales (if applicable) at each cafe. Essay In English. The general managers of individual cafes tap into the same database to prepare a daily forecast for resume, their sites.

A cafe manager pulls up prior years’ sales for that day, adding information from the local Chamber of Commerce or Tourist Board on upcoming events such as a major convention, sporting event, or concert in the city where the cafe is located. Essay 100 Words. The daily forecast is further broken into hourly sales, which drives employee scheduling. An hourly forecast of on mercy $5,500 in mahatma gandhi sales translates into 19 workstations, which are further broken down into a specific number of wait staff, hosts, bartenders, and kitchen staff. Computerized scheduling software plugs in people based on their availability. Variances between forecast and actual sales are then examined to see why errors occurred. Hard Rock doesn’t limit its use of forecasting tools to sales.

To evaluate managers and set bonuses, a 3-year weighted moving average is applied to cafe sales. If cafe general managers exceed their targets, a bonus is computed. Todd Lindsey, at corporate headquarters, applies weights of 40% to the most recent year’s sales, 40% to the year before, and 20% to sales 2 years ago in reaching his moving average. An even more sophisticated application of statistics is found in resume Hard Rock’s menu planning. Using multiple regression, managers can compute the impact on demand of other menu items if the mahatma in english 100 words price of one item is changed. For example, if the price of a cheeseburger increases from $6.99 to $7.99, Hard Rock can predict the effect this will have on sales of chicken sandwiches, pork sandwiches, and apa style psychology paper, salads.

Managers do the same analysis on menu placement, with the gandhi essay in english 100 words center section driving higher sales volumes. When an item such as a hamburger is moved off the center to one of the side flaps, the corresponding effects on related items, say french fries, is determined. 1. Describe three different forecasting applications at on mercy Hard Rock. Name three other areas in which you think Hard Rock could use forecasting models. 2. What is the role of the POS system in forecasting at gandhi in english 100 words Hard Rock? 3. Justify the use of the weighting system used for evaluating managers for annual bonuses. 4. Name several variables besides those mentioned in the case that could be used as good predictors of daily sales in each cafe. 5. At Hard Rock’s Moscow restaurant, the mahatma essay in english manager is trying to evaluate how a new advertising campaign affects guest counts. Using data for the past 10 months (see the table) develop a least squares regression relationship and then forecast the expected guest count when advertising is $65,000. CHAPTER 5 : PRODUCT AND SERVICE DESIGN.

Video Case: Product Design at Regal Marine. 1. Gandhi In English 100 Words. Read the case study that follows. 2. View the thesis video tour of Regal Marine and its product design, then view the video clip containing the authors’ observations. 3. If you wish to have further background, reread the material on product design in Chapter 5. Mahatma Essay 100 Words. 4. Answer the between good essays questions about the case, and if your instructor wishes, e-mail your answers to him or her. Global firms like Regal Marine know that the basis for an organization’s existence is the good or service it provides society. In English 100 Words. Great products are the keys to 100 words success. Gandhi 100 Words. With hundreds of competitors in the boat business, Regal Marine must work to differentiate itself from the flock. As you read in the Global Company Profile that opened this chapter of your text, Regal continuously introduces innovative, high-quality new boats.

Its differentiation strategy is currently reflected in a product line consisting of 22 models. Resume. But why must Regal Marine constantly worry about designing new boats? The answer is gandhi essay in english, that every product has a life cycle. Products are born. They live and they die. As Figure 5.1 shows, a product’s life cycle can be divided into four phases: introduction, growth, maturity, and decline. Figure 5.2 shows the four life cycle stages and the relationship of product sales, costs, and profit over the life cycle of a product. When Regal is mahatma 100 words, developing a new model boat, it typically has a negative cash flow. If the boat is successful, those losses may be recovered and yield a profit prior to its decline. Mahatma Gandhi In English. The life cycle for a successful Regal boat is three to term paper five years. To maintain this stream of mahatma gandhi essay in english innovative new products, Regal constantly seeks design input from customers, dealers, and consultants.

Design ideas rapidly find themselves in Regal’s styling studio, where Computer Aided Design (CAD) technology speeds the free development process. A Regal design engineer can start with a rough sketch or even just an idea and use the mahatma gandhi essay in english graphic display power of CAD as a drafting board to construct the geometry of the new boat. Essay On Mercy Petition. The CAD system helps the designer determine engineering data such as the strength, dimensions, or weight. Mahatma Gandhi. It also allows the designer to be sure all parts will fit together. Existing boat designs are always evolving as the company tries to stay stylish and competitive. Moreover, with life cycles so short, a steady stream of thesis download new products is gandhi 100 words, required. A few years ago, the new product was the 3-passenger $11,000 Rush, a small, but powerful boat capable of pulling a water-skier.

The next year, it was a 20-foot inboard-outboard performance boat with so many innovations that it won prize after prize in apa style research paper the industry. Then it was a redesigned 42-foot Commodore that sleeps six in luxury staterooms. With all these models and innovations, Regal designers and essay in english, production personnel are under pressure to respond quickly. By getting key suppliers on an affair board early and urging them to participate at the design stage, Regal improves both innovations and quality while speeding product development. Regal finds that the sooner it brings suppliers on board, the faster it can bring new boats to the market. Gandhi Essay. The first stage in actual production is the creation of the between and bad “plug,” a foam-based carving used to make the molds for fiberglass hulls and decks. Specifications from the CAD system drive the carving process. Once the plug is carved, the permanent molds for gandhi, each new hull and deck design are formed. Molds take about 4-8 weeks to make and are all handmade.

Similar molds are made for many of the other features in Regal boats–from galley and stateroom components to lavatories and steps. Finished molds can be joined and used to make thousands of boats. 1. How does the concept of product life cycle apply to Regal Marine products? Regal Marine knows that the basis for its existence is the free excellent boats it provides to society. In order to make their products stay and have solid place in the market over time, Regal marine constantly needs to take different innovative or economic steps to in english 100 words do so. This could mean adding new features to the boats or for example producing in a higher volume to reduce the costs of each boat. In emphasis, product life cycles are becoming shorter and the rate of technological change is increasing. The concept of product life applies to Regal Marine because Regal is constantly under pressure to introduce new products – and paper, those products have life cycles of relatively few years. As the video suggests, it is a matter of typically less than five years before a boat is out of style and its life cycle terminated. To maintain this stream of innovation and with so many boats at varying stages of their life cycles, Regal constantly seeks design input from customers, dealers, and consultants. Indeed, when Regal is developing a new model boat, it typically has a negative cash flow.

If the boat is successful, those losses may be recovered and yield a profit prior to its decline. The life cycle for a successful Regal boat is three to five years. To conclude, most products have a limited and even predictable life cycle, companies must constantly be looking for new products to design, develop, and 100 words, take to market. Good operations managers insist on strong communication among customers, product processes, and apa style paper, suppliers that results in a high success rate for their new products. 2. What strategy does Regal use to stay competitive? Regal Marine uses a strategy of gandhi in english product differentiation and innovation, which constantly introduces new products with new innovations and new styling to stay competitive in the luxury performance boat market.

Developing new products faster can result in a competitive advantage. A Regal boat earns its reputation for inspiring performance based on the design of its hull — the core over which everything else is built. Regal continuously introduces innovative, high-quality new boats. Its differentiation strategy is currently reflected in essay petition a product line consisting of gandhi essay 22 models. Between Good And Bad. 3. What kind of in english 100 words engineering savings is Regal achieving by using CAD technology rather than traditional drafting techniques? The sophisticated CAD system not only has reduced product development time but also has reduced problems with tooling and production, resulting in a superior product. By using graphic models you reduce the mahatma gandhi in english cost and effort otherwise needed to show customers or developers the gandhi 100 words new ideas and you can easily change and adapt to whatever needs comes up. Resume An Affair. This kind of system can also assist in choosing the right components and forecast what you need to get the mahatma gandhi essay new product in production. The cost and time saving using CAD is typical. Tests are economical. Engineering labor is cut down by a ratio of 4:1.

Most importantly, it allows them to be creative economically and rapidly. 4. What are the likely benefits of the CAD design technology? The payoff from CAD is not only evident in efficiency, creative designs, and styling but by production of the code necessary for the numerical machines, such as the machines used to make the plugs in Washington state and for psychology paper, those applications of the numerical control machines at Regal Marine. CAD also provides, as a by-product, very effective and comprehensive documentation of gandhi essay in english design variables. In sum, the benefits of the term example CAD design technology are as follows: • Reduced product development time. • Reduced problems with tooling.

• Reduced problems in production. • Easier development of new ideas. • Determine whether these ideas can be realized or not . • Easy change of the design. • Shorter design time. • Production cost reductions. CHAPTER 6: QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND INTENATIONL STANDARDS. Video Case: Quality at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company. 1. Read the case study that follows. 2. In English. View the video tour of the Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company and its strategy decisions, then view the paper example video clip containing the authors’ observations.

3. If you wish to have further background, reread the material on quality in Chapter 6. 4. Answer the questions about the case, and if your instructor wishes, e-mail your answers to him or her. In English. Ritz-Carlton. The name alone evokes images of luxury and paper, quality. Essay In English. As the first hotel company to resume win the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, the Ritz treats quality as if it is the heartbeat of the company. This means a daily commitment to meeting customer expectations and making sure that each hotel is free of any deficiency. In the hotel industry, quality can be hard to quantify. Guests do not purchase a product when they stay at mahatma essay 100 words the Ritz: They buy an experience. Thus, creating the right combination of elements to make the experience stand out is the thesis download challenge and goal of every employee, from maintenance to mahatma essay 100 words management. Before applying for the Baldrige Award, company management undertook a rigorous self-examination of its operations in an attempt to measure and quantify quality.

Nineteen processes were studied, including room-service delivery, guest reservation and registration, message delivery, and breakfast service. This period of self-study included statistical measurement of between good process work flows and mahatma in english, cycle times for areas ranging from room service delivery times and reservations to valet parking and housekeeping efficiency. The results were used to develop performance benchmarks against which future activity could be measured. With specific, quantifiable targets in place, Ritz-Carlton managers and employees now focus on continuous improvement. The goal is 100% customer satisfaction: If a guest’s experience does not meet expectations, the Ritz-Carlton risks losing that guest to paper example competition. One way the company has put more meaning behind its quality efforts is to organize its employees into “self-directed” work teams. Employee teams determine work scheduling, what work needs to be done, and mahatma gandhi in english 100 words, what to do about quality problems in their own areas.

In order that they can see the relationship of the specific area to the overall goals, employees are also given the opportunity to take additional training in hotel operations. Ritz-Carlton believes that a more educated and informed employee is in essay in english 100 words a better position to make decisions in the best interest of the organization. Discussion Questions. 1. In what ways could the Ritz-Carlton monitor its success in 100 words achieving quality? 2. Many companies say that their goal is to provide quality products of services. An Affair. What actions might you expect from a company that intends quality to be more than a slogan or buzzword?

3. Why might it cost the Ritz-Carlton less to “do things right” the first time? 4. How could control charts, pareto diagrams, and cause-and-effect diagrams be used to identify quality problems at a hotel? 5. What are some non-financial measures of customer satisfaction that might be used by the Ritz-Carlton? CHAPTER 7: PROCESS DESIGN. Video Case: Process Strategy at Wheeled Coach Ambulance. 1. Read the case study that follows. 2. View the video tour of Wheeled Coach Ambulance and its process decisions, then view the video clip containing the authors’ observations. Mahatma Essay In English. 3. On Mercy Petition. If you wish to have further background, reread the material on process strategy in Chapter 7. 4. Answer the essay in english 100 words questions about the case, and if your instructor wishes, e-mail your answers to him or her. Chapter 7 turns to helping managers find the best way to an affair produce their goods.

A process strategy is how a company, like ambulance manufacturer Wheeled Coach, the world’s largest, transforms its resources into finished products. The 350 employees at Wheeled Coach make only custom-made ambulances. Virtually every vehicle is different. Wheeled Coach accommodates this growth by providing a wide variety of options and an engineering staff accustomed to innovation and custom design. Wheeled Coach’s growth, now requiring that more than 20 ambulances roll off the in english assembly line each week, makes process design a continuing challenge.

Wheeled Coach’s response has been to build a focused factory: Wheeled Coach builds nothing but ambulances. Within the focused factory, Wheeled Coach established work cells for every major module feeding an assembly line, including aluminum bodies, electrical wiring harnesses, interior cabinets, windows, painting, and upholstery. Labor standards drive the difference schedule so that every work cell feeds the assembly line on schedule, just-in-time for installations. The chassis, usually that of a Ford truck, moves to a station where the aluminum body is mahatma essay, mounted. Then the difference good vehicle is gandhi essay, moved to painting. Following a custom paint job, it moves to the assembly line, where it will spend seven days. Difference Between Good. During each of these seven workdays, each work cell delivers its respective module to the appropriate position on the assembly line. During the first day, electrical wiring is installed; on essay in english 100 words the second day, the unit moves forward to the station at which cabinetry is delivered and installed, then to a window and lighting station, on to upholstery, to apa style fit and finish, to further customizing and essay in english, finally to inspection and research psychology paper, road testing. Discussion Questions. 1. Why do you think major auto manufacturers do not build ambulances?

2. Gandhi In English. What is an alternative process strategy to the assembly line that Wheeled Coach currently uses? 3. Good Essays. Why is it more efficient for the work cells to prepare “modules” and deliver them to the assembly line than it would be to produce the component (e.g., interior upholstery) on essay in english 100 words the line? 4. How does Wheeled Coach determine what tasks are to be performed at each workstation? CHAPTER 8: LOCATION DESIGN. Video Case: Where to Place Hard Rock’s Next Cafe. 1. Read the on mercy petition case study that follows.

2. View the video tour of Hard Rock Cafe that addresses this issue. 3. If you wish to mahatma in english 100 words have further background, reread the material in this chapter of the text. 4. Answer the questions about the case, and if your instructor wishes, e-mail your answers to him or her. Some people would say that Oliver Munday, Hard Rock’s vice president for cafe development, has the difference between and bad best job in the world. Travel the world to pick a country for Hard Rock’s next cafe, select a city, and find the ideal site. Mahatma Gandhi Essay. It’s true that selecting a site involves lots of incognito walking around, visiting nice restaurants, and drinking in bars. But that is not where Mr. Essay Petition. Munday’s work begins, nor where it ends.

At the front end, selecting the country and city first involves a great deal of research. At the back end, Munday not only picks the mahatma gandhi 100 words final site and negotiates the deal, but then works with architects and planners and stays with the free master thesis download project through the opening and first year’s sales. Munday is currently looking heavily into global expansion in Europe, Latin America, and Asia. Mahatma. “We’ve got to look at political risk, currency, and social norms—how does our brand fit into good essays the country,” he says. Once the mahatma gandhi essay 100 words country is selected, Munday focuses on the region and city. His research checklist is extensive. Hard Rock’s Standard Market Report (for off-shore sites) 1. Read the case that follows. 2. View the video tour of Arnold Palmer Hospital that addresses this issue.

3. If you wish to term have further background, reread the material in mahatma this chapter of the text. 4. An Affair. Answer the questions about the case, and if your instructor wishes, email them to him or her. Orlando’s Arnold Palmer Hospital, founded in 1989, specializes in gandhi in english 100 words treatment of women and children and is renowned for its highquality rankings (top 10% of 2000 benchmarked hospitals), its labor and delivery volume (more than 10,000 births per year, and growing), and its neonatal intensive care unit (5th highest survival rates in the nation). But quality medical practices and high patient satisfaction require costly inventory—some $30 million per year and thousands of SKUs.* With pressure on medical care to manage and reduce costs, Arnold Palmer Hospital has turned toward controlling its inventory with just-in-time (JIT) techniques. Within the hospital, for example, drugs are now distributed at nursing workstations via dispensing machines (almost like vending machines) that electronically track patient usage and post the related charge to free master thesis each patient. The dispensing stations are refilled each night, based on patient demand and prescriptions written by doctors. To address JIT issues externally, Arnold Palmer Hospital turned toward a major distribution partner, McKesson General Medical, which as a first-tier supplier provides the hospital with about one quarter of all its medical/surgical inventory. McKesson supplies sponges, basins, towels, mayo stand covers, syringes, and hundreds of other medical/surgical items. To ensure coordinated daily delivery of inventory purchased from McKesson, an account executive and two service personnel have been assigned full-time to mahatma the hospital. The result has been a drop in Central Supply average daily inventory from $400,000 to $114,000 since JIT.

JIT success has also been achieved in the area of custom surgical packs. Custom surgical packs are the sterile coverings, disposable plastic trays, gauze, and the like, specialized to each type of surgical procedure. Arnold Palmer Hospital uses 10 different custom packs for various surgical procedures. On Mercy. “Over 50,000 packs are used each year for gandhi 100 words, a total cost of about $1.5 million,” says George DeLong, Head of Supply Chain Management. The packs are not only delivered in a JIT manner but packed that way as well. An Affair. That is, they are packed in the reverse order they are used so each item comes out mahatma essay in english, of the pack in the sequence it is needed. The packs are bulky, expensive, and must remain sterile. Reducing the inventory and handling while maintaining an assured sterile supply for scheduled surgeries presents a challenge to hospitals. Here is an affair, how the supply chain works: Custom packs are assembled by a packing company with components supplied primarily from manufacturers selected by the hospital, and delivered by McKesson from its local warehouse. Arnold Palmer Hospital works with its own surgical staff to identify and standardize the custom packs to 100 words reduce the number of custom pack SKUs. With this integrated system, pack safety stock inventory has been cut to one day. Master. The procedure to drive the custom surgical pack JIT system begins with a “pull” from the doctor’s daily surgical schedule.

Then, Arnold Palmer Hospital initiates an electronic order to McKesson between 1:00 and 2:00 P.M. daily. At 4:00 A.M. the next morning McKesson delivers the packs. Hospital personnel arrive at 7:00 A.M. and stock the shelves for scheduled surgeries. Mahatma. McKesson then reorders from the between good essays packing company, which in turn “pulls” necessary inventory for essay in english, the quantity of packs needed from the manufacturers. Arnold Palmer Hospital’s JIT system reduces inventory investment, expensive traditional ordering, and bulky storage, and mahatma, supports quality with a sterile delivery. 1. What do you recommend be done when an error is found in a pack as it is mahatma gandhi essay in english, opened for an operation?

2. How might the procedure for between good essays, custom surgical packs described here be improved? 3. When discussing JIT in services, the text chapter notes that suppliers, layout, inventory, and scheduling are all used. Provide an example of each of these at Arnold Palmer Hospital. 4. When a doctor proposes a new surgical procedure, how do you recommend the SKU for mahatma gandhi essay, a new custom pack be entered into difference good essays the hospital’s supply-chain system? Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Video Case: Project Management at Arnold Palmer Hospital. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!

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Mahatma gandhi essay in english 100 …

My NSLI-Y Application Experience (Part 1) Alright, this post will be the first installation of my experience applying for NSLI-Y. It should consist of the application to the interview, plus a few tips for applying. The next one will be about the interview to my acceptance, and a couple more tips there. I don#8217;t know if any of the advice I give will be helpful to you, but no matter what keep in mind that what NSLI-Y is looking for is someone who is essay 100 words passionate about language learning and is mature enough to handle the stress that comes with being in a foreign place. I cannot stress enough that you must be honest and thoughtful with those essays, they will make or break you! There are many other things to be careful for, such as the interview and recommendations, but the essays ultimately decide if you make it to becoming a semifinalist or not. It#8217;s what will set you apart from the rest and make them not skip over apa style research, you in the decision process. It#8217;s still a bit muddled in my mind about gandhi 100 words, how exactly I found out about NSLI-Y, but I#8217;m pretty sure it started from a YouTube video of apa style, a girl talking about mahatma essay 100 words, her experience as a Korea Semester Finalist. Immediately after watching the video, I was interested in this #8216;NSLI-Y#8217;. I searched the free master download website and absolutely fell in love with the mahatma gandhi essay 100 words thought of spending my summer there.

I remember gushing about it to resume my sister that night, even if we both knew that the chances of my parents even letting me apply were slim. Mahatma Gandhi Essay In English. Surprisingly, the first thing my dad said after I rambled on apa style psychology paper and on about how incredibly awesome this would be, you don#8217;t even know, he said #8220;Ok.#8221;. Gandhi Essay In English. I#8217;m pretty sure then he said it just as a joke, because he does that sort of thing with everything (like when we ask to difference get a dog unfortunately), but his fake acceptance is what really made me serious about applying. Thanks to my dad the gandhi essay in english seed was planted in apa style, my mind that I had a chance. I had abstract plans on going to Japan after senior year and gandhi in english 100 words had also talked about an affair, traveling abroad to mahatma in english maybe Japan or Korea with my friends many times before, but the thought of actually being able to do it (and for free for that matter) was something I didn#8217;t really think was possible until two lovely interviewers knocked on my door one January morning. My mom had a reaction quite different than mine when she found out. Her first thought was a definite no, that I shouldn#8217;t get my hopes up for research psychology, something she wasn#8217;t okay with. Even if I were to get this #8216;free scholarship#8217;, the chances of mahatma gandhi essay in english 100 words, her letting me do it were very small. Discouraged, I had left my half-complete application sitting there for a few days, but luckily it didn#8217;t stay that way! Two weeks or so before the deadline she told me that she would let me at least apply, just for no regrets.

I would get to apply, but her level of acceptance of it was pretty much 0%. If your parents are reluctant to let you study abroad, try and gandhi essay in english get them to mahatma 100 words at least let you apply, because just like my parents they could be convinced otherwise. A teacher recommendation was the resume next thing that I had to mahatma 100 words decide on. On Mercy Petition. That was pretty easy for me, though. I chose my Spanish teacher, not just because I thought that it would be advantageous for me to get a language teacher to fill out the recommendation, but because I enjoyed her class and felt as though she knew me pretty well after spending two years in her class. Gandhi 100 Words. It is free master important to gandhi essay in english 100 words find someone that knows who you are, and can express how you act in an academic setting. From my knowledge they don#8217;t really look at parent or teacher recommendations for semifinalist decisions, but they are definitely looked at for finalist decisions. You#8217;re GPA may not be the deciding factor to acceptance, but being someone who appears to be able to handle intense language immersion can#8217;t hurt . My dad handled my parent recommendation, and gandhi essay in english 100 words so the rest of the application was up to me. I did regret not getting my English teacher to read over mahatma gandhi essay in english 100 words, the essays while I was waiting for term paper example, a response, but I did show them to my family to check for any mistakes. The main thing I can say for writing essays is to sound as mature and 100 words professional as you can while still maintaining a very personable tone. I know that can sound contradicting, but it#8217;s not be as hard it seems!

Don#8217;t try too hard to put your personality in there, as it can come off as informal and an affair immature, but do express how much traveling to a country far away from gandhi essay home will influence you. If you have plans on using the language in your future then mention it ! Because this scholarship is mahatma gandhi given to essay expose high school students to new cultures and ultimately improve international relations, an interest in something such as a major in international relations is a great thing to free master add! Just as I said before, don#8217;t try and lie just so that you can say what you think you want them to hear. I said that I was interested in going into mahatma 100 words the medical field and got accepted, so it#8217;s alright to be interested in other fields. Resume. Another tip I can give about writing essays is to get the alumni to check those babies out! If you join the Facebook groups of not only general applicants but the specified language you#8217;re shooting for, I#8217;m sure there will be many people willing to read your essay and give you feedback!

The internet is mahatma in english a lovely thing, isn#8217;t it. Essay In English 100 Words. As for gandhi essay in english 100 words, the host family essay, I think those can be more informal. Thesis Download. There was a noticeable contrast in the intensity of my other essays in comparison, but don#8217;t get too informal. Do a little bragging on yourself, answer those mandatory questions, and you should be fine! So it#8217;s getting close to gandhi the deadline. What should you do before submitting?

Read over your essays and double check all of the other information. Make sure that your parent and teacher are working on their recommendation, send in your transcript, all that good stuff. Save yourself the stress of term, submitting last minute . I submitted my application a few days before the deadline, and mahatma gandhi essay in english 100 words it felt so good. The last day the paper website was slow for everyone and they were all freaking out. Do you want to be one of those people? If you#8217;re too late you could end up submitting late (granted they extended the mahatma gandhi essay deadline for mahatma gandhi in english, my season) and mahatma gandhi essay in english 100 words it#8217;s better to resume be safe than sorry. If you#8217;re on mahatma gandhi essay the Facebook book for applicants, you#8217;ll feel the pressure of waiting. There may be jokes about people getting notifications when they really didn#8217;t, multiple posts about the unbearable wait, but you#8217;ll get there.

If you#8217;re not good at waiting I#8217;d recommend that you stay away from there for gandhi essay in english, a while, though. I know that when the first wave of notifications came out and I wasn#8217;t notified I started to seriously doubt myself. Don#8217;t worry if you aren#8217;t the first to be notified, though! Igot mine December 11th, but there were people getting notified all through December and a few even in January! If you get the dreaded rejection letter then don#8217;t beat yourself up. 100 Words. Remind yourself that NSLI-Y is incredibly competitive with an overall acceptance rate (this year) of about 17%. Just because you were not picked does not mean that you aren#8217;t special or good enough there just aren#8217;t enough scholarships for everyone. Look for other opportunities because it really isn#8217;t the end of the free download world; there are many amazing exchange programs just waiting to essay be found! Wow, this turned out to be a little longer than I thought..

For all you people who won#8217;t take the time to on mercy read this, instead look at this summary of the points that I made. Gandhi Essay 100 Words. Start your application early. If you know about the an affair application as soon as it is gandhi essay in english released, get started on it. Brainstorm on your essays and don#8217;t procrastinate. Trust me, you#8217;ll be happy to get it out gandhi in english, of the way. Get others to review your essays. Whether it#8217;s from alumni, your English teacher, or even family and friends, any feedback is good feedback. Take these essays seriously, because they can make or break your application. While you can still get accepted without getting people to gandhi essay review your essays, there is a good chance that others could have something important to tell you that could change the term paper quality of your essay. Make sure to give your teacher and parent plenty of time to prepare!

No one wants the stress of waiting until last minute. Both your parent and mahatma your teacher will have ample amount of time to master brag on you, plus they#8217;ll be more willing to gandhi essay in english 100 words do it knowing that they have time. Apa Style Research. This will also save you from any mistakes happening, like a recommendation that you thought was submitted that actually wasn#8217;t, or something like that. Submit early. If you start early and finish early, you#8217;ll save yourself from the evil feeling known as stress. In English. Distract yourself . I didn#8217;t mention this above, but in the wait for you to know if you have made it past the first part or not, you can really destroy yourself in mahatma gandhi, anticipation.

Checking your email constantly, looking over your application and wishing you could change things are things that you might not be able to avoid, but try your best. If you involve yourself in other things the time will pass by, and next thing you know it will be notification time. Don#8217;t get down on yourself. If you make it, congrats! You have tons more to do and mahatma in english much more waiting to swallow. However, if you don#8217;t get accepted this time, it#8217;s alright! Rejection happens to everyone. You know the resume drill; eat ice cream, watch your favorite show, do anything that will allow you to mourn and then move on. If you#8217;re a senior and can#8217;t apply again don#8217;t be discouraged there are so many other opportunities for you! Check with the college you#8217;re going to, there just may be a way for you to gandhi in english go abroad there!

If you are a freshman to junior, apply next year! Do more volunteering, maybe self-study, and grow more as a person so that next application season you can knock #8217;em dead. Well this is all I have to say for now, I#8217;ll try and get up part 2 soon. I#8217;ll see you then, 2 thoughts on “ My NSLI-Y Application Experience (Part 1) ” I am actually working on filling out good essays, my application at the moment and this helped me out. I was stumped on the essay part.

I#8217;m glad that this was helpful! Good luck with the gandhi 100 words application process!

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Mahatma gandhi essay in english 100 …

esl cheater essay frequency, methods, and causes. Mikaela Bj?rklund and mahatma gandhi in english 100 words, Claes-G?ran Wenestam. ?bo Akademi University. Department of Teacher Education, email: or Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, Lahti, Finland 22-25 September 1999. During the resume past decades cheating among undergraduate students has been a well-known problem difficult to gain knowledge of. European research in this field of research is scarce. The aim of this paper is to essay, present a study, investigating the frequency of term paper, cheating, the gandhi in english 100 words cheating methods used and the students#146; motives for term example, cheating or not cheating in a Swedish-Finnish university context. Comparisons with other higher education contexts were possible since an gandhi 100 words, anonymous questionnaire, worked out and used by Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes and Armstead (1995), was translated into Swedish and used in essay on mercy petition the study. The participants were three groups of university students (n=160) from different academic disciplines. The findings implicate that cheating among undergraduates is common and mainly is a problem of ethic character.

The paper also discusses consequences of student cheating for the university staff, legislators, and society. Suggestions on what measures should be applied are presented along with suggestions for further research in this area. During the past decade, problems concerning cheating among undergraduate students have become increasingly apparent in academic institutions in the Nordic countries. Cheating or academic misconduct is, however, not a new phenomenon, but a well-known problem in many European countries, as well as in the United States of in english 100 words, America. Because of the ethical and moral character of the in english 100 words problem it is not easy to do research in this field. Obvious problems are i.e. student integrity. Mahatma Gandhi 100 Words! Thus, academic dishonest behaviour and cheating is a familiar problem for term example, any university, but it is often not very well known and sometimes the university authorities do not even want to know of it. Keith-Spiegel (in Murray, 1996) shows that among a sample of almost 500 university professors 20 percent reported they had ignored to take further measures in evident cases of cheating. Many university teachers obviously hesitate to gandhi, take action against cheating behaviour because of the stress and discomfort that follows (Murray, 1996).

Also Maramark and Maline (1993) suggest that faculty often choose not to involve university or departmental authorities but handle observed cheating on an individual level, making it invisible in university documents and, thus, unknown to the university authorities. Also other findings support the reluctance to bring dishonest academic behaviour like cheating before the university administration. Apa Style Research Psychology! Jendreck (1992), as an example, concludes that students preferred to handle the mahatma gandhi essay 100 words problem informally rather than by term using formal university policy. Probably at least partly because of the reasons mentioned above European research in this field is still scarce (cf. Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes Armstead, 1995 and Ashworth et al., 1997). Nevertheless, we feel that it is of the utmost importance that this area of research is further developed in the near future, not the least since students tend to see cheating as a more or less normal part of gandhi essay 100 words, their studies, which is research psychology illustrated in the quote below: Students beliefs that everyone cheats (Houston, 1976, p. 301) or that cheating is a normal part of life (Baird, 1980) encourage cheating.

The adage cheaters never win may not apply in the case of academic dishonesty. With cheating rates as high as 75% to 87% (e.g., Baird, 1980; Jendreck, 1989) and detection rates as low as 1.30% (Haines et al., 1986), academic dishonesty is reinforced, not punished. (Davis, Grover, Becker McGregor, 1992, p. 17) With detection rates as low as 1,3 % it is hardly surprising that students to a great extent perceive academic misconduct as worth while and even approved of. As an illustration of the low detection rates; during a five year period (1991-1995) only 24 students were brought to the disciplinary board for cheating at one Swedish university (Grahnstr?m, 1996). It is, hence, of importance to university staff and administrators, as well as to legislators and society as a whole to gain insight in this matter, in order to be able to do something about it. The aim of the study. The main aim of the study presented in this paper is to provide a first step in 100 words a survey over university students#146; cheating, i.e. to gandhi essay 100 words, investigate the overall frequency, different methods and main reasons for cheating and in english, not cheating among students in a Finnish context. The study is intended as a starting point for further in-depth research in this area.

In order to get a better understanding of the problem, the aim is also to relate the outcome to subjects#146; backgrounds in terms of apa style research psychology paper, sex, age, academic experience (number of study years), faculty belongings, level of difficulty, level of study success and main reason for study at the university, in order to get a deeper understanding of student cheating behaviour. To make comparisons with other contexts possible an anonymous questionnaire, worked out and used by gandhi essay the British researchers Newstead , Franklyn-Stoked and Armstead (1995), was translated into Swedish and used in paper the study, which was carried out on mahatma gandhi 100 words 160 university students during the spring of 1996. I this presentation we focus attention on: a) the frequency of admitted cheating, b) what kinds of cheating is most frequent in relation to the British results, b) the relationship between frequency of admitted cheating/not admitted cheating and sex, c) the reasons selected for or against cheating in relation to the British results, and. d) the essay petition relationship between the reasons selected and sex. It is very human to try to find ways to solve problems as easy as possible or to avoid unnecessary difficulties. Sometimes a creative mood is not only wanted but also morally supported, but in other situations it is considered as dishonest and shameful. In higher education this kind of creativity may be in conflict with study performance and productivity and may turn out to mahatma gandhi 100 words, be viewed upon with disapproval or contempt. How define cheating?

Plagiarism related to paper example, the exam situation is what is usually referred to when generally talking about cheating. It is also this kind of behaviour that has received most attention in research on cheating. Defining cheating is, however, much more complicated than that, since cheating seems to involve both a moral and an achievement dimension, which is gandhi essay graphically illustrated in Figure 1 below. Figure 1. Graphic presentation of the thesis problematic grey-zone between moral and immoral behaviour. The levels in the achievement dimension are not absolute, but dependent on the perspective of the viewer. The area between the dashed lines symbolises the grey-zone that exists concerning the classification of in english, potential cheating behaviours. Definitions of cheating also vary as a result of variation in moral development, experiences of studies, influence of significant others, studying strategy (cf. Miller Parlett, 1973) and probably also other factors. The result is a wide spectrum of definitions ranging from liberal to conservative. Hence, the need for normative documents is apparent.

Evenso they do not seem to exist, at least not in Finland. Nowhere in the legislation concerning exams and cheating is it mentioned what kind of essay petition, behaviours constitutes cheating. The examples above illustrate what a complex problem cheating is. In the study presented in mahatma essay in english this paper all not strictly correct behaviours were classified as cheating for clarity#146;s sake. To what extent does cheating occur? Most of the research done concerning the apa style research psychology amount of cheating occurring, has, as mentioned earlier, been carried out in the USA. The quotation below provides examples of the cheating-rates measured in different studies in a North American context. Mahatma Essay! The reader ought to observe that these studies were different in design; concentrated on different behaviours and therefore some of the variation in the percentages might be accounted for in that way, and thus can not only be taken to convey a steadily increasing rate of term paper example, cheating. Drake (1941) reported a cheating rate of 23%, whereas Goldsen, Rosenberg, William, and mahatma essay, Suchman (1960) reported rates of 38% and 49% for free master thesis download, 1952 and 1960, respectively. Hetherington and Feldman (1964) and Baird (1980) reported cheating rates of 64% and 76%, respectively. Jendreck (1989) placed the typical rate between 40% and 60% but noted other rates as high as 82% (Stern Havlicek, 1986) and 88% (Sierles, Hendrickx, Circle, 1980). (Davis et al., 1992,s.16)

Davis et al. (1992), pointing at the results presented above, regard cheating as epidemic. There are indications that give some, but not very much, support to the epidemic theory. Mahatma Gandhi 100 Words! McCabe and master, Trevino (1996) found that the tendency to cheat had increased only little, from 63 percent in 1963 to 70 percent in 1990-91 but that the mahatma essay cheating methods had been more developed and the repertoire wider. Term! Their findings may also be interpreted to mean that students who cheat are doing it more often than previous generations of students. Mahatma Essay 100 Words! Three studies cited by Maramark and Maline (1993) suggest that cheating is a constant study technique among large groups of research, students (60-75 percent). Also Davis and Ludvigson (1995) found in a more recent study that the individuals who cheat during their university-level studies are the ones that also have cheated earlier in their studies.

In a study by Baldwin, et al (1996), where 2459 medical students participated as subjects, 39 percent said they had witnessed cheating, 66,5 percent had heard about cheating, and 5 percent had cheated during their medical studies. Graham et al (1994) found that among 480 college students 89 percent admitted cheating and in a study by Lord and Chiodo (1995) 83 percent of the undergraduates investigated (n=300) admitted to cheating on mahatma gandhi essay 100 words significant tests and major projects. In a European context Newstead et al. (1995) also present high rates of cheating. In their study only 12% of the resume an affair respondents claimed that they had not cheated. All the above mentioned figures are concerned with the in english number of cheaters, i.e. the number of students who have at least on one occasion been involved in academic misconduct, they do not tell us anything about to what extent these people do cheat. It is, however, likely that the more cheating is done, the more probable it is that the numbers of behaviours used vary. Essay! It is 100 words therefore of importance to find out what kind of behaviours students utilise. What methods are used?

There are four major kinds of groups to be distinguished when classifying cheating behaviours, namely: Individual opportunistic, individual planned, active social and passive social (Hetherington Feldman, 1964). Baird (1980) on free thesis the other hand distinguishes only between individual and co-operative behaviours. The findings of Franklyn-Stokes Newstead (1995) point to extensive cheating in gandhi essay in english 100 words some areas like copying each others work, changing or inventing research data, while some other cheating behaviour like lying or changing persons at examination (impersonation) was fairly scarce (see Table 5). Hence, there seems to be a correlation between level of perceived seriousness of the behaviour and difference between good essays, its frequency of gandhi essay in english, occurrence #150; the more serious the behaviour, the less frequent it is. Students tend to classify exam-related cheating as more serious than course-related cheating.

These classifications were also confirmed by Newstead et al#146;s results, where all exam-related items were among the least frequent and course-related items among the most frequent. McCabe and Trevino summarise their findings in essay a table showing what kind of cheating and the frequency students admit they are engaged in. The modified table (below) shows the level of admitted cheating in 1963 and 1993. The two tests make a comparison possible. Table. 2. Kind of admitted student cheating in 1963 and gandhi essay, 1993 (%) (McCabe and difference between good and bad essays, Trevino, 1996). Copied material without footnoting. Table 2 shows that some kinds of cheating are more frequent than other kinds. It is also interesting to find that in essay most of the cases the tendency is an increase of the cheating between 1963 and 1993. This does not necessarily mean, however, that the students were cheating more in 1993 than they did in 1963.

Another reasonable explanation is that the students were more prone to admit cheating in 1993 than the students were in 1963. These results are similar to findings in research paper other studies but there are also findings suggesting cultural differences. Kuehn, Stanwyck, and Holland , for instance, asked students from Mexican, Arabic and US cultural backgrounds about cheating. Mahatma Gandhi Essay In English 100 Words! The main focus was on essay on mercy three typical cheating behaviours: using crib notes, copying another student#146;s test, and allowing another student to copy course work. The findings suggest that there were differences between the culturally different groups of mahatma 100 words, students in how they looked upon and rated cheating. Also new technique, like the World Wide Web, is used by students in order to download papers, essays, etc produced by other students but presented to the examiner as own work. One illustration of this is a report from a Swedish university, where several students were found out using not accepted means for getting course credits among which the apa style research psychology downloading of mahatma essay 100 words, ready-made course works from the web was mentioned (Lunds Universitet Meddelar, 1998). Considering the variety of term, methods used in cheating, as described above, it is probable that also the reasons given for cheating are many.

Reasons for cheating and not doing it. The reasons or motives for gandhi essay in english 100 words, cheating are not very well known but must be assumed to be complex. In a North American study of school students cheating by Anderman, Griesinger, and Westerfield (1998) it is claimed that the schools#146; obsession with performance measures spurs cheating. It is suggested that classrooms that emphasise high grades and test scores may drive the students to cheat . Similar conclusions are reported from several investigations, where the students#146; workload is between good and bad found to be an mahatma essay in english 100 words, important explaining factor (Lipson MacGavern, 1993). Davis et al (1992) point out that pressures for essay on mercy, good grades in higher education, student stress, ineffective deterrents, teacher attitudes, and gandhi essay in english, an increasing lack of academic integrity are important determinants of cheating.

Baird (1980) previously reported similar findings. Difference And Bad! In that study 35 percent of the students stated that they had too little time for studying for the exam and 26 percent of the students said their working load made it necessary to cheat. Essay In English 100 Words! In a study by Singhal (1982) as much as 68 percent of the students regarded the wish to get good results as the essay on mercy reason for cheating. Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes, and Armstead (1995) found that 21 percent of the cheaters say it was lack of time to gandhi essay 100 words, study that made them cheat and 20 percent explicitly stated that their cheating was a consequence of their wish to get better grades. In English! A third frequently occurring reason for cheating was everybody else does it (16%), which effectively reflects students#146; attitudes towards cheating. This reason was followed by the wish to gandhi, help a friend (14%) and laziness (10%), which also says quite a lot about the risks of getting caught. It is obviously easier to between and bad, help a friend cheat than to e.g. help the friend learn to an exam. Also Maramark and essay, Maline (1993), when looking for causes for cheating, found that stress, competition for jobs, scholarships and admission to post-graduate programs were important determinants. On a general level the causes or explanations identified can be organised in two classes of term paper, factors, external, and individual/personal.

In Table 1 below the gandhi essay in english two super-ordinate factors and some elements/reasons mentioned in research done by Baird (1980), Davis et al (1992) and on mercy petition, Hetherington Feldman (1964) are presented. Table 1. Presentation of factors that might lead to cheating mentioned by Baird (1980), Davis et al. (1992) and Hetherington Feldman (1964). Importance of the test. Level of test-difficulty. Awareness of mahatma gandhi in english 100 words, the.

performance of fellow. A certain expectation of. Overcrowded, great classes. Wish to help a friend. Aversion to teacher. At a closer examination of the reasons mentioned by these researchers it seems obvious that the strongest reasons are to be found among the personal factors and that the external factors merely help to ease the cheating. The external factors are furthermore a welcome excuse for the students, since they appear to prefer blaming external factors for gandhi, their behaviour (Baird, 1980). Anderman et al (1998) identified two general types of study approaches, which on a general level seem to be similar to the deep and surface approaches to studying and learning.

The cheaters tend to 100 words, believe that the term paper example purpose of mahatma essay, school is to compete and show how smart you are. Also, to them, what is most important, is doing better than others and getting the right answer. They also worried about school and made use of difference and bad essays, self-handicapping behaviours, blaming others and making excuses for not performing well at school, more often than their counterparts. Mahatma Gandhi Essay In English 100 Words! Many of them believed cheating would result in less homework and fewer academic demands. The non-cheating group of students, in comparison, expressed interest in their learning of science concepts and tried various problem-solving methods and sought to connect ideas. In several previous studies it is suggested that the effect of an explicit and unanimously accepted honour code will lower the frequency of essay on mercy, cheating behaviour (McCabe Bowers, 1994). But honour code may have an effect in mahatma gandhi essay in english two opposite directions. A very common reason for some types of cheating is the on mercy petition wish to help a friend (Franklyn-Stokes and Newstead, 1995; McCabe Trevino, 1996). To many students some behaviours are not viewed as cheating although forbidden by the university or staff. Mahatma Essay! For instance, letting a fellow student borrow or copy an individual course work or a written assignment or even have a look at on mercy, the answer in gandhi in english a test may be regarded as honest and correct behaviour. Thus, some cheating behaviours may be explained by the honour code prevalent among the students.

The most frequent reasons for not cheating were, in the study made by Franklyn-Stokes and Newstead (1995) that it is immoral/dishonest and that it is useless/unimportant. Mahatma! In their study these were the most frequent reasons for not indulging in academic misconduct regardless of sex and age. Mahatma! In later studies (Newstead et al, 1995) there were, however, significant differences between the mahatma gandhi essay in english 100 words age groups: the older students gave the reason immoral more often than their younger peers did. The 160 subjects participating in the study were recruited from three different groups of students. In Table 3 below, the samples and some characteristics are presented. Table 3. Gandhi Essay 100 Words! Participants in difference good and bad essays the study.

The collection of data was carried out at the university during ordinary lecture time. The students were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of questions about cheating behaviours. The questionnaire was originally developed by Franklyn -Stokes and Newstead in the U.K. but adapted to meet the needs of the Swedish-speaking environment in Finland. In their questionnaire a set of probable cheating behaviours (A-U) were presented to the student, who was asked to tell (Yes or No) if he/she had carried out that behaviour at least once. Mahatma Gandhi Essay 100 Words! Two additional items were included in the questionnaire totalling the number of cheating behaviours presented to 23. Accompanying each question about cheating was a list of arguments (reasons) motivating or explaining the behaviour and a list of arguments giving reasons for not cheating. The subjects were asked to select one reason for resume, each Yes/No response. There was also a few additional questions asking about their reason to study at the university, their judgement of their study successfulness and about their belief about fellow students cheating.

The questionnaire was distributed to essay 100 words, the students during ordinary lecture time at the university. The respondents completed it immediately and anonymously. It took about 15 minutes to complete. The data was analysed by quantitative methods. 4. The result of the gandhi data analysis. The overall frequency of cheating. 75 % of the respondents in this study had engaged in at least one of the behaviours listed in the questionnaire. However, only 63,5 % of them admit to cheating in in english 100 words the overall question at the end of the questionnaire, even though no less than 91,9% report that they believe their fellow students cheat. The over all tendency to cheat only correlated with year of essay on mercy, study (Spearman#146;s rho= ,160, P=.046), reason to study (Spearman#146;s rho= ,213, p=.012) and the respondents#146; estimation of essay, how much other students cheat (Spearman#146;s rho= ,159, p=.046). This seems to imply that the over all amount of mahatma gandhi essay 100 words, cheating is relatively stable, but that the methods used vary depending on gandhi essay discipline of study, gender, age and free, success in studies, since there are some significant correlations for the individual items on the basis of these background variables.

This study was not designed to study the moral development of the respondents, but the results do, however, point in one certain direction as far as moral is concerned. In Table 4 below, the reported tendency to cheat is cross-tabulated with respondents#146; own evaluation of their inclination to mahatma essay in english, cheat. Table 4. Cross-tabulation of the variables reported tendency to cheat and own evaluation of cheating inclination. Of the ones who have reported that they never cheat 53,4 % have admitted to essay on mercy petition, exercising at least one of the behaviours mentioned in gandhi essay 100 words the questionnaire, whereas 12,9 % of the ones of the opinion that they cheat rarely have not reported cheating on any of the behaviours. A considerable amount of the essay petition students do seem to cheat, even though they do not always consider what they do as wrong, which makes it interesting to study how they do it and which behaviours are the most commonly used ones. Cheating methods used. In this section the occurrence of the different methods listed in the questionnaire are presented. Observe that the mahatma gandhi essay in english behaviours listed in the questionnaire are various behaviours that can be regarded as cheating and dishonest behaviour, but do not necessarily need to be considered as such (cf. the definition of cheating used in this paper).

Below, in Table 5 the mahatma essay students#146; responses to the behaviours described in the questionnaire are presented in order of frequency. The table also includes a classification of the behaviours as social/individual, and course-/exam-/research related, as well as the British results (Frankyn-Stokes Newstead, 1995). Table 5. The cheating behaviours listed in order of frequency. The percentage of mahatma 100 words, yes-answers to each cheating behaviour listed in order of frequency, starting with the most frequently used. The figure to the right is the percentage of positive answers received for the same item in the study made by between Franklyn-Stokes Newstead (1995).The letters to mahatma, the left represent the classification of the behaviour. The letters stand for research psychology paper, research (R), coursework (C), exam (E), and gandhi in english, individual (I), social (S) and thesis download, altruistic (A). In Table 5 one can see that some cheating behaviours are more frequent than others are. The most frequent ones among the Finnish respondents are Copying material for course-work from a book or other publication without acknowledging the source, Paraphrasing material from another source without acknowledging the original author, Allowing own course-work to be copied by another student, and Copying another student's course-work with their knowledge.

These behaviours are admitted by more than 20 percent of the participating students. As mentioned earlier, these behaviours may be considered as academic misconduct. In English! All of them may, however, be viewed as acceptable and even morally correct among the students, since they do not have negative consequences for the fellow student but may be regarded as help and support in an affair difficult situations. Gandhi In English 100 Words! In that sense it can be assumed that there exists a conflict between staff#146;s and students#146; social and ethical value systems, creating a moral borderline area where what is resume an affair right and mahatma gandhi in english, wrong are not easily delimited. From the bottom of the list we can observe that the least admitted behaviours are Inventing data (i.e. entering non-existent results into the database)and Kept silent about a teacher's misbehaviour or misuse of his/her position in order to get approval on a test or a higher mark. These behaviours were reported only by one respondent/ behaviour. The general nature of these behaviours seems to be different from the most frequent ones in that they are more directed to personal gratification. The behaviours also represent more active deception of teachers and fellow students in order to gain personal reward. It can be assumed that these behaviours are viewed as more morally disapprovable and of low peer esteem.

As also can be seen above, three of the behaviours do not occur at all in this study. This is good and bad probably due to the limited sample and perhaps also (judging from cryptic comments of the respondents) to fear of punishment. The students#146; responses to the items in the questionnaire depicting various cheating behaviours were in most cases similar for the both sexes; that is, there are almost no differences between female and male student#146;s responses in this respect. To two items, however, there were different reactions that are related to differences in sex. One of these items was Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. #146;cribs#146;). The outcome is presented in Table 6 below. Table 6 Relationship between students#146; responses to mahatma essay, item Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. #146;cribs#146;) and students#146; sex. The result in the table indicates that there are clear differences between female and male students#146; ways of responding to the item suggesting cheating in the form of taking unauthorised material in the testing situation. On Mercy! Among the female students only 2.6 percent admitted to the behaviour while 13.6 percent of the male students said #146;Yes#146; to having carried out the cheating. The differences are statistically significant (Fisher#146;s Exact Test, D.F.=1, p=.015).

The second item where there were observed statistically significant ( c 2 =5.82, D.F.=1, p=.016) response differences related to sex was the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is asked for. This item was added to the original questionnaire. Gandhi Essay! The outcome is presented in Table 7 below. Table 7. Relationship between students#146; responses to the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is asked for and students#146; sex. As can be seen in term the table more than 20 percent of the mahatma in english 100 words female students admitted that they had signed on a fellow student at a lecture although he/she was absent.

This can be compared with 4.5 percent of the male students admitting the same behaviour. Compared to the outcome in essay in english the previous table, there is a clear female dominance for this behaviour, while males more often than females answered Yes to the previous one. Another difference is that the mahatma gandhi essay 100 words total proportion of Yes-responses are much larger for the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course, where obligatory attendance is asked for when compared with students#146; Yes-responses to between and bad essays, the item Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. #146;cribs#146;) (se Table 6 above), showing the gandhi response variation between the items regarding the resume tendency among the students to accept or not accept a specific cheating behaviour. The social #150;individual relation. In the following, the frequency of mahatma gandhi in english, certain cheating behaviours are discussed in relation to mahatma gandhi essay in english 100 words, the nature (see classification in Table 5 above) of the behaviour. 100 Words! 14 of the behaviours in this study were clearly classified as individual and 5 as social. The mean for yes-responses was 14,4 % for the social behaviours and 10,5 % for the individual ones. Paper! As for situation relatedness, the five most frequently used behaviours were clearly course related. The study only contained one item concerning research related cheating (R), and this was the ninth in order of frequency (10,8 %) and had mostly been used by male respondents at the age of 21-23 successfully (16-24.99 credits/term) studying education . Exam related cheating was not among the most commonly used cheating methods, but 13,8 % of the respondents still admit using the most frequent of these behaviours.

The clearly altruistic behaviours A and S were used to a greater extent by female respondents (A: 27,4 % and S: 8,8 %) than by men (A: 16,7 % and S: 2,3 %, even though the reasons given for exercising this behaviour are not clearly altruistic. Reasons for cheating. Another area of 100 words, interest to us concerns the reasons and the arguments selected as explanations and sometimes also as excuses for free master download, the behaviour. Mahatma Gandhi Essay In English! In Table 8 below all the reasons used to motivate cheating are listed in order of frequency. It should be remembered that the reasons available to be selected were generated by the researchers, but that the respondents also were given the gandhi essay possibility to express other reasons/motives.

These less frequent reasons are also listed in Table 8. Regarding reasons given for not cheating the mahatma essay most frequent one (27.5 %) is the essay in english 100 words choice stating that cheating is immoral or dishonest. The reasons following in frequency of appearance represent on a general level a completely different class of mahatma essay, attitudes, since it may mean that the between and bad subject do not distance him/herself from cheating, only mahatma that it was not considered or regarded as useful (I never thought of it, 21.3 % and Situation did not arise, 19.5 %). In the lower frequency range two reasons mirroring fear of detection and getting caught are found; Shame/embarrassment at being caught (1.3 %) and Fear of detection/punishment (1.4 %). Resume An Affair! In a way these reasons like the two previous ones are focusing the social condemnation for mahatma gandhi essay 100 words, cheating and dishonest behaviour and are not clearly a statement against cheating. When looking at petition, students#146; ways of choosing reasons for cheating or for mahatma essay in english, not cheating there seems to exist a strong connection with the essay 100 words cheating behaviour that is in focus. This means that the essay in english choice of reason is to in english, a large extent dependent on the particular behaviour that have been admitted to or not admitted to. This topic will be discussed no further in mahatma gandhi essay in english this paper. In most cases, however, there are no obvious differences between female and male students#146; ways of selecting their reasons for their responses. Depending on what cheating behaviour is to master, be decided on, female and gandhi essay 100 words, male students mostly make similar choices of arguments for their behaviour. In two cases, however, there exist statistical significant differences between the apa style paper two sexes in mahatma in english 100 words ways of explaining the behaviour.

The reasons chosen as an explanation or an research psychology, argument for or against the behaviour Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs') are different between female and male students. In the table below the outcome is presented. Table 10. Reasons for or against the cheating behaviour Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs')among female and male students. The outcome points to statistical significant differences (Phi and Cram?r#146;s V =.404, p=.048) between the female and male ways of selecting the in english reason for their behaviour regarding Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs'). First of all 7.1 percent of the boys have selected Fear of failure as a reason for this cheating behaviour while no girl have selected that reason. Also It would be unfair to other students were chosen by 4.8 male students but not one female student.

Among the female students reasons like To increase the mark, Laziness, I would not know how to go about it and an affair, Situation did not arise/not applicable to my course were chosen by a few female students but no male student. A relatively large difference between female and male ways of choosing among the reasons for explaining the Yes/No-answer can be found for reason I never thought about mahatma in english, it, where 20.5 percent of the female students selected that reason while it attracted only 14.3 percent of the male students. Also It would devalue my achievement was chosen by a larger proportion female students (8.0 %) than male students (2.4 %). The second statistical significant difference (Phi and Cram?r#146;s V=.348, p=.028) concerns the reasons chosen for item Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. The outcome is presented in Table 11 below.

Table 11. Reasons for or against apa style research psychology, the cheating behaviour Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. among female and male students. In one case the male students have chosen a reason (Shame/embarrassment at being caught) that is in english not chosen by any female student. Large difference on research psychology paper the basis of sex are found for the reason Situation did not arise/not applicable to essay in english, my course, where more than 16 percent more boys have chosen that reasons for their behaviour. Two female students selected one reason that the male students did not choose, namely Fear of free, detection/punishment. Largest difference (18.7 percent) to the male students are found for reason I never thought of it, which was chosen by 33.0 percent of the female students but only 14.3 percent of the male students. Various methodological problems that have been discussed elsewhere (see Bj?rklund, 1997), are not mentioned here, since they do not seem to affect the reliability and validity of the mahatma gandhi in english results discussed. There is, however, one point of an affair, importance as far as methodological bias is concerned and that is the fact that the instrument in this study was translated from English and a British context, which in mahatma 100 words some cases have called for adjustment and in one case yielded an erroneous translation (item L). The frequency of mahatma in english 100 words, individual cheating behaviours in comparison to the British results. The over all frequency of cheating reported in essay in english this study does not differ significantly from the ones reported by previous researchers, and can, hence, be taken as a further proof of the fact that the over all cheating rates seem to be fairly constant in the western word. Free Thesis Download! What is more interesting is the variation in frequency on individual behaviours.

The most outstanding feature when comparing the frequencies reported by the Finnish respondents with the ones reported by the British, is that in most cases the British respondents have reported remarkably higher degree of cheating. The greatest variation is to be found in mahatma items I (peer assessment), L (inventing data) , R (altering data) and A (allow copying of coursework). The great difference concerning peer assessment is probably due to differences in the academic traditions: Peer assessment is not very common in the Swedish #150;speaking university level studies in Finland. Thesis! Item L does not represent a real difference, since the item was erroneously translated into mahatma essay 100 words Swedish and , thus, measures something else. Research related cheating seem to be much more common in Britain, but the result might in this case be biased for faculty, since the studies were not conducted at apa style, the same kinds of gandhi in english, institutions. Item A, concerning course work, is the top one of many items concerning coursework that exhibit considerable higher frequencies for the British respondents, which is probably due to the same kind/s of cultural differences as mentioned regarding item I. Only on item K (advance information about exam) was the result of the Finnish respondents higher than the result of the British. The items concerning examrelated behaviours generally exhibit the difference good smallest differences between the groups, which seems to gandhi 100 words, indicate that exam conditions are more or less alike between the two countries. It is also possible to claim that the results indicate that Finnish students seem to an affair, find examrelated cheating less serious than British, who , in turn, do not seem to regard research related cheating as particularly serious. In the Finnish results the social behaviours seem to be slightly more common, whereas the gandhi essay in english individual behaviours get a higher mean score in the British results (social 24 %, individual 20,8 %).

This can be seen claimed to indicate that the British academic environment is more competitive than the Finnish, but it ought to apa style paper, be remembered that the mean score used here is a very crude measure. Reasons for cheating in comparison to the British results. The most frequent reasons for cheating mentioned by the Finnish students were time pressure, laziness and the wish to help a friend. The wish to gandhi 100 words, help a friend and time pressure are also two of the three most frequent reasons mentioned by the British students, but they have mentioned the wish to mahatma in english, increase the mark as the most frequent reason for mahatma essay in english, cheating. Concerning this reason the difference between the two samples is remarkable (Finnish students 9,3 % and British students 33,3 %). Finns on the other hand contribute their cheating to laziness and extenuating circumstances considerably more often than their British peers, who, in turn, seem to fear failure more and also tend to justify their behaviour with the reason everybody does it. Out of these differences it is easy to create caricature image of the cheating British student as an ambitious person , who wishes to perform well and of the Finnish student who mainly cheats because it seems to be the free master thesis download easiest way to go about the studies. Considering the reasons for not cheating the British students seem to have two main reasons, which are used considerably more often than the other ones available; That it would have been pointless/unnecessary and that it would have been immoral/dishonest. The immorality aspect is mentioned as the most frequently used among the Finnish students, but the second most frequently used is that the student never thought of it, closely followed by the reason that the situation didn#146;t arise or wasn#146;t applicable. Again, then , the British students seem to be more focused on the outcome/the result of the cheating behaviour than the Finnish ones.

Even though morality is one of the mahatma gandhi most frequently used reasons for not cheating in both of the groups, the free thesis potential cheater-reasons, i.e. the mahatma gandhi essay in english ones giving I never thought of apa style psychology paper, it, the situation didn#146;t arise and/or it was unnecessary/pointless, amount to mahatma essay 100 words, about 50 % in both of the groups. In connection to the fact that the reasons shame /embarrassment at being caught (1,3 % of Finnish answers, 0 % of gandhi, British ones) and fear of detection/punishment (1,9 % of Finnish answers and 5,8 % of British ones) were used quite infrequently, this implicates that it is of the utmost importance to reduce the mahatma gandhi in english opportunities of successful cheating, e.g. by creating individual exams and other assessment tasks that demand creativity and originality, not just reproduction. The fact that embarrassment is such an infrequent reason also implicates that nether British or Finnish students feel responsible for the code of honour of mahatma essay in english 100 words, their academic institutions. Hence, by establishing a functioning code of honour one could most likely reduce the instances of cheating remarkably, since the socio-moral climate is known to affect the mahatma essay behaviour of students more effectively than their own level of moral development (MacCabe Trevino, 1996). The reduction of opportunities for successful cheating is, of course, the term paper most immediate way of in english, reducing cheating, but in the long run that measure will not suffice.

According to the findings in this study and resume, other ones (cf. Davis et al, 1992) , there is a gap between the notions of morality and correctness as withheld by society and mahatma gandhi 100 words, university staff and the notions of these phenomena withheld by the students. Essay! It is therefore necessary to spell out which the common rules are and also control that they are followed. To go even further it is also important to stress the importance of moral education for mahatma gandhi essay 100 words, moral development in order to secure a functioning society, presuming that that is what is what is wanted. Variations in cheating behaviour on difference between essays the basis of the back ground variables. Contrary to previous research very few of the background variables seem to mahatma essay, affect the tendency to cheat to a significant extent. This was, however, also the case for Haines et al (1986, in Davis et al, 1992). They came to the conclusion that it was because of the and bad essays unproportionality concerning sex and gandhi essay in english 100 words, year of study in the sample, which also seems to master, be the mahatma essay in english case in this study. Except the gender differences on some items, mentioned in the results, there were, however, also weak, but statistically significant positive correlations between the overall tendency to cheat and year of study, the perception of how much other students cheat and reason for an affair, studying. This result implies that academic misconduct, at least to some extent, may be epidemic and gandhi essay in english 100 words, that students#146; reasons for not cheating are gradually worn down when they see fellow students cheat, without being caught.

The reason for term paper, studying is essay also of considerable importance, when discussing cheating rates. An obvious way of reducing cheating in our faculties would be to resume, ensure that only intrinsically motivated students are accepted. Gandhi In English! The question is then: How do we control for that, and do we really want to; It is all linked to the kind of professionals we want to educate. Summary of apa style paper, implications. Academic staff can no longer presuppose that students know and behave according to unwritten moral rules or an inner code of honour. One, obvious way of reducing cheating in universities is then to spell out what rules and codes the students are subjected to. Such a document ought, however, to mahatma 100 words, be carefully thought out and research paper, produced in co-operation with the students, in order to establish it as a code of gandhi essay, honor2, otherwise it will only fill the apa style psychology purpose of a list of potentially successful cheating behaviours.

According to previous research, students#146; moral behaviour and ethical reasoning seems to essay in english 100 words, develop under continuous education. I am convinced that this influence can be made stronger through focused attention to the area and an open ethical dialogue, not in any specific course, but as every teacher#146;s concern. Term Paper Example! This would create a good socio-moral environment for moral development, which is what universities ought to foster in their students, since that is mahatma gandhi 100 words something they will need in their everyday life as well as in their professional activities, and of which society will benefit or suffer in the long run. Even though the personal factors causing or preventing cheating are probably the primary ones, it is also a good idea to try to reduce or eliminate the external factors that seem to cause cheating. Gandhi Essay! One of the major external reasons for cheating was time pressure. That ought to be quite easily remedied through courses/ supervision in studying technique and discipline, as well as a better co-ordination of courses and exams between university staff. It is also up to the staff to really check that the rules they give are followed. Such a behaviour signals that the mahatma gandhi in english rules are judged as important and might awaken conscience in the students, or at least make the cheating alternative less attractive and easy to carry out.

In this case it is, in difference between good and bad essays fact, most important to catch the small fish. Davis and Ludvigson in turn present a twofold way of reducing cheating in the long run, namely by a) using positive reinforcement and b) by encouraging and fostering the students to mahatma in english, acquire an outlook on life that will prevent them from cheating. The results of resume an affair, this study are particularly serious from gandhi a societal point of view, since it involved future teachers, theologian and economists. What kind of psychology paper, teachers does the in english society of today want? Is it possible for a teacher who does not regard cheating as wrong to teach pupils high ethical and moral standards? Or should the comprehensive school only strive to teach knowledge and apa style research psychology, skills? The compulsory schoolteachers are of mahatma gandhi essay in english, strategic importance, since they are the ones who ought to start the process of moral development, if academic freedom is to be a reality in the future. Lax morality among economists and resume an affair, teologians is, however, no less serious than among teachers. If those particular groups in society are not to be trusted, then who? In the long run that will produce an even greater disbelief in authorities, eventually resulting in mahatma essay 100 words community breakdown. In order to be able to between good essays, deal with the problem in an efficient manner it is necessary to reach the causative factors, which probably are best reached with a flexible and qualitative approach.

To understand delicate and mahatma, inaccessible phenomena like the one at essay on mercy petition, hand it is important to benefit from as many sources of knowledge as possible; an gandhi, interdisciplinary approach would probably be most adequate. It is also important to realise the problem with truthfulness. In this study it was generally found that the students tended to essay on mercy petition, answer the questionnaire with less anxiety, when it was stressed that the researcher was a fellow student and not a member of the university staff. Anderman, E, Griesinger, T, Westinger, G. (1998). Motivation and cheating during early adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90 , 1, 84-93. Ashworth, P. Gandhi In English 100 Words! Bannister, P. (1997).

Guilty in whose eyes? University students#146; perceptions of cheating and plagiarism in mahatma gandhi 100 words academic work and assessment. Studies in Higher Education, 22 , 2, 187-204. Baird, J.S. Mahatma 100 Words! Jr. (1980). Apa Style Research Psychology Paper! Current trends in college cheating. Psychology in the Schools , 17 , s. 515-522. Baldwin., DeWitt C., et al. (1996).

Cheating in Medical School: A Survey of Second-Year Students at 31 Schools. Academic Medicine; 71 , 3, p267-73. Bj?rklund, M. Mahatma Essay In English 100 Words! (1997). Akademiskt fusk #150; F?rekomst, metoder och orsaker. En enk?tunders?kning bland studerande vid Svenska handelsh?gskolan i Vasa, samt pedagogiska och teologiska fakulteterna vid ?bo Akademi. Unpublished master#146;s thesis. ?bo Akademi University, Vasa. Davis, S.F., Grover, C.A., Becker, A.H. McGregor, L.N. (1992). Academic dishonesty: prevalence, determinants, techniques, and punishments. Teaching of difference between good and bad, Psychology , 19 , 1, s. Essay! 16-20. Davis, S.F.

Ludvigson, H.W. (1995). On Mercy Petition! Additional data on mahatma gandhi in english academic dishonesty and a proposal for remediation. Teaching of Psychology, 22 , 2, s. Research Psychology Paper! 119-121. Franklyn-Stokes, A. Newstead, S.E. (1995). Undergraduate cheating: who does what and why?. Mahatma Gandhi Essay In English 100 Words! Studies in Higher Education, 20 , 2, s. 159-172. Graham, Melody A., et al. (1994). Difference Good And Bad Essays! Cheating at small colleges: An examination of student development. Journal of College Student Developments, 35 , 4, 255-260.

Grahnstr?m, T. (1996). 100 Words! Sv?rt f? uppr?ttelse f?r fuskanklagad. Vertex, 5 . Hetherington, E.M. Feldman, S.E. (1964). College cheating as a function of subject and situational variables. Journal of Educational Psychology , 55 , 4, s. 212-218. Jendreck, Margareta, Platt. (1992). Students#146; reactions to good and bad essays, academic dishonesty. Journal of College Student Development, 33 , 3, 260-273. Kuehn, P., Stanwyck, D. J., Holland, C. L. (1990). Attitudes toward cheating behaviours in the ESL classroom.

TESOL (Teacher of English to 100 words, Speakers of Other Languages) Quarterly, 24 (2), 313-317. Lipson, Alberta and McGavern, Norma. (1993). Undergraduate academic dishonesty at MIT. Results from a study of attitudes and behaviour of undergraduates, faculty, and petition, graduate teaching assistants. Lord, T., Chiodo, ?D. (1995). A Look at Student Cheating in College Science Classes.

Journal of mahatma essay in english 100 words, Science Education and Technology; 4 , 4, 317-24. Lunds Universitet Meddelar, ?rg 31, nr 7, 1998. Lunds universitet. Maramark, Sheila Maline, Mindi, barth. (1993) Academic dishonesty among college students. Issues in education. Office of research psychology, Educational research and Imporvemnet (ED), Washington, DC.

McCabe, Donald, L. Essay In English 100 Words! (1993). Faculty resposnes to academic dishonesty: The influence of student honour codes . Research in Higher Education, 34 , 5, 647-658. McCabe, Donald, L., Bowers, William, J. (1994). Academic dishonesty among males in college: A thirty year perspective . Journal of College Student Development, 35 , 1, 5-10. McCabe, D.L. Trevino Klebe, L. An Affair! (1996).

What we know about cheating in mahatma gandhi 100 words college. Change, 28 , 1, s. Research Psychology! 28-33. Miller, C.M. Parlett, M. (1974). Up to the Mark, a study of the examination game. Gandhi Essay 100 Words! Society for Research into Higher Education. Murray, B. (1996). Are professors turning a blind eye to cheating? Schools facing a plague of cheating. Beware the #145;A#146; student: Overachievers can be cheaters. The APA MONITOR , 27 , 1, s. 1, 42.

Newstead, S.E., Franklyn-Stokes, A. Armstead, P. (1995, in press) Individual differences in student cheating. Journal of Educational Psychology . Singhal, A.C. (1982). Factors in students#146; dishonesty . Psychological Reports, 51 , s. 775-780. A) Allowing own course-work to difference between essays, be copied by essay 100 words another student. B) Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs') B)Fabricating references or a bibliography. D) Lying about medical or other circumstances to get special consideration by examiner. E) Copying another student's course-work with their knowledge. F) Lying about medical or other circumstances to free, get an extended deadline or exemption from a piece of mahatma in english 100 words, work. G) Submitting course-work from an outside source.

H) Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. I)In a situation where students mark each other's work, coming to mahatma essay in english, an agreement with another student or students to mark each other's work more generously than it merits J) Copying another student's course-work without their knowledge. K) Illicitly gaining advance information about the contents of an examination paper. L) Inventing data (i.e. entering nonexistent results into the database) M) Ensuring the availability of in english, books or journal articles in the library by deliberately mis-shelving them so that other students cannot find them, or by term paper cutting out the relevant article or chapter. N) Paraphrasing material from another source without acknowledging the original author.

O) Copying material for course-work from a book or other publication without acknowledging the source. P) Premeditated collusion between 2 or more students to communicate answers to gandhi essay in english, each other during an examination. Q) Copying from a neighbor during an exami-nation without them realizing. R) Altering data (e.g. adjusting data to obtain a significant result) S) Doing another student's course-work for essay in english 100 words, them.

T) Submitting a piece of course-work as an individual piece of work when it has actually been written jointly with another student. U) Attempting to obtain special consideration by mahatma in english offering or receiving favors, for example, bribery, seduction, corruption. V) Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is mahatma gandhi in english 100 words asked for. W) Kept silent about mahatma gandhi in english, a teacher's misbehavior or misuse of his/her position in essay order to get approval on a test or a higher mark. This document was added to the Education-line database on 21 March 2000.

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?History and Development of mahatma gandhi in english, Stylistics Essay Sample. Stylistics can be said to have started in research psychology, the form of rhetoric. Rhetoric, originally seen as the study of oratory and prose, developed in Greece in mahatma in english, the 5th Century B.C. By the end of the 3rd and 2nd Century B.C. it had evolved into a systematic study. In Rome, rhetoric developed later, around the 1st century B.C.

As a study classical rhetoric is associated with Aristotle of Greece and Cicero and Quintelian of Rome. Classical rhetoric entailed two stages: arrangement and verbal expression. Arrangement involved the organization of a speech into introduction, exposition, elaboration and finally conclusion. Verbal expression involved stylistic choices involving the choice of difference between essays, words (lexicon), the ordering of mahatma gandhi essay, those words (syntax), the example, collocation of words on the basis of their meanings, figures of speech, and the rhetorical devices at the level of sentences. Certain forms of expression were seen as either classic or vulgar, where classic (elevated) belonged to the upper classes ad vulgar to the lower classes. These ideas were revived during the mahatma in english, time of the Renaissance in Europe, from the 14th to the 16th Centuries, a period remembered for its artistic forms. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the novel emerged and the rhetorical devices became part of the style of prose. By the 19th century any work of prose that made use of the rhetorical devices of arrangement and verbal expression was known as elegant, and that which did not use the rhetorical devices was as inelegant in style. Another development that took place at this time was in the field of prosody. Between And Bad? The traditional poetic composition made use of the relationship between stressed and unstressed syllables to create rhythmic patterns. The regularity rhythmic patterns are referred to as metre.

By the 19th Century, prosody and rhetoric merged in essay in english 100 words, the study of stylistic whereby rhetoric lost part of resume, its prestige as the study of oratory or effective public speaking. In the 1920s school literary theoreticians emerged in Russia who opposed the mahatma in english 100 words, interpretations of literature which were based on resume an affair, intuition and the impressionsism arising out of one’s knowledge of the life-histoty of the author. The most well-known exponent of Russian Formalism was Roman Jacobson (1986-1982) whose work focused o n defining the qualities of poetic language. Mahatma Gandhi Essay? According to Jacobson, the poetic function of language is realized in those communicative acts where the focus is on the message for its own sake. The contribution of the Russian Formalists was two-fold:- i. Their methodology took account of the features that distinguish a work art from other works; ii. They came up with a view of literary form that went beyond the purely linguistic choices to include strategies of organization.

The Prague Linguistic circle (Structuralism) Roman Jacobson emigrated to Czeehoslovakia in apa style research psychology paper, 1920, where he began collaborating with Czech literary scholars such as Jan Mukarovsky (1891-1975), establishing the Prague Linguistic Cicle in 1926 which was to become famous as the birth plce of structuralism. Mahatma Essay In English? Like Jacobson, Mukarovsky was interested in identifying formal and functional distinctiooooooons between literary and non-literary writing, noting that literary textx deviate from what he termed the ‘standard language’ (Mukarovsky, 1964). He theorized on the phenomenon which he called foregrounding. Free Thesis? The analogy here was that certain linguistic features in a poem were placed in mahatma gandhi essay 100 words, the foreground, against a background of linguistic norms and conventions. These conventions and norms he referred to as ‘standard language’ According to Mukarovsky, the consequence of deviation is the creation of term example, a defamiliarising effect for the reader, something he claimed to be one of the hallmarks of literature. In turn, Jacobson (1960) suggests that defamiliarisation also results frfom structural patterning in texts, later known as parallelism. Shklovsky’s (1917, 1925) notion of defamiliarisation (‘estrangement’) or making strange also entailed a political notion because he stressed that the function of art is to make people look at the world from a new perspective.

These concepts-deviation parallelism, and foregrounding are the mahatma gandhi essay 100 words, foundations of contemporary stylestics. 1. A. Richards and Practical criticism. The English critic 1. A Richards Published a book in 1929 entitled “Practical Criticism”. Like the resume, Russian Formalists, Richards was reacting to readings of literary texts and were overly influenced by extraneous considerations such as the history of the period, the mahatma essay, literary tradition to which the text belonged, the life-history and psychology of the author, and the political and philosophical expectations of the reader. Richard Championed the need to put the resume, literary text at the centre of our inquiry. The reader must pay attention to what is going on the printed page, and mahatma gandhi essay not speculate on the psychic make-up of the an affair, author and mahatma gandhi in english 100 words the like. Basically, he advocated for practical criticism as opposed to theoretical criticism. In addition to traditional literary categories such as tone, poetic thought and feeling, originality, diacticism, sentimentality, sincerity andn the like, Richards proposed a critical procedure which would entail a close scrutiny of stylistic elements in a given text.

Figures of speech such as metaphors, similes, personification and sound effects such as rhythm and metre were to be carefully studied and accounted for. Practical criticism wa interested in the psychological aspects of paper example, how readers comprehend texts. Both essentially proceed on the techniques of close reading. While this approach is viewed by today’s stylisticians as too imprecise in analytical terms, David West has criticism with readers’ processing of a text makes it a direct precursor of contemporary cognitive stylistics. Practical criticism became a trend in England and America, and the critical works of T.S. Elist and F.R. Leavis belong to it. Mahatma Gandhi In English 100 Words? In 1941, John Ransom’s book entitled. The New criticism was published and it had an apa style psychology, impact on American literary scholarship, leading to gandhi in english the emergence of a school of literary criticism which was called New Criticism. This school was new in the sense that they placed emphasis on apa style psychology, practical criticism and textual commentary.

They argued for the primacy of the literacy text, and its relative autonomy from the life of the author and the social and cultural environment in which he grew. The new critics were basically restating the essay in english 100 words, position of Richard’s practical criticism. In their critical procedures, they were concerned about what they called “the rhetorical structure of the literary text. They were concerned with such rhetorical strategies as figures of speech, images, paradox irony, etc. Exploratio in-literary stylistics. While stylistics had so far concentrated on using linguistic tools to explain literary effects, it had also been the subject of criticism for its eclecticism, its lack of a methodological and theoretical foundation, and its alleged base in literary criticism. Essay In English? A major1 focus on poetry also caused some suspicion in gandhi essay in english, linguistic circles. In the 1960s and early seventies these criticisms were addressed in part through the development of apa style paper, a branch of gandhi in english, stylistics that focused particularly on style in non-literary language. The work of apa style, Crystal and Davy, and Enkvist, is particularly important here.

Crystal and Davy’s concern was how particular social contexts restrict the range of linguistic options open to speakers, while Enkvist proposed that this could work the other way too; i.e. that a speaker’s stylistic choices could affect the context for his or her addressees (think, for instance, about the informal lexis and grammar often used in adverts for high street banks, and how this is designed to effect a context of mahatma gandhi essay in english 100 words, informality for customers). Work in non-literary stylistics, however, appeared to stall at this point, and it was not until much later that it picked up again. The reasons for this are perhaps the paper example, lack of linguistic frameworks able to deal with the contextual issues at the heart of Crystal and Davy’s and Enkvist’s work. Systemic-functional linguistics and stylistics. The basis of stylistics in linguistics has always meant tharfan advance in the latter inevitably impacts on the former, and so it was in the 1970s and early eighties. So^e of the attacks levelled at stylistics were circumvented by its becoming particularly practical and by the movement of stylistics into the areas of language teaching and 100 words pedagogical stylistics. Furthermore, Halliday’s work on systemic functional grammar related form to function within the an affair, context of the language system as a whole and had particular influence on the study of prose fiction. For example, Roger Fowler (whose own Essays on Style and Language, 1966, is a seminal work in early stylistics), used Hallidayan-style transitivity analysis to uncover point of view patterns in text.

The influence of Halliday’s work can also be seen in Leech and gandhi in english Short’s now famous Style in Fiction. The impact of pragmatics and discourse analysis. During the late seventies.and early eighties, advances were also made in the developing field of pragmatics, where the focus was on how context affects meaning. Difference Between Good And Bad? Carter and Simpson (1989) is an exemplar of how this work influenced the mahatma, development of stylistics in the 1980s. These advances enabled for the first time the paper, serious stylistic study of drama. Mahatma Essay 100 Words? Burton (1980) is an early attempt at using pragmatic and sociolinguistic insights in the study of dramatic discourse, and Short’s (1981) article on gandhi essay 100 words, discourse analysis applied to drama is a groundbreaking study of how such insights can be used to uncover aspects of characterization. Advances in gandhi in english 100 words, pragmatics and their concern with context also facilitated a renewed interest in non-literary stylistics (see Carter and Nash’s Seeing Through Language) and the ideology-shaping nature of texts (e.g. Roger Fowler’s Linguistic Criticism). There is resume, a crossover here, of course, with work in Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), though CDA-inspired work that is mahatma essay in english 100 words, unremittingly stylistic in approach continues today. From cognition to essay corpora.

Into the 1990s there was a growing concern with the cognitive elements involved in comprehending and processing texts, and gandhi in english this movement gave rise to essay on mercy petition the branch of the discipline now generally known as cognitive stylistics or cognitive poetics. Essay In English? Of course, all forms of stylistic analysis have always considered text comprehension to a certain extent, and in this respect current work in cognitive stylistics can be seen as directly related to term paper earlier investigations into the ways in which readers process texts. Mahatma Gandhi In English 100 Words? Among such earlier work is the Practical Criticism of I. A. Richards and the later reader-response work of, for example, Fairly and Alderson and Short. Advances in computer technology in recent years have also “had a significant impact on the direction in which stylistics is heading. The construction and analysis of an affair, large-scale linguistic corpora is gandhi essay in english 100 words, easier than ever before and this has enabled a return to apa style psychology paper some of the original concerns of gandhi in english 100 words, stylistics – namely, the extent to which foregrounding is quantifiable and whether authorial style really is difference between good, as distinguishable as critics have claimed.

These were questions that were largely unanswerable before the development of corpus linguistics. Nowadays, the ease with which it is possible to analyze a text computationally means that there is almost no excuse not to gandhi essay in english 100 words use evidence from corpus studies to support qualitative analysis. Stylistics, then, has come a long way since its beginnings and it should be clear that it is very much a forward-looking discipline. As such, there is clearly much to look forward to as stylistics continues to develop. Fowler (1996) Linguistic Criticism 2nd ed.Oxford University Press.London Widdowson.H.G(1992Practical Stylistics. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

Richard Bradford(1993)A Linguistic History of English Poetry Katie Wales (2001)A Dictionary in Stylistics, Pearson Education/ Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order ?History and Development of apa style research psychology paper, Stylistics. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for ?History and Development of Stylistics. Formalist Criticism: All the basics necessary for understanding the work are limited within the work by itself. What is most noticeable of the formalist critic are the basics of form-style,… Barbara Christian: The race for literary theory. ‘ The Race for Theory’ , Barbara Christian Many Western philosophers have played an important role in setting up the Literary Theory., who throughout history have been in the top…

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