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American studies thesis berkeley

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baudrillard essay A Very Short Introduction. Jean Baudrillard (1929-2007) was a French philosopher and cultural analyst who started his academic life as a Marxist sociologist interested in consumer society (he completed his Ph.D. thesis in 1966). He concluded that what was formerly a society of production had now (after World War II) become one of consumption. Becoming slowly dissatisfied with Marxism, he went on to incorporate structuralism and semiology into his analysis, seeing the objects we consume as a system of signs that had to be decoded, this system being embedded in structures of studies thesis consumption and leisure that he felt could be analysed sociologically. He laid out his semiotic analysis of consumer society in internal conflict thesis statement his books The System of american studies thesis berkeley Objects (1968), The Consumer Society (1970), and The Mirror of retrolisthesis Production (1975). His most important earlier work is thesis For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign (1972), in which he rejected Marxism as the only valid way of analysing consumer society. Marx said that objects all have a use value: for example, a hammer is useful for hammering nails into a board. But under capitalism, all objects are reduced to their exchange value, their value or price in the marketplace (the hammer might cost $10 in the local hardware store). Baudrillard said, so far, so good; but he added that, at least in advanced capitalist counties, consumer goods also have a sign exchange value: they are signs of distinction, taste, and social status. A BMW or a gold watch can certainly have both use and exchange value (we can drive the BMW to work, or sell the watch to a used jewellery dealer); but, says Baudrillard, we also have to understand their status as signs in the code of retrolisthesis consumer values - they signify social distinction. As you drive your BMW down the american main street, you're saying to the unwashed masses I'm no longer one of you - I'm distinct, a member of the american thesis berkeley wealthy and discriminating classes.

It's the BMW's symbolic value, it's cachet, that makes it so irresistible to these classes. Lastly, Baudrillard imagined a utopian realm where we all engage in symbolic exchange, where the gifts we give cease to be consumer objects with exchange or sign values, becoming instead symbols of friendship, love, or community. In the 1980s and 90s, Baudrillard turned away in a large degree from Marxism and structuralism to post-structuralism. American Thesis. He became the high priest of postmodern culture, turning toward an msc chemistry extreme version of McLuhan's communications theory - he was fascinated by how media affect our perception of reality and the world. He concluded that in thesis the postmodern media-laden condition, we experience something called the retrolisthesis death of the real: we live our lives in studies thesis berkeley the realm of hyperreality, connecting more and more deeply to things like television sitcoms, music videos, virtual reality games, or Disneyland, things that merely simulate reality. Early in this new phase of his work, Baudrillard reflected on love. In his book On Seduction (1980), he claims that there are two modes of love.

The seductive female mode, which is artificial and symbolic, involves flirtations, double entendres, sly looks, whispered promises, but a putting off of the actual sexual act. For A. It involves the american studies manipulation of signs like makeup, fashion, and titillating gestures to achieve control over a symbolic order. On the other side is the male sexual mode, centered on the phallus, which is direct and natural, seeking to master a real order - to complete the sexual act. In Public Policy. On top of each of these modes is now layered the cool seduction of media images pumped out by american studies, television, radio and film. He continues this theme of msc chemistry resume cool seduction in his book The Ecstasy of Communication (1988 in translation). Here Baudrillard discusses how we surrender ourselves in american studies thesis berkeley an ecstasy of communication, to the seductive power of the internal thesis mass media - television, ads, films, magazines, and newspapers (though Baudrillard is an avid film fan). The luminous eyes of television and studies thesis, computer screens penetrate into our privates spaces in an ecstatic and obscene way - our secrets disappear, and the images we consume become more and more pornographic.

In the middle of the eighties Baudrillard hit the road. His travelogue America (1986 in studies thesis French) creates a simulacrum of the America he travelled across. He talks about the studies berkeley violence of the Wild West, jazz, the empty deserts of the South-West, the neon lights of motels at night, tribal warfare between gangs in New York City, and internal, much more. Baudrillard saw America as a glittering emptiness, a savage, empty non-culture, in short, as the purest symbol of the hyperreal culture of the postmodern age. In his lecture on film given in Sydney, Australia in 1987, The Evil Demon of Images, Baudrillard claims that although the US lost the Vietnam war on the ground, they won it in the hyperreal realm through films like Apocalypse Now and american studies thesis berkeley, Platoon, which fantastically replay the american studies berkeley war not as the story of defeat by a determined enemy, but as that of internal division. Cinematographically, the Americans defeat themselves. Before the Gulf War of 1991, Baudrillard wrote an article in studies Libération in which he claimed that the war wouldn't take place.

Afterwards, he claimed that it hadn't taken place, for the Western audience was aware of it only as a series of hyperreal images on american studies berkeley, our TV screens. Berkeley. There was no real enemy - Saddam Hussein was a former US ally in the Middle East - and the outcome was entirely predictable. So despite the horrible loss of life (mostly on the Iraqi side), the war was at best a hyperreal war. Baudrillard's work in the 1990s continued to resume focus on this theme of the hyperreality of postmodern culture, his writing becoming more disjointed and aphoristic (perhaps echoing Nietzsche's style). He reverses course somewhat in his short work The Spirit of thesis Terrorism (2003 revised edition), calling the attack on thesis berkeley, the Twin Towers the mother of all events that the disenfranchised of the world secretly fantasized about. Yet the American military response to 9/11 was yet another pseudo-event, yet another voyage into the (Afghan) desert of the real.

Going back to thesis the beginning of his postmodern phase, Baudrillard starts his important essay The Precession of the Simulacra by recounting the feat of imperial map-makers in thesis berkeley an story by Jorge Luis Borges who make a map so large and thesis, detailed that it covers the studies berkeley whole empire, existing in a one-to-one relationship with the american thesis berkeley territory underlying it. It is cited a perfect replica of the thesis berkeley empire. After a while the thesis research map begins to fray and tatter, the studies berkeley citizens of the empire mourning its loss (having long taken the map - the simulacrum of the empire - for the real empire). Spinal Retrolisthesis. Under the map the real territory has turned into a desert, a desert of the real. In its place, a simulacrum of reality - the frayed mega-map - is all that's left. The term simulacrum goes all the way back to Plato, who used it to describe a false copy of studies something. Statement. Baudrillard has built his whole post-1970s theory of media effects and culture around his own notion of the simulacrum. He argues that in studies thesis berkeley a postmodern culture dominated by TV, films, news media, and american studies thesis, the Internet, the whole idea of a true or a false copy of something has been destroyed: all we have now are simulations of reality, which aren't any more or less real than the american reality they simulate. In our culture, claims Baudrillard, we take maps of reality like television, film, etc. as more real than our actual lives - these simulacra (hyperreal copies) precede our lives.

Our television friends (e.g. sit-com characters) might seem more alive to us than their flesh-and-blood equivalents (did you see what Jerry/Rachel/Frasier did last night?). We communicate by e-mail, and relate to video game characters like Lara Croft better than our own friends and mla works cited essay, family. We drive on freeways to shopping malls full of identical chain stores and products, watch television shows about film directors and actors, go to films about television production, vote for ex-Hollywood actors for president (is he really an studies berkeley actor? Or a politician? It doesn't matter). In fact, we get nervous and edgy if we're away too long from our computers, our e-mail accounts, our cell phones. Now the real empire lays in tatters, the hyerreal map still quite intact. We have entered an era where third-order simulacra dominate our lives, where the image has lost any connection to real things. Baudrillard's later philosophy of culture can be mapped in terms of three things: (1) the retrolisthesis orders of simulacra, (2) the phases of the image - the four levels at which art represents reality, and (3) the american thesis three phases of utopian and science-fiction writing he saw corresponding to s thesis these orders and phases. We see how these three sets of distinctions parallel each other in the chart below (I've added what I think are some appropriate examples from popular culture that fit each category):

Baudrillard's writing is difficult, and for starting philosophers and social and cultural theorists is best taken in small doses. If you read his work, remember that his central claim about american thesis, postmodern culture (thought he claims that he himself is msc chemistry not a postmodernist) is quite simple - that we live in a desert of the real, a cultural space where television, film, and studies thesis, computer images are more real to msc chemistry us than the non-media physical reality that surrounds us. This loss of reality isn't so hard to understand, even if it's difficult for some of us to swallow.

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How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and studies thesis, Response Essay Paper With Examples. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. Studies Thesis Berkeley? She specializes in helping people write essays faster and american thesis berkeley, easier. A summary is master in public telling the main ideas of the article in your own words. These are the steps to writing a great summary: Read the article, one paragraph at a time. For each paragraph, underline the berkeley, main idea sentence (topic sentence). American Berkeley? If you can't underline the book, write that sentence on your computer or a piece of paper. When you finish the thesis berkeley, article, read all the underlined sentences.

In your own words, write down one sentence that conveys the msc chemistry resume, main idea. Start the sentence using the name of the author and american studies thesis, title of the article (see format below). Continue writing your summary by writing the other underlined sentences in your own words. Remember that you need to change both the words of the sentence and the word order. For more information, see video below. Msc Chemistry Resume? Don't forget to use transition words to american thesis berkeley link your sentences together. See my list of transition words below to help you write your summary more effectively and make it more interesting to in anthology read.

Make sure you include the name of the author and article and use author tags (see list below) to let the reader know you are talking about thesis what the author said and msc chemistry resume, not your own ideas. Re-read your piece. Does it flow well? Are there too many details? Not enough? Your summary should be as short and concise as possible.

Author Tag : You need to start your summary by telling the name of the article and the author. Here are three examples of how to do that (pay close attention to the punctuation): In “How the Civil War Began, historian John Jones explains. John Jones, in studies thesis berkeley, his article “How the Civil War Began, says that the thesis research paper on autism, real reason. How the american studies thesis, Civil War Began, by historian John Jones, describes. First Sentence: Along with including the article's title and author's name, the first sentence should be the main point of the article. Msc Chemistry? It should answer the studies berkeley, question: What is this essay about? (thesis). For A Research On Autism? Example: In How the Civil War Began by John Jones, the author argues that the real reason for the start of the Civil War was not slavery, as many believe, but was instead the clash of cultures and greed for cash. Rest of Summary: The rest of your essay is going to give the reasons and evidence for that main statement.

In other words, what is the american, main point the writer is trying to research on autism make and what are the supporting ideas he or she uses to prove it? Does the author bring up any opposing ideas, and if so, what does he or she do to studies berkeley refute them? Here is a sample sort of sentence: ___________ is the issue addressed in “( article's title) ” by ( author's name) . The thesis of this essay is ___________ . The author’s main claim is internal conflict statement ___________ and his/her sub claim is ___________ . The author argues ___________ . Other people argue ___________ . American? The author refutes these ideas by saying ___________ . His/her conclusion is ___________ . How Often Do You Mention the Author? While you don't have to use an author tag in every sentence, you need to be clear when you are giving ideas that are taken from the article, and when you are saying your own ideas. In general, you want to be sure that you always use the author's name and the article title when you start summarizing, and thesis research paper, that you use the author's last name in the last sentence as well to make it clear you are still talking about the author's ideas.

In a research paper, you would then put a parenthetical citation or footnote, which tells the reader you are finished using that source. Men and thesis, Women in paper on autism, Conversation: Example response essay to Deborah Tannen's article about how divorce can be prevented if people learn the communication signals of the opposite studies berkeley, gender. Response Essay about Getting a Tattoo: Responds to mla works essay in anthology a personal experience article from the New York Times about a man who gets a dragon tattoo. The Year that Changed Everything: Sample paper written by american studies berkeley a college English class about an article by Lance Morrow suggesting that three lesser-known events of 1948 had a great impact on history. How is this written? Who is the studies thesis, audience? Is it effectively written for that audience? If you've done a literary analysis, you can apply what you know about analyzing literature to analyzing other texts. You will want to studies berkeley consider what is effective and ineffective.

You will analyze what the author does that works and s thesis in public policy, what doesn't work to american studies support the author's point and persuade the audience to agree. Sometimes, especially when you're just getting started writing, the task of fitting a huge topic into an essay may feel daunting and you may not know where to start. It may help you to master policy use a thing called TRACE when talking about the rhetorical situation. TRACE stands for Text, Reader, Author, Context, and american studies berkeley, Exigence: Text , Reader , and Author are easy to thesis berkeley understand. When writing the analysis, you need to think about american what kind of berkeley text it is and what the author wanted to have the audience think, do, or believe. The main question your analysis will answer is, How effective was the author at convincing that particular audience?

Context means several things: how the article fits into the history of discussion of that issue, the historical moment in american studies thesis berkeley, time when the article is written, and the moment in msc chemistry resume, time when a person reads the article. In this context, Exigence is synonymous with assumptions, bias, or worldview. Breaking the studies thesis, large idea down into these five parts may help you get started and organize your ideas. In your paper, you'll probably want to address from msc chemistry resume, three to all five of these elements. Each of the following elements can be one paragraph of american studies your analysis. You can answer the questions to help you generate ideas for each paragraph.

To make it easier, I've included the last two TRACE elements (Context and Exigence) as part of Author and resume, Reader. How is the american thesis berkeley, essay organized? What is effective or ineffective about the organization of the essay? How does the author try to interest the reader? How well does the author explain the main claims? Are these arguments logical? Do the support and spinal, evidence seem adequate? Is the support convincing to the reader? Does the evidence actually prove the studies thesis, point the author is american thesis trying to make?

Who is the author? What does he or she know about american studies thesis this subject? What is the author's bias? Is the bias openly admitted? Does that make his or her argument more or less believable? Does the author's knowledge and background make her or him reliable for this audience?

How does the statement, author try to relate to the audience and establish common ground? Is it effective? How does the american berkeley, author interest the audience? Does she or he make the reader want to internal know more? Does the author explain enough about the history of thesis this argument? Is anything left out? Who is the reader? How would they react to these arguments?

How is this essay effective or ineffective for conflict statement, this audience? What constraints (prejudices or perspectives) would make this reader able to hear or not hear certain arguments? What is the exigence (events in this moment in time which affect the need for this conversation) that makes the audience interested in this issue? Michael Critchton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves argues that we are overdoing caution and fear. See my Sample Reading Response to this essay and american berkeley, also check out Lisa Rayner and Don Fraizier's response. Text : Analyzing the text is very much like doing literary analysis, which many students have done before. Use all of cited in anthology your tools of literary analysis, including looking at studies thesis the metaphors, rhythm of sentences, construction of arguments, tone, style, and use of language. Example: The organization of essay title is effective/ineffective because ___________ . The essay's opening causes the reader to ___________ . The essay's style is ___________ and the tone is shown by ___________ . The language used is___________ . The essay's argument is constructed logically/illogically by ___________. For A Research? The essay is studies thesis berkeley organized by ___________ ( give a very brief description of the structure of the spinal retrolisthesis, essay, perhaps telling where the description of the problem is, where claims are made, and where support is located—in which paragraphs—and why this is effective or ineffective in studies thesis berkeley, proving the point ). Author: You’ve probably also analyzed how the author’s life affects his or her writing.

You can do the same for this sort of analysis. For example, in msc chemistry, my sample reading the response about Michael Crichton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves article, students noted that the fact that Crichton is the author of doomsday thrillers like Andromeda Strain and Jurassic Park makes his argument that we shouldn't pay much attention to american thesis current doomsday scenarios like global warming rather ironic. If you don't know anything about the author, you can always do a quick Google Search to find out. Sample format: The author establishes his/her authority by resume ___________ . The author's bias is shown in ___________ . The author assumes an audience who ___________ . American Studies Thesis? He/She establishes common ground with the audience by ___________ . Reader: You can write this section by inferring who the intended reader is, as well as looking at the text from the viewpoint of other sorts of readers. For example, Readers are interested in american studies thesis, this issue because of the studies berkeley, exigence of thesis ___________. Constraints on the reader's reaction are ___________. I think the reader would react to american studies thesis berkeley this argument by ___________.

I think that the author's ___________ is effective. ___________ is less effective because ___________ includes ___________. The support is mla works essay in anthology adequate/inadequate and is relevant/irrelevant to the author’s claim. What do you think? Does this article persuade you? Generally, your response will be the end of your essay, but you may include your response throughout the american studies, paper as you select what to spinal retrolisthesis summarize and studies, analyze. Master S Thesis In Public Policy? Your response will also be evident to the reader by the tone that you use and the words you select to talk about the article and writer. Studies Berkeley? However, your response in s thesis policy, the conclusion will be more direct and specific.

It will use the information you have already provided in your summary and analysis to explain how you feel about this article. Most of the time, your response will fall into one of the following categories: You will agree with the author and back your agreement up with logic or personal experience. You will disagree with the author because of your experience or knowledge (although you may have sympathy with the author's position). You will agree with part of the author's points and disagree with others.

You will agree or disagree with the author but feel that there is a more important or different point which needs to american studies thesis berkeley be discussed in addition to what is in the article. How will this article fit into your own paper? How will you be able to use it? Here are some questions you can answer to help you think about your response: What is your personal reaction to the essay? What common ground do you have with the author?

How are your experiences the same or different from the author's and how has your experience influenced your view? What in the essay is master in public policy new to you? Do you know of any information the article left out that is relevant to the topic? What in this essay made you re-think your own view? What does this essay make you think about? What other writing, life experience, or information would help you think about this article? What do you like or dislike about the essay and/or the ideas in the essay?

How much of your response is american studies thesis berkeley related to your personal experience? How much is related to your own worldview? How is this feeling related to the information you know? How will this information be useful for you in writing your own essay? What position does this essay support? Or where might you use this article in research paper on autism, your essay? You can use your answers to the questions above to help you formulate your response.

Here is a sample of how you can put this together into your own essay (for more sample essays, see the links above): Before reading this article, my understanding of this topic was ___________. Studies Thesis Berkeley? In my own experience, I have found ___________ and because of this, my reaction to this essay is ___________. Interestingly, I have ___________ as common ground with the author/audience . What was new to me is ___________. This essay makes me think ___________. I like/dislike ___________ in the essay. I will use this article in my research essay for ___________. Summary Analysis Response to resume Men and Women in berkeley, Conversation.

by Virginia Kearney 7. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example. by Virginia Kearney 0. Reading Response Sample Paper on Why We Crave Horror Movies by Virginia Kearney 6. How to msc chemistry Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays.

by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Cathy, I tell my students that you want to include the examples you need to make your point clear, but you don't want to summarize everything. Hello, Thank you so much for your guide. Is it necessary to include the american studies thesis, author's examples in an analytical argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 6 weeks ago from United States. Rodsy, I'm so glad that this has helped you.

I hope you will continue to use my other guides and sample papers to complete your other projects. Rodsy Karim Taseen 6 weeks ago. Thank you so much for making it easy. Now I along with my group members can complete our assignment on writing summary on different research papers, based on the filed of International Business. Thank you so much! I really appreciate the effort put into your work. :) this will really help me now and in future. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Chloe! It would depend in part what sort of assignment you've been given. Generally, in spinal retrolisthesis, doing a summary, you do not need to studies berkeley put the information exactly in the same order as the original paper. The important thing in summarizing is that you actually understand the information clearly enough that you can put it into your own words.

I'm guessing that with the title, the article has a number of reasons why we should allow the drugs. If the reasons can be grouped, into 3-4 types of for a paper on autism reasons, that would be your best organization technique. For example, I can image that the reasons to allow performance enhancing drugs are probably: We can't prevent athletes from getting around the rules. We have better athletic contests if we allow drugs. We don't have the right to tell athletes what they are doing with their own bodies. I'm not sure what your article says, but I'm guessing that you could group the reasons around a few themes and american studies berkeley, organize your summary that way. hi there, i am doing a science report on Why we should allow performance enhancing drugs in sport and in anthology, the article has 12 subheadings and american thesis berkeley, i am supposed to summarize all of them. What structure would i put the paragraphs in thesis for a on autism, so it isn't just random information summarizing the subsections, and i have an actual format to follow?

Thank you :) Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Brad! You are probably needing one of my other articles if you are doing an american, argumentative essay. When you do an argument, you actually need to have a main claim that you want to thesis statement persuade your audience to american thesis berkeley believe. Spinal Retrolisthesis? The analysis part of that sort of essay means that you evaluate the american, pros and thesis research paper on autism, cons of other ideas about that claim.

I don't use the term analytical argumentative essay in my class but I do teach this same idea. I call it persuasive essay, or argument essay and I have several articles that tell you how to write that sort of essay. Look at the links to the side or search for berkeley, them on Letterpile using my name. Would this be considered an outline for an analytical Argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from for a paper on autism, United States. Hi--If you are doing a summary, analysis, and response, then you do it the same as we've described here except that you would summarize the story and then analyze whether it was told effectively and finally give a response. If you are actually talking about writing a narrative paper about something that happened to you, you need to see my article on How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. Search for it on Letterpile or on studies berkeley my profile page.

cletusoe12 5 months ago. How can I write a story of a personal encounter in an accident. In narrative essay. Please can you give me example? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Hi Mimi--In the response section, you can explain how you are going to use that article in your research paper. You might want to see my article on How to retrolisthesis do an Annotated Bibliography, which also includes a sample. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States.

Glad this is helpful to you Flor. I am not currently doing online tutoring but it is interesting for you to ask this because I've been considering setting up a website with videos and some live instruction help. what a great way to explain you have used here. Are you interested in studies thesis berkeley, doing tutoring online? I would love to have the opportunity to cited essay in anthology be tutor by you. Hello, I am actually working on three articles and my supervisor asked to thesis berkeley make a summary including analysis.But what I would like to know how can I show that these three articles are related to my future research paper?how can I analyze them?can you please help me? I love the way this website gives steps and internal conflict thesis statement, examples. I love how you can distinguish all of this into your on understanding. Studies Thesis? All of this explaining is spinal a great source for anything. You have to love everything about this site.

This is the best. Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Brianna--If you are doing a summary of an studies thesis berkeley, article, then I would do that first. If you are not responding to research paper on autism a particular article, then you should give a summary of the situation around this law and the different sides of the thesis berkeley, argument. Then pose a question which is interesting to you. Your response will be more interesting if you go beyond just the idea of whether this is good or bad.

Here are some ideas: Is this an effective strategy for pro-life groups to use? Does just raising the issue of conflict thesis statement burial change the conversation about abortion? Should women considering abortion have to think about burying their baby? How can I come up with a theme for my response paper. I am responding to the Texas new law that requires burial for berkeley, aborted fetuses. Any ideas? Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Thanks for letting me know Seza!

This type of essay is not very well explained in many textbooks and that is what led me to write these instructions and ask my students to post examples. American Studies Thesis? Since I've been using these instructions, I've found my students do a much better job at writing these kinds of american berkeley essays, which is important because the thinking you do while writing these essays is what prepares you for doing good research. This post has been of great help for mla works cited essay in anthology, me and my friends. Thank you very much. Excellent lesson. American Thesis Berkeley? It helped me with reviewing summarizing with some of my students who were still having difficulty. Spinal Retrolisthesis? I especially liked the chart. American Thesis? However, please change adjective to adverbs.

Thanks for the information. Very good insight on master s thesis in public analysis description. I want to thank you for your time and effort in helping people be all they can be. Keep up the american, great work. Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Singapore! I love the fact that what I write and use to teach has helped people all over the world. I'm approaching 8 million views now! Thanks from Singapore!

It's for literature :) Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from essay, United States. Thanks Simon! I've done a lot of american studies thesis berkeley writing over the years and I enjoy experimenting with different styles. I like the style of your post writing. It's very rare to find something like this. This my second semester in the university and I have to write. Analysis essay I find your site very helpful for me.

Really thank you. Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from United States. Hi Ercan! Since I started writing online in 2008, I've been amazed to see people from all over the world reading my work and being helped by the information I've developed for my students at college here in msc chemistry, the United States. Having had students from many other countries in my own classroom, I know that sometimes they have not gotten much instruction from native English speakers. Studies? I am glad to be able to provide help for free to improve student's written English. Ercan Oztoktay 16 months ago. Thanks so much from turkey. My first time to thesis write a summary of a 4-page research paper, this useful article really helped me, thanks :) I don't know why I should go to school.

This is the studies berkeley, right place. It's helping me in my English composition 2 class.thank you. Virginia Kearney 22 months ago from United States. Hi Ed, I'm not sure what your instructor means by writing with authority. They may mean they want you to quote reliable, authoritative sources. Spinal Retrolisthesis? In speech, we show authority by using declarative sentences which tell people what to do, such as, Be sure you write clear sentences using concrete adjectives and vivid adverbs. American Thesis Berkeley? I suggest you ask your instructor for msc chemistry resume, some examples of what they want you to do. Hello Professor Lynne. I have to write an american studies thesis berkeley, essay with authority, can you advise me why type of cited in anthology words I can use to american studies show my point? By the way the mla works cited, topic is dealing Information Technology.

Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Thanks yakul for your comment. As a writer, I know I am always learning and improving too! Matty Fernandez 2 years ago from studies thesis berkeley, Passaic, NJ. I have to turn in a summary page for Critical Thinking. Mla Works In Anthology? You've helped me lots! Please follow me.

Christy Maria 2 years ago. I am a student in University right now and I have to american studies berkeley write response papers so often. This article is extremely useful for me so im going to american studies thesis make sure to save it and look back on american studies berkeley it when I have my next paper due! Thankyou. Najat 2 years ago from Rottherdam - NL. i like your hub, great sharing, i love the cited essay in anthology, instructions. greeting from Hijama. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States.

Aesta--glad to studies berkeley know this helped you. My class is thesis for a research structured so that my students have to plan before they write, and then get feedback from peers before re-writing. American Thesis Berkeley? Many of them don't like that process because they want to get it all done in one sitting, but after they have gone through this process for a semester, they begin to realize that stopping to s thesis in public policy organize their thoughts first often means that the writing goes much more quickly. In the end, it takes less time! Mary Norton 2 years ago from Ontario, Canada. Enjoyed reading your hub as it is american thesis berkeley really well written and very substantial. I need to digest this information and start applying this in s thesis in public policy, my work. Studies Berkeley? I often just write spontaneously, no outline, and I organize this after. Armed with these questions to ask as I write, maybe I can really put substance into my random thoughts.

Lloyd Jenkins 3 years ago. This was great information, it will help me in my English class this semester. Organization is key in writing a good summary and response. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Organised Kaos--do you really live in Tasmania? That seems like a fairy tale place to me. In Anthology? Of course, as I write that, I realize that the places I've lived, Southern California, Texas and Florida may seem like fairy tale places to people in other parts of the world!

Good luck on your college career. American Thesis? I went back to graduate school after 10 years of working and found that I enjoyed going to school so very much more than I had when I was younger. I actually enjoyed the chance to learn things. As a professor, I really enjoy having students like yourself because their life experiences make their writing much more interesting. Actually, that reminds me that last semester I had a student from Australia who was older because he had been a professional Rugby player for several years before coming to the U.S. to go to college and play American football. Thesis Paper? The whole class enjoyed all of his experiences and american berkeley, I'm sure your classmates will enjoy yours too. Anne 3 years ago from Hobart, Tasmania. Australia.(The little bit broken off the bottom of AUS)

Thanks for a great hub. Just about to go back to college after 20 years and internal statement, am a little nervous about having forgotten this kinda stuff. Will be following you too as I want to be able to refer at a later date, back to your instruction. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. How interesting Maddie--thanks for letting me know. My husband is a scientist and I love doing technology and science papers with my class in the second semester. I will have to think about american studies thesis berkeley doing some more topic ideas for science classes. I'm doing this for science. Anarkali Suits 4 years ago.

“Words can be like X-rays if you use them properly -- they’ll go through anything. Retrolisthesis? You read and you’re pierced.” This page is a great method to connect to others. Congratulations on a job well achieved. Studies? I am anticipating your next. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. B. Spinal Retrolisthesis? Leekley--absolutely! I'm so glad that you recognized that responsive reading doesn't just have to american thesis be to texts.

Anything that provides us something to american berkeley think about can be put into a responsive reading. Studies Thesis? You've reminded me that I need to add my own Hub which responded to a Harvard Study on the effect of going to essay in anthology 4th of July celebrations to thesis my links. Brian Leekley 5 years ago from Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. Thank you for this interesting and helpful hub. I have bookmarked it. I can foresee myself writing hubs that are responses to hubs that argue for a philosophical or political position. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. I'm glad! I'm just now grading my student's Summary, Analysis and retrolisthesis, Response essays and I'm so pleased that they have really understood how to do this paper. I'm hoping my directions this semester have been clearer. We did two days of peer editing, which I think helped.

This paper is similar to the Reading Response paper, and both of these Hubs are are the studies thesis berkeley, very top in number of hits, so I think that many people have trouble on these essays and internal statement, the textbooks don't always describe them well. Many thanks made things a lot simpler for me! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. johnsdfd--good question. Yes--I should add that to the hub. Berkeley? You do a bibliographic entry in either mla or apa style at the top, then the summary/analysis/response is below. htodd 5 years ago from United States. Great post virginialynne..Thanks. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States.

Glad I helped you nico! My class is just starting on this essay now and so I was looking at my Hubviews and very surprised to find this one had over studies berkeley, 3,000! I really published it for my own classes, but the class I'm teaching now is the studies thesis berkeley, first one that will use it. Guess there are a lot of other people out there needing help! Virginia Kearney 6 years ago from United States. Thanks!

I think that a lot of the instructions given for essays really don't help you know how to thesis paper organize them. I've actually learned a lot about writing by trying to figure out how to teach other people! Rose Clearfield 6 years ago from Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Well written. I like how you break everything down. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. American Berkeley? Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of msc chemistry their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.

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The Model-View-Controller (MVC) Design Pattern for PHP. Amended 1st September 2017. As of 10th April 2006 the american thesis software discussed in this article can be downloaded from I am no stranger to software development having been a software engineer for over 25 years. I have developed in a variety of 2nd, 3rd and 4th generation languages on a mixture of mainframes, mini- and in public, micro-computers (which are now called Personal Computers). American Berkeley! I have worked with flat files, indexed files, hierarchical databases, network databases and relational databases. The user interfaces have included punched card, paper tape, teletype, block mode, CHUI, GUI and web. I have written code which has been procedural, model-driven, event-driven, component-based and object oriented.

I have built software using the 1-tier, 2-tier and the 3-Tier architecture. I have created development infrastructures in 3 different languages. Internal Statement! My latest achievement is to create an environment for building web applications using PHP that encompasses a mixture of 3-Tier architecture, OOP, and where all HTML output is berkeley, generated using XML and XSL transformations. This is documented in A Development Infrastructure for PHP. Before teaching myself PHP the only occasion where I came in contact with the concept of the model-view-controller design pattern was when I joined a team that was replacing a legacy system with a more up-to-date version that had web capabilities. Msc Chemistry! I was recruited because of my experience with the language being used, but I quickly realised that their design was too clumsy and the time taken to develop individual components was far to long (would you believe two man-weeks for a SEARCH screen and a LIST screen?).

They kept arguing that there was nothing wrong with their design as it obeyed all the rules (or should I say 'their interpretation of the rules'). I was not the only one who thought their implementation was grossly inefficient - the berkeley client did not like their projected timescales and costs so he cancelled the whole project. How's that for a vote of confidence for master s thesis, their design! When I started to build web applications using PHP I wanted to adapt some of the designs which I had used in the past. Having successfully implemented the 3-Tier architecture in my previous language I wanted to american thesis berkeley, attempt the american studies thesis berkeley same thing using PHP. My development infrastructure ended up with the american studies thesis berkeley following sets of components: Presentation layer - a set of component scripts, screen structure scripts, and a series of resume reusable XSL stylesheets and controller scripts.

Business layer - this contains a separate class for thesis berkeley, each business entity. As each business entity also has a database table, and as the code to communicate with a database table is virtually the same regardless of the business entity, I put all the sharable code into an abstract class and defined each business entity as a subclass. This enables me to share all the master s thesis standard properties and methods of the superclass through inheritance. This I have documented in Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 1) and Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 2). Data Access layer - a single component which contains all the DML (Data Manipulation Language) statements for a particular RDBMS engine. If I wish to switch from one RDBMS to another all I have to do is replace this single component. Although I have never been trained in OO techniques I read up on the theory and american studies thesis berkeley, used the OO capabilities of paper PHP 4 to produce a simple class hierarchy that had as much reusable code as possible in berkeley, an abstract superclass and where each business entity was catered for american, with a concrete subclass. I published an article Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 1) and (Part 2) which described what I had done, and american berkeley, I was immediately attacked by self-styled OO purists who described my approach as totally wrong and studies thesis berkeley, unacceptable to REAL object-oriented programmers.

I put the question to the PHP newsgroup and asked the american thesis opinion of the greater PHP community. This generated a huge response that seemed to be split between the it is bad and it is master s thesis in public, good camps, so I summarised all the criticisms, and my responses to american, those criticisms, in a follow-up article entitled What is/is not considered to be good OO programming. I have absolutely no doubt that there will be some self-styled MVC purists out there in Internet land who will heavily criticise the contents of this document, but let me give you my response in american studies, advance: I have read the principles of american MVC and built software which follows those principles, just as I read the principles of OOP and american studies berkeley, built software which followed those principles. Studies Thesis! The fact that my implementation is different from cited essay in anthology, your implementation is totally irrelevant - it works therefore it cannot be wrong. I have seen implementations of studies berkeley several design patterns which were technical disasters, and I have seen other implementations (mostly my own) of the resume same design patterns which were technical successes. Following a set of principles will not guarantee success, it is how you implement those principles that separates the men from the boys. The principles of the various design patterns are high-level ideas which are language-independent, therefore they need to be translated into workable code for each individual language. Thesis Berkeley! This is where I have succeeded and others have failed. I have spent the last 25+ years designing and cited essay, writing code which works, and studies thesis berkeley, I don't waste my time with ideas that don't work.

Other people seem to think that following a set of rules with blind obedience is the prime consideration and have no idea about writing usable or even efficient code. American Berkeley! When someone dares to criticise their work they chant it cannot be wrong because it follows all the rules. The difference between successful and unsuccessful software is not in american thesis, the underlying rules or principles, it is how those rules or principles are implemented that counts. Where implementation 'A' makes it is msc chemistry, easier and quicker to studies thesis berkeley, develop components than implementation 'B', it does not mean that 'A' is right and 'B' is wrong, it just means that 'A' is better than 'B'. Msc Chemistry! Where an implementation works it cannot be wrong - it can only be wrong when it does not work. The Principles of the MVC Design Pattern. After researching various articles on the internet I came up with the following descriptions of the principles of the Model-View-Controller design pattern: The MVC paradigm is a way of breaking an application, or even just a piece of an application's interface, into three parts: the model, the view, and the controller. MVC was originally developed to map the traditional input, processing, output roles into the GUI realm: Input -- Processing -- Output. Controller -- Model -- View.

A model is an studies thesis berkeley object representing data or even activity, e.g. a database table or even some plant-floor production-machine process. The model manages the behavior and internal thesis statement, data of the application domain, responds to american studies thesis berkeley, requests for information about its state and responds to instructions to change state. Master In Public! The model represents enterprise data and the business rules that govern access to studies thesis, and updates of this data. Often the model serves as a software approximation to a real-world process, so simple real-world modeling techniques apply when defining the model. The model is the piece that represents the state and low-level behavior of the component. It manages the state and conducts all transformations on that state. The model has no specific knowledge of mla works in anthology either its controllers or its views. The view is the piece that manages the visual display of the state represented by the model. A model can have more than one view. Note that the model may not necessarily have a persistent data store (database), but if it does it may access it through a separate Data Access Object (DAO). A view is some form of studies visualisation of the state of the model.

The view manages the graphical and/or textual output to the portion of the bitmapped display that is allocated to its application. Resume! Instead of a bitmapped display the view may generate HTML, PDF, CSV or XML output. The view renders the contents of a model. It accesses enterprise data through the american thesis model and specifies how that data should be presented. The view is responsible for mapping graphics onto a device. A view typically has a one to spinal, one correspondence with a display surface and knows how to render to it. A view attaches to studies berkeley, a model and renders its contents to cited essay in anthology, the display surface. A controller offers facilities to change the state of the model. The controller interprets the mouse and keyboard inputs from the american thesis berkeley user, commanding the model and/or the view to change as appropriate.

A controller is the means by which the essay in anthology user interacts with the studies thesis application. A controller accepts input from the user and master s thesis, instructs the american thesis berkeley model and thesis for a research paper, view to perform actions based on that input. In effect, the studies controller is msc chemistry, responsible for american studies thesis berkeley, mapping end-user action to application response. Research On Autism! The controller translates interactions with the view into actions to be performed by the model. In a stand-alone GUI client, user interactions could be button clicks or menu selections, whereas in a Web application they appear as HTTP GET and POST requests. Thesis! The actions performed by the model include activating business processes or changing the s thesis in public state of the model. Based on the user interactions and the outcome of the american studies thesis berkeley model actions, the controller responds by selecting an appropriate view. The controller is the piece that manages user interaction with the model.

It provides the mechanism by which changes are made to the state of the cited model. In the Java language the thesis berkeley MVC Design Pattern is thesis berkeley, described as having the following components: An application model with its data representation and business logic. Berkeley! Views that provide data presentation and user input. A controller to dispatch requests and msc chemistry resume, control flow. The purpose of the MVC pattern is to separate the model from the studies thesis view so that changes to the view can be implemented, or even additional views created, without having to refactor the model. The model, view and controller are intimately related and in constant contact, therefore they must reference each other. Internal Thesis Statement! The picture below illustrates the basic Model-View-Controller relationship:

Figure 1 - The basic MVC relationship. Even though the above diagram is incredibly simple, there are some people who try to read more into it than is really there, and they attempt to enforce their interpretations as rules which define what is proper MVC. To put it as simply as possible the MVC pattern requires the following: It must have a minimum of three components, each of which performs the responsibilities of either the Model, the american berkeley View or the Controller, as identified above. You may include as many additional components as you like, such as a Data Access Object (DAO) to communicate with a relational database. There is spinal, a flow of data between each of thesis berkeley those components so that each may carry out its designated responsibilities on that data.

What is not specified in MVC is how the mechanics of that flow are to be implemented. The data may be pushed by the Model into the View, it may be pulled by the View from the Model, or pulled into an intermediary (such as the msc chemistry resume Controller or an studies thesis Observer) before it is pushed into the View. It does not matter how the for a research data flows, just that it does flow. The actual mechanics are an implementation detail and can therefore be left to the implementor. The MVC pattern does not identify from where each of studies thesis berkeley these components is instantiated and called. Is there a mystical 4th component which oversees the 3 others, or can one of thesis paper them oversee and direct the other two? As this is not directly specified in MVC the actual mechanics can be treated as a separate implementation detail. Note the following: HTML or PDF output can only be generated and output in one place - the View. Data validation and business rules can only american studies, be applied in berkeley, one place - the Model.

SQL statements can only be generated and executed in one place - either within the Model (not good) or via a separate Data Access Object (DAO) which is my preferred method. There are some people who criticise my interpretation of the rules of MVC as it is different from theirs, and therefore wrong (such as how data moves from the studies berkeley Model to the View), but who is to say that their interpretation is the only one that should be allowed to exist? In my opinion a design pattern merely identifies what needs to be done without dictating how it should be done. Provided that the what is not violated any implementation should be a valid implementation. I do not develop software which directly manipulates real-world objects, such as process control, robotics, avionics, or missile guidance systems, which means that a lot of the properties and methods which apply to real-world objects are completely irrelevant. I develop enterprise applications such as Sales Order Processing, Inventory, Invoicing and Shipments which deal with such entities as Products, Customers and Orders, so I am only manipulating the information about those entities and not the actual entities themselves. Thesis For A Paper On Autism! This information is held in a database in the form of tables, columns and american studies, relationships. Regardless of what properties or attributes a real-world object may have, in a database application it is only necessary to store those pieces of information that are actually required by research paper on autism that application. A product in the real world may have many properties, but the application may only need to record its Id, Description and Price.

A person in the real world may have such methods as sit, stand, walk and run, but these operations would never be needed in american berkeley, an enterprise application. Regardless of the operations that can be performed on conflict thesis statement, a real-world object, with a database table the american only operations that can be performed are Create, Read, Update and Delete (CRUD). Following the process called data normalisation the information for an entity may need to be split across several tables, each with its own columns and relationships, and in these circumstances I would create a separate Model class for each table instead of having a single class for a collection of tables. As an in anthology application is divided into a number of user transactions or use cases, it would be wise to have a separate controller for each use case instead of a single universal controller which can deal with all possible use cases. American! Some people advocate the creation of a separate controller for berkeley, each use case, such as in GRASP - The Controller which states the following: A use case controller should be used to deal with all system events of a use case, and thesis, may be used for studies thesis, more than one use case (for instance, for thesis berkeley, use cases Create User and Delete User, one can have a single UserController, instead of two separate use case controllers). I do not have a separate Controller, or a group of controllers, for each business entity. Each user transaction (use case) does something with a database table, so I have placed the something into a resuable controller script, then use a component script to identify which table (model) should be the subject of that action. Because each business entity is master in public, a database table, and studies thesis, each database table has exactly the same operations, I have designed my controllers around the operations that can be performed on an unspecified database table where the name of thesis paper that table is not known until run time. So instead of such controllers as Create User and Delete User , Create Product and Delete Product , Create Order and Delete Order I simply have Create Table and Delete Table . These controllers can be used with any table in studies thesis berkeley, any database, and because they have been reduced to this level of simplification they can be supplied as standard framework components and mla works cited essay, do not need to studies thesis berkeley, be created or modified by any developer. There is a separate controller for each of my Transaction Patterns.

In my implementation, as shown in cited, Figure 2 and Figure 3, the whole application is broken down into a series of top-level components which are sometimes referred to as tasks, actions, functions, operations or transactions (that's user transactions, not database transactions), each of berkeley which is may be related to s thesis policy, a Use Case. American Studies Thesis! Each transaction component references a single controller, one or more models, and usually a view. Some components do not have a view as they are called from other components in msc chemistry resume, order to perform a service, and once this service has been completed they return control to the calling component. Each component is self-executing in that it deals with both the HTTP GET and POST requests. Figure 2 - My implementation of the MVC pattern (1) The Model is implemented as a series of business entity classes each of american studies thesis which contains all the properties and s thesis, methods required by american studies thesis berkeley a single business entity.

It is actually a subclass to an abstract superclass which contains properties and mla works, methods which are common to all database tables. The model is responsible for all data validation, business rules and task-specific behaviour, while the actual generation of DML (Data Manipulation Language) statements is performed in a separate DML class. The DML class or Data Access Object (DAO) is the only object in the entire framework which is allowed to communicate with the database, and studies thesis, it can only be called by a model component. In Public! This isolates the model from the underlying database and allows the application to be switched from studies berkeley, one RDBMS to another simply by switching to another DML class. Only the DML class deals with database resources - all communication with the entity subclass is by standard database-agnostic arrays. The View is implemented as a series of screen structure scripts which are combined with the output from each database table class to msc chemistry resume, produce an american thesis XML document. This file will also include the data for the menu bar, navigation bar, action bar, pagination and scrolling areas. The completed XML document is then transformed into thesis, HTML output by using one of the generic XSL stylesheets. Studies! For each database table there is typically a list view (containing multiple occurrences with data arranged horizontally) and a detail view (containing a single occurrence with data arranged vertically). If output in an alternative format is required, such as PDF instead of HTML, there are separate transaction patterns which use a different view object to create PDF output in resume, either LIST view or DETAIL view, each with its own report structure file. There is also another view object to american thesis, create CSV output.

Note that my implementation of MVC differs from the Java implementation in the following ways: Controllers do not select which View to use. Each of my page controllers is tied to a single view as described in Transaction Patterns for Web Applications. There is, in effect, a separate Transaction Pattern for each type of use case. The Model does not send updates to conflict thesis, the View . When the Model has finished the american studies thesis berkeley actions requested by the Controller , the Controller will instantiate its one and only View , inject the Model(s) into for a research paper on autism, the View, and the View will then extract all data from the Model(s) and render it in the desired format. There are separate Views for HTML, CSV and studies, PDF output. All HTML output is generated from a collection of reusable XSL stylesheets. The View does not send user gestures to the Controller . Communication is internal, always one way from the Controller to the View , never from the american thesis View to the Controller . With web applications there are only two possible actions - GET and POST - and these are received by the Controller which then calls the cited appropriate method(s) on the Model(s) followed by studies thesis a single call to the View . Also note that, unlike the Java implementation, I do not use any of the following design patterns - Filter, Helper, Composite, Front Controller, Value Object, Facade or Delegate.

I do, however, use a Data Access Object (DAO), but only because it is component in the 3-Tier Architecture. Figure 3 - My implementation of the MVC pattern (2) Note that all the items in the above diagram are clickable links. As I said in the introduction, my implementation of MVC is retrolisthesis, combined with the 3-Tier Architecture which has separate layers for Presentation logic, Business logic and Data Access logic. American Studies Thesis Berkeley! How the msc chemistry two can interact is shown in Figure 3a: Figure 3a - The MVC and 3-Tier architectures combined. This implementation has very high Levels of berkeley Reusability due to the number of cited components which are either pre-written and studies thesis berkeley, come supplied with the framework, or are generated by the framework.

This component is comprised of the following: A separate and unique Component script for each user transaction. Each of these is generated from the Data Dictionary. A sharable Controller script which is research on autism, supplied in studies, the framework in the catalog of internal thesis Transaction Patterns. The Model is never supposed to handle the output of its data to any particular device or medium. Instead it is supposed to studies berkeley, transfer its data to another object which deals with that device or medium. In this implementation I have separate objects to create output in either HTML, PDF or CSV format. The HTML component operates as follows: It is given a Screen Structure file which is generated from the spinal Data Dictionary initially, but which may be modified as required. This identifies which XSL stylesheet to use, and which data columns need to be displayed where.

After the Model(s) have finished executing they are injected into the View which will extract all the data and copy it to an XML document. American Berkeley! Information from the screen structure file is also copied into the XML document so that the XSL stylesheet will know which data elements to essay, put where. Thesis Berkeley! The View will then copy in data supplied by the framework, such as menu buttons, screen title, navigation buttons, action buttons, pagination and scrolling details, and any messages. Studies Thesis Berkeley! The View will then perform an thesis berkeley XSL Transformation using the nominated XSL stylesheet and the newly constructed XML document to produce an HTML document. The HTML output is spinal, then sent back to the requesting client device. The PDF component operates as follows: The Controller instantiates the Model and instructs it to issue its SQL select statement, but without actually retrieving any data. The Controller instantiates the PDF object and injects into it the MOdel and american thesis berkeley, the name of the report structure file. The PDF object instructs the Model to fetch a record which it will format into a page for the DETAIL view or a line in american berkeley, the LIST view.

The read-a-record-process-a-record cycle will continue until there is no more data. The CSV component operates as follows: The Controller instantiates the Model and instructs it to issue its SQL select statement, but without actually retrieving any data. The Controller instantiates the CSV object injects the Model into it. The CSV object instructs the Model to fetch the american studies berkeley first record so that it can construct a line of column labels.

The CSV object will then write the current record's data to the output, then read the next record. The read-a-record-process-a-record cycle will continue until there is no more data. Note that some components may not have a view at all as they perform a service without producing any visible output. This component is comprised of the following: A separate Business Entity class for each table within the application database.

Each of these is generated by exporting the table's details from the Data Dictionary to produce a class file and a structure file. The structure file provides information which is used by my standard validation object to validate user input. This file can be regenerated whenever the table's structure changes. Each of these concrete table classes inherits its standard methods and properties from a single Abstract Table class which is supplied as part of the framework. This ensures that all the common code is defined in one place but can be shared by many objects. Each table class contains its own specific business rules and data validation rules, but all communication with the physical database is routed through a separate Data Access Object (DAO). S Thesis! There is a separate DML class for each DBMS engine which is supplied as part of the framework. This arrangement makes it possible to switch from one DBMS to another without having to make any changes to any table class. Studies Thesis Berkeley! Currently supported DBMS engines are MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle and SQL Server.

My implementation also has the thesis for a research paper following characteristics: Each of the components can be classified as one of the following: Some of these components are built into the framework while others you have to american berkeley, generate yourself: The framework components are pre-written and conflict statement, come supplied with the american studies thesis framework or are invoked automatically. The application components are generated by the framework using information obtained from for a paper, your application database. The Data Dictionary is used to generate the thesis business entity classes as well as the component scripts, screen structure files and report structure files.

Components are either application-agnostic or framework-agnostic: The framework components are application-agnostic as they have no knowledge of the internals of resume any application component. A framework component may send data to or receive data from an application component, but that data has no meaning to the framework. The application components are framework-agnostic as they have no knowledge of where the data comes from that they receive, or what happens to berkeley, the data that they send out. All communication between the various components is as follows:

Each Controller and s thesis, View communicates with the Model using methods which are defined within the american thesis abstract class. Each Model communicates with the DAO using methods which are defined within the abstract class. All default behaviour is provided by the framework components, so when a developer wishes to alter the default behaviour the only code that he/she has to write goes into one of the pre-prepared methods in a Model class. This also means that, as the author of the framework, I can alter or enhance the default behaviour of master s thesis in public any component within the application simply by changing a framework component. In other frameworks where the supplied components are more primitive and require much more developer effort such widespread enhancements are simply not possible. Every application component (user transaction) will have one of these scripts. This will be identified in studies, the URL so it can be activated without the need to thesis research paper, pass through a Front Controller. It is a very small script which does nothing but identify which model (business entity), view (screen structure file) and controller to use, as shown in the following example: Where the controller requires access to more than one business entity, such as in a parent-child or one-to-many relationship in a LIST2 pattern, or a parent-child-grandchild relationship in a LIST3 pattern, then names such as $parent_id , $child_id , $outer_id or $inner_id are used.

The same screen structure file can used by components which access the studies berkeley same business entity but in different modes (insert, update, enquire, delete and search) as the XSL stylesheet is provided with a $mode parameter which enables it to determine whether fields should be read-only or amendable. Note that no component script is allowed to access more than one view. While most will produce HTML output using the specifications in a screen structure file there are some which produce PDF output using a report structure file. Some components may have no view at all - they are called upon to take some particular action after which they return control to retrolisthesis, the calling component which refreshes its own view accordingly. Each of these is berkeley, generated from a component in the Data Dictionary. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. There is a separate pre-built controller script included in the framework for each of the internal conflict thesis patterns identified in Transaction Patterns for Web Applications. By simply changing the name of the american studies controller script the whole character of the component will change.

These component controllers may also be known as transaction controllers or page controllers. The following is an example of berkeley controller : The controller does not know the names of the business entities with which it is dealing - these are passed down as variables from the thesis berkeley component script. It will append the conflict standard '' to each table name to identify the american studies thesis berkeley class file, then instantiate a separate object for each table. Note that I did say entities in the plural and not entity in the singular. There is no rule (at least none which I recognise) which says that a controller can only communicate with a single model, which is why I have transaction patterns which sometimes use two or even three models at a time. Master S Thesis In Public Policy! Just because some example implementations show a single model does not mean that all implementations must also be restricted to studies thesis, a single model. The method names that the controller uses to communicate with each table object are the generic names which are defined within the abstract table class. This means that any controller can be used with any concrete table class.

The controller does not know the names of thesis berkeley any fields with which it is dealing - what comes out of the business entity is a simple associative array of 'name=value' pairs which is passed untouched to studies thesis berkeley, the View object which will transfer the entire array to an XML document so that it can be transformed into HTML. In any INPUT or UPDATE components the entire contents of the POST array is passed to the business entity as-is instead of one field at a time. Again this means that no field names have to be hard-coded into any controller script, thus increasing their re-usability. My framework currently has 40+ pre-built controller scripts which are part of my library of Transaction Patterns. Essay In Anthology! The same pattern can be used with virtually any business object in the application, thus making them loosely coupled and studies, highly reusable. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This encapsulates the properties and methods which can be used by any database table in resume, the application. When a concrete table class is created it makes use of these sharable properties and methods by the mechanism known as inheritance. American Thesis Berkeley! The generic methods which are used by the Controller script when it calls a Business entity object are all defined with this abstract class, and msc chemistry resume, as they are all then available to every concrete table class this enables the american thesis berkeley concept known as polymorphism.

There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is responsible for internal thesis, all communication the american thesis database by constructing queries using the standard SQL Data Manipulation Language (DML) using instructions passed down from the calling Business Entity class. Paper On Autism! There is a separate DML class for each different DBMS engine, such as MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle and SQL Server, which means that the entire application can be switched from one DBMS to another simply by changing a single entry in the configuration file. This means that it is also possible to thesis berkeley, develop an application using one DBMS engine but deploy it to use another. Note that this class does not have any inbuilt knowledge of any database or database table, so a single class can be used to access any table in cited essay, any database.

There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. Each business entity is implemented as a separate class so that it can encapsulate all the properties and methods of that entity in a single object. As each of these business entities also exists as a database table a great deal of common code can be shared by thesis inheriting from the abstract table class. In its initial form a concrete table class requires very little information to differentiate it from another database table - just the database name, the table name, and msc chemistry, the table structure. Rather than having to create each class file manually, as of June 2005 these can be generated for you as described in american studies thesis, A Data Dictionary for in anthology, PHP Applications. This provides the following facilities: IMPORT - Populate the american berkeley dictionary database using details extracted from the physical database schema. Internal Thesis Statement! EDIT - Modify the studies thesis berkeley details for use by internal conflict the application.

EXPORT - Make the details available to the application in the form of disk files which can be referenced by means of the include() function. American Studies Berkeley! Two files will be created for each database table: - this is the master in public initial class file for the database table. It will only be created if it does not already exist, so any customisations which have been added since the initial creation of the file will not be lost. - this contains the column details, key details and relationship details. This will be overwritten during the berkeley export process, so no customisations are allowed. All customisation should be performed in the dictionary and then exported to this file. Alternatively it is possible to make temporary customisations at runtime by placing code in the _cm_changeConfig method of the relevant table subclass.

The variables in the class constructor do not contain application data (that which passes through the object between the user and the database) but instead contain information about the application data. Collectively they are sometimes referred to as meta-data , or data-about-data . This meta-data contains declarative rules rather than imperative rules as they are defined here but executed somewhere else. When the time comes (i.e. For A Paper On Autism! when the user presses a SUBMIT button on an HTML form) the user data passes from the american berkeley Controller into the Model where it is thesis research on autism, passed to american studies berkeley, a validation object along with the meta-data, and msc chemistry, it is the responsibility of the validation object to ensure that the user data conforms to those rules. The validation object returns an $errors array which will contain zero or more error messages. If there are any error messages then the operation is aborted.

The structure file is a simple PHP script which identifies the XSL stylesheet which is to be used and the application data which is to be displayed by american thesis that stylesheet. Internal Thesis! It does this by constructing a multi-dimensional array in the $structure variable. The following formats are available: Each structure file has the following components: The following keywords for column attributes are supported in the list/horizontal view: Note that the 'align', 'valign' and 'class' attributes when added to a COL element in the HTML output are poorly supported in most browsers, so will be dealt with as follows: The 'align' and 'valign' attributes will be converted to 'class' when written to the XML output. The 'class' attribute will no longer be added to the COL element, but instead will be added to thesis, the TD element for every cell within the relevant column. NOTE: if your screen structure file contains two or more of the 'align|valign|class' attributes for the same field then they will be combined automatically into a single 'class' value, so code such as:

will be treated as if it were: The following keywords for additional field attributes are supported in the detail/vertical view: colspan - allow the internal conflict field to span more than 1 column. rowspan - allow the thesis field to span more than 1 row. cols - will override the value for multiline controls. Mla Works Essay In Anthology! rows - will override the value for thesis berkeley, multiline controls. class - specifies one or more CSS classes. align - specifies horizontal alignment (left/center/right). valign - specifies vertical alignment (top/middle/bottom). Internal! display-empty - will force a line of labels to american thesis berkeley, be displayed even if all values are missing. label-only - will allow a line to contain a label without any associated field value. imagewidth - will override an master s thesis in public image's default width. imageheight - will override an image's default height. American Thesis Berkeley! javascript - includes optional javascript. Screen Structure file for a simple 2-column DETAIL view (vertical) This is an example of resume a structure file to produce a standard 2-column DETAIL view as shown in Figure 4. Where each row contains only a single label followed by a single field the format of studies thesis each entry is 'field' = 'label' . Note that under some circumstances neither the field nor the label will be output, in which case the entire row will be dropped rather than showing an empty row.

These circumstances are: The fieldname does not exist in the XML document. Spinal! The field has the nodisplay attribute set in the $fieldspec array. American Thesis Berkeley! This behaviour can be overridden by adding 'display-empty' = 'y' to the item in the ['zone']['fields'] array in the screen structure file. This will cause every cell in that row to be output, even if it is policy, empty. When this information is written out to the XML document it will look something like the following: Screen Structure file for a more complex multi-column DETAIL view (vertical) Here is an example of american studies a screen structure file that will produce a multi-column DETAIL view as shown in Figure 5: Notice the following differences between this and the standard 2-column view: Each row is numbered explicitly so that multiple entries can be specified for rows 2 and thesis for a research paper, 13.

Rows which contain a single label and berkeley, field (rows 1, 4 and 11 in this example) can be expressed as 'field' = 'label' A row can contain nothing but a label to cited in anthology, act as a heading or sub-heading. Rows which require more than one field require a separate entry for berkeley, each label and thesis statement, each field. Please note the following: If a field has a label then the label entry must be defined before the american studies berkeley field entry. Conflict! It is possible to have a field without a label . It is not possible to have a label without a field unless you specify the label-only option. Each entry may include any of the following options: colspan - will allow that field to american studies, span more than one column in the HTML table. Without it the remaining columns in internal conflict, that row would be blank. rowspan - similar to colspan , but allows the field to extend vertically for more than 1 row. cols - will override the value for multiline controls supplied in the $fieldspec array. rows - will override the value for multiline controls supplied in the $fieldspec array. align - specify horizontal alignment within this cell.

See the HTML specification for thesis berkeley, details. valign - specify vertical alignment within this cell. See the HTML specification for details. size - will set the size of the s thesis in public textbox control for studies, that field when data can be input or amended. American Studies Thesis Berkeley! This overrides the size value specified in the $fieldspec array. This option is available in american studies thesis, both the detail/vertical and list/horizontal views. display-empty - if the field is not present in the XML file then by default neither the label nor the field will be displayed. This option will cause the empty row to be displayed instead of being dropped. label-only - this will cause a label to be printed on its own without an associated field value. class - will allow that label or field to be enclosed in a class attribute, where the class name should be defined in berkeley, the CSS file. American Studies Thesis! imagewidth - will override the value in the $fieldspec array when an image is displayed. This option is available in both the detail/vertical and conflict statement, list/horizontal views. imageheight - will override the value in the $fieldspec array when an image is displayed. This option is available in both the studies detail/vertical and list/horizontal views. javascript - see Inserting optional JavaScript for details.

Here is an example of a screen structure file that will produce a multi-column DETAIL view as shown in msc chemistry, Figure 6: Please note the following: The first two entries in row 3 use the rowspan option to extend down into row 4. As the american thesis berkeley first two cells in row 4 are now occupied the entries for row 4 will now start from cell 3. If there is the possibility that row 4 could be empty thus causing it to be dropped from the display, the 'display-empty' = 'y' entry will cause empty cells to be output instead. This avoids row 5 being moved up to take the position of the missing row 4, which is to the right of the first two cells and immediately below the last 2 cells in row 3. Please note that additional options may be specified for msc chemistry resume, use with javascript, as shown in RADICORE for PHP - Inserting optional JavaScript - Hide and Seek. Screen Structure file for a LIST view (horizontal) This is an example of a structure file to produce a standard LIST view as shown in Figure 7.

The selectbox entry does not relate to american berkeley, any field from the database. It is a reserved word which causes a checkbox to cited, be defined in that column with the thesis berkeley label 'Select'. The nosort entry (which can be specified in either of the thesis for a columns and fields arrays) is optional and american thesis, will prevent the column label from being displayed as a hyperlink which, when pressed, will cause the spinal retrolisthesis data to be sorted on that column. In some cases it might be useful to display an empty column (no heading, no data), and studies berkeley, this can be achieved by inserting a line in any of the following formats: It is msc chemistry resume, also possible to use some of the field options which have been described previously: Options which are added to the ['zone']['columns'] array will appear in the colgroup element of the HTML document. Options which are added to the ['zone']['fields'] array will appear in american studies, the td element of the master HTML document. When this information is written out to the XML document it will look something like the following: Although the studies thesis berkeley contents of the screen structure file is fixed it is possible to make temporary amendments before it is used to msc chemistry resume, build the HTML output. Please refer to the following:

There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. After the business entity has finished its processing the controller will instruct the american thesis view component to produce the HTML output. It does this by putting all the relevant data into an XML document. Thesis Berkeley! This data comes from the thesis berkeley following sources: The screen structure file in order to identify what application data goes where on for a on autism, the screen.

This will appear in the structure element of the XML document. Application data from each of the business objects (there may be more than one!) which were specified in the component script. This data will appear in the data area of the american berkeley HTML output. This area is broken down into one or more zones (e.g. 'main', or 'outer' and 'inner', or 'outer', 'middle' and 'inner'), and each object's data is allocated to one of those zones. Framework data from for a, either the database or session data, such as: The menu buttons. The navigation buttons. American Studies Berkeley! The title bar. The column headings for LIST screens.

The action buttons. In Anthology! The message area for errors and warnings. Studies Berkeley! The pagination and scrolling areas. This document will then be transformed into msc chemistry, HTML. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is a standard process by which an XML document is transformed into american studies thesis, HTML output using instructions contained within an XSL Stylesheet. This process is performed at the web server end by default, but it is also possible for spinal, it to be performed within the client browser, thus reducing the load on studies berkeley, the server. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is the document which is sent back to the client's browser is response to the request.

Its content should conform to the (X)HTML specification which is supervised by the World Wide Web Consortium. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. The framework contains a series of reusable XSL stylesheets each of which will present the data in one of the structures described in Transaction Patterns for Web Applications. These stylesheets are reusable because of one simple fact - none of them contain any hard-coded table or field names. Precise details of which elements from the XML file are to american studies berkeley, be displayed where are provided within the american studies XML file itself from data obtained from a screen structure script which is spinal, placed into the structure element. This is a great improvement over my original software which required a separate version of berkeley a stylesheet for each component. There are two basic structures for displaying data, and while some stylesheets use one or the retrolisthesis other there are some which contain the same basic elements in different variations and combinations. DETAIL view, single row displayed vertically LIST view, multiple rows displays horizontally. XSL Stylesheet for a DETAIL view (vertical) This is a DETAIL view which displays the contents of a single database row in columns going vertically down the american studies thesis page with labels on the left and data on the right, as shown in Figure 4.

In most cases the standard 2-column view will be sufficient, but there may be cases when it is desired to have more than one piece of data on in anthology, the same horizontal line, as shown in Figure 5. It is important to note that it is not a simple case of adding in extra columns to a row. An HTML table expects each row to have the same number of studies columns, so it is necessary to make adjustments on all other rows otherwise they will contain empty columns. Notice the following points about Figure 5: 'data1' has been told to span 3 columns, otherwise it would be no wider than 'data2a'. Line 2 contains two labels and two fields. This dictates that each row must therefore contain 4 columns. 'data4b' does not have a label. Statement! This is allowed, but it is thesis berkeley, not possible to resume, have a label without data. Studies Thesis! 'data4b' has been told to span 2 columns, otherwise it would be no wider than 'label2b'. In an HTML table it is spinal, possible to have a single piece of data which spans more than one column, as shown in Figure 5. It is also possible to have a single piece of data which spans more than one row, as shown in Figure 6. Notice here that the thesis effect of spanning multiple rows requires data in the other columns in each of the master in public rows that are being spanned. Details on how to achieve these effects are given in Structure file for a DETAIL view.

The same DETAIL view can be used by studies thesis berkeley different components which access the same business entity in different modes (insert, update, enquire, delete and search) as the controller script will pass its particular mode to the XSL stylesheet during the transformation process. The XSL stylesheet will use the mode value to alter the way that it deals with individual fields by making them read-only or amendable as appropriate. Here is a sample of the XSL stylesheet which provides a DETAIL view: Full a full breakdown of the different parts within the XSL stylesheet please refer to Reusable XSL Stylesheets and policy, Templates. XSL Stylesheet for a LIST view (horizontal) This is a LIST view which displays the contents of several database rows in horizontal rows going across the page. American Berkeley! The top row contains column headings (labels) while the subsequent rows contain data, each row from a different database occurrence. Here is a sample of the XSL stylesheet which provides a LIST view:

There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. Each application component (transaction) within the system will have its own unique component script. Although this is not sharable, it is spinal retrolisthesis, a very small script which does nothing but identify which Model, View and Controller to use, most of which are sharable. This arrangement allows me to achieve the following levels of studies thesis berkeley reusability: There is a separate Model class for each business entity (database table) within the application which encapsulates all the properties and methods necessary for studies thesis, that entity. This class can be shared by any number of components. Every Model class starts off by being very small as the majority of the required code is inherited from an abstract table class.

Code to physically access a particular RDBMS is routed through a single DML class. American Berkeley! This does not contain any hard-coded table or column names, therefore can be shared by all of the research paper on autism Model classes. Studies Berkeley! Every transaction which produces HTML output uses the same HTML View component. This uses a screen structure file which is tied to a particular database table but which may be shared by more than one transaction. Each transaction follows a particular pattern which uses one of the pre-defined XSL stylesheets which is supplied within the framework. There are a dozen or so of internal statement these XSL stylesheets which can be used by any number of studies thesis different transactions, and as they do not contain any hard-coded table or column names they can be used with any number of Model classes. Every transaction which produces PDF output uses the spinal same PDF View component.

This uses a report structure file which is unique for each report. American Studies! Every transaction which produces CSV output uses the same CSV View component. Conflict Thesis! This does not have any type of american thesis berkeley structure file as it will simply write to the output file every record that it is given. Spinal Retrolisthesis! Every transaction requires a Controller which handles the communication with the Model and the View. None of my controller scripts contains any hard-code table names or column names, so they can be used with any Model. Each Controller script will be tied to american studies berkeley, a particular type of View - HTML, PDF, CSV or no view at all in those cases where no visible output is required - and is catalogued in my library of thesis for a on autism Transaction Patterns. Using this design I have built framework which contains the following: Each transaction accesses one of the pre-defined Controller scripts, one for each of the 43 Transaction Patterns. Each table (Model) class is generated from my Data Dictionary and inherits a large volume of code from a single abstract table class. All SQL queries are constructed and executed through a single Data Access Object.

All HTML output is generated by berkeley a single HTML object which uses one of the 12 XSL stylesheets. All PDF output is msc chemistry, generated by studies berkeley a single PDF object. All CSV output is generated by a single CSV object. Using this framework I have built an application which contains over 2,000 user transactions, 250+ database tables and 450+ relationships. Each database table (Model) class was generated from my Data Dictionary and automatically shared code from spinal retrolisthesis, my abstract table class and Data Access Object.

Each user transaction was generated from one of my Transaction Patterns and automatically shared one of my Controller scripts and american thesis, one of my View objects. In my implementation I can add a new table to spinal, my database, import the details into my Data Dictionary, create the class file for the Model then create the initial transactions for the LIST1, SEARCH1, ADD1, ENQUIRE1, UPDATE1 and DELETE1 patterns, and be able to run them from my menu system, in under 5 minutes without having to write a single line of code . How much code would you have to write to achieve that in your implementation? In your implementation how much code do you have to american studies thesis berkeley, write for each Model in order to produce a working transaction? In mine it is none as the model classes are generated from internal statement, my Data Dictionary and studies thesis berkeley, inherit a large amount of code from my abstract table class. In your implementation how much code do you have to write to statement, validate user input? In mine it is none as all user input is automatically validated using my standard validation object which compares each field's value with the field's specifications provided by the table structure file. In your implementation how much code do you have to write for each View in order to produce a working transaction? In mine it is none as each HTML page is created from a pre-built View object which uses one of my pre-defined XSL stylesheets.

In your implementation how much code do you have to write for each Controller in order to american thesis berkeley, produce a working transaction? In mine it is none as each transaction uses one of my pre-defined controller scripts. In your implementation how many Controllers are tied to a particular Model and policy, are therefore not sharable?. In mine I have 43 controllers which can operate on american, any Model, so they are infinitely sharable. If your implementation cannot achieve the same levels of reusability/sharability as mine then please do not try to tell me that my implementation is inferior. More information regarding the levels of reusability which I have achieved can be found in the following: In this forum post someone asked advice on how the retrolisthesis MVC pattern should be implemented, so I decided to offer some based on my experience of having successfully implemented the MVC pattern in a large web application. It seems that quite a few people took exception to my approach as it violated their personal interpretations of the studies berkeley rules of MVC. In this post I stated the following:

Should the Model transmit its changes directly into the View, should the View extract the changes directly from the Model, or should the Controller extract from the Model and inject into the View? Actually, there is no hard and fast rule here, so any of these options would be perfectly valid. Well in mla works cited in anthology, MVC the view gets its own data from the thesis berkeley model. Controller extracting from the model and passing to the view is wrong. MVC states that views access the model directly (ie not using the controller as a mediator) and that models should not know of controllers and views. He has reinforced this statement in an article entitled Model-View-Confusion part 1: The View gets its own data from the Model. Internal! What he fails to realise is that different examples of MVC implementations show different ways in which the american studies model obtains its data, so he cites the spinal ones that follow his personal opinion as being right and dismisses all the others as being wrong. I feel that his interpretation of the american statement models should not know of controllers and views goes too far.

A model may have any of its methods called by another object, or may call a method on an object of unknown origin which has been injected into it, but it should not have any hard-coded dependencies on specific view objects or any methods which are tied to specific objects as this would introduce tight coupling between those objects. By using generic methods which can be used by multiple objects you are introducing loose coupling which makes the studies code more maintainable and less prone to error. Studies Thesis! The model will be called from a controller, but it should not need to know which controller so that it may change its response in some way. The model may push its data into a view object which was instantiated and injected into master s thesis in public, it by the controller, or it could have its data pulled out by american studies thesis a view object. Thesis Research Paper! In either case it should not need to know which view or controller requested that data, it should simply return the data and let the calling object do what it wants with it, which may be to render that data it whatever form is appropriate, which could be HTML, PDF, CSV or whatever.

My point of view is reinforced by How to use Model-View-Controller (MVC) which lists the following in the Basic Concepts section: In the MVC paradigm the user input, the modeling of the american studies berkeley external world, and the visual feedback to the user are explicitly separated and handled by research three types of object, each specialized for its task. The view manages the graphical and/or textual output to the portion of the bitmapped display that is allocated to its application. The controller interprets the mouse and keyboard inputs from the user, commanding the model and/or the view to studies, change as appropriate. the model manages the behavior and spinal, data of the application domain, responds to requests for information about its state (usually from the view), and responds to studies thesis, instructions to change state (usually from the controller) The formal separation of these three tasks is an important notion that is particularly suited to Smalltalk-80 where the basic behavior can be embodied in abstract objects: View, Controller, Model and Object. The MVC behavior is then inherited, added to, and modified as necessary to provide a flexible and powerful system. Although this document was written with Smalltalk-80 in mind, these basic concepts can be implemented in any language which has the appropriate capabilities. Notice that it concentrates on the responsibilities of the three components, and does nothing but suggest how the data may flow between them. Note the use of the msc chemistry resume term usually in the above list, and the phrase commanding the american studies thesis berkeley model and/or the view to msc chemistry, change as appropriate. Later in the same document you may find references to particular implementations, but as far as I am concerned these are suggested implementations by virtue of the fact that the american thesis words used are can , could and internal thesis statement, may . These are not imperatives such as must , should or will , and as such should not be regarded as required in any implementations.

This Wikipedia article contains the american studies thesis following: In addition to dividing the application into three kinds of components, the MVC design defines the interactions between them. A controller can send commands to its associated view to change the conflict thesis statement view's presentation of the model (e.g., by scrolling through a document). It can also send commands to the model to update the model's state (e.g., editing a document). A model notifies its associated views and american studies thesis, controllers when there has been a change in its state.

This notification allows the views to produce updated output, and the controllers to change the available set of commands. A passive implementation of american berkeley MVC omits these notifications, because the application does not require them or the software platform does not support them. American! A view requests from the model the information that it needs to generate an output representation. So even in this definition there are several possibilities: The controller can send commands to both the model and the view . The model can send commands to both the view and the controller . The view can receive commands from both the master policy model and the controller . Note that the word used is can and not should or must . Which variation of these options you choose to implement is therefore down to your personal preferences or what options are available in american, your design. So even though the MVC pattern does not (or should not, IMHO) dictate how the spinal flow of data should be implemented, whether it should be pulled or pushed, or who should do the american berkeley pulling or the pushing, TomB seems to think that the only implementations which are allowed are those which have received his personal seal of approval. Isn't this a little arrogant on his part? By state I meant does the model contain a 'current record set'. Selecting which records to show is clearly display logic (along with ordering and limiting).

I replied in american studies thesis berkeley, this post with the following: I disagree (again). The Model contains whatever records it has been told to thesis berkeley, contain, either by issuing an sql SELECT statement, or by having data injected into thesis research, it from the Controller. The View does not *request* any particular records from the Model, it deals with *all* records that are currently contained in studies, the Model. Master In Public Policy! Ordering and limiting are data variables which are passed from the american thesis berkeley Controller, through the Model and to spinal, the DAO so that they can be built into the sql SELECT statement.

The View does *not* decide how to studies berkeley, limit or sort the data - the data which it is policy, given has already been sorted and limited. TomB argued in american thesis, this post with the following: Ordering, limiting and generally deciding which records to for a, show is 100% display logic. By moving this to the model you've reduced reusability of the view. I don't know about you, but if there are 1,000s of records to thesis berkeley, display, but the user wants to see them in thesis for a paper, pages of studies 10, it is much more efficient, both in time and resume, memory, for the Model/DAO to use limit and offset values so that only the relevant records are actually read from the database. All of these records are then passed to studies thesis berkeley, the View, and the View displays every record which it has been given. It just does not sound practical to msc chemistry resume, pass 1,000s of records to the View, then get the View to decide which 10 to american studies thesis, display.

Similarly it is master s thesis policy, far easier to sort the records by adding order by to the SQL query than it is to have code to sort them in studies thesis berkeley, the View. This is no way reduces the reusability of the mla works essay in anthology view as all HTML output is produced from a single pre-written View object which uses one of my pre-written XSL stylesheets. This single object can be used to create the HTML output for any transaction and any Model. What could be more reusable than that? There also seems to be some dispute over what the term display logic actually means. A software application can be broken down into the following types of logic: Display logic - code which generates the thesis berkeley HTML output that is internal conflict thesis, sent to the user. Studies! This exists in, and only in, the View. Business logic - code which implements the business rules. This exists in, and only in, the mla works cited essay Model, which has a separate class for each entity within the application domain. Data Access logic - code which constructs and executes SQL queries to read or update data in a database.

This exists in, and only in, the american Data Access Object (DAO) which is accessed from the Model. In Public! Control logic - code which translates user input into operations on the Model and the View. This exists in, and only in, the Controller. It is clear to me that display logic is that code which directly generates the HTML output. The data which is transformed into HTML may come from american studies thesis berkeley, any source, but the code which obtains or generates that data is msc chemistry resume, not part of the display logic. The Model does not generate any HTML, therefore it does not contain any display logic. Similarly the american berkeley Model does not generate and execute any SQL queries, therefore it does not contain any data access logic.

This can be summed up as follows: Code which transforms data into HTML is spinal, display logic. Code which creates or obtains the data which is subsequently transformed into HTML is not display logic. I'm sorry if my interpretation of american these minor details is different to yours, but just because my interpretation is different does not mean that it is wrong. I still have components which carry out the responsibilities of Model, View and Controller, so as far as I am concerned my version of MVC is perfectly valid.

My implementation may be different from yours, but it is allowed to be different. According to some people there is supposed to be a rule which says that a Controller can only internal, ever communicate with a single Model, but as I have never heard of this rule and have never been given any justification for its existence I see no reason to studies, be bound by it. In my implementation each HTML page is broken down into a series of zones or areas, and each zone is populated using the contents of a different object as follows: The menu bar is populated from the MNU_MENU table in the MENU database. The title bar is populated from the MNU_TASK table in the MENU database. The navigation bar is populated from the MNU_NAV_BUTTON table in the MENU database. The message area is populated with any messages, plus any field errors which cannot be associated with any field on the screen. American Studies Berkeley! The data area will display data from one or more application objects. How this data is displayed depends on how many occurrences (rows) can be shown at studies berkeley any one time: For single rows there will be the following: Application data will be displayed vertically with labels on master in public, the left and field contents on the right.

A scrolling area which will allow the user to move backwards or forwards through the thesis berkeley available rows in the current selection. For multiple rows there will be the following: A row of column headings which are shown as hyperlinks which allow the current sort sequence to be changed. Application data will be displayed horizontally with each field below its corresponding label. A pagination area which will allow the user to move backwards or forwards through the in public policy available pages in the current selection. The navigation bar will contain hyperlinks to allow the number of rows per page to studies thesis berkeley, be altered. The action bar is populated from a variable which is for a paper, defined in the controller script. In all my previous programming languages I was able to populate different areas on thesis berkeley, the screen from master s thesis in public, different tables in the database, so I saw no reason why I should not do exactly the same with PHP. Each of my page controllers will deal with each of american studies thesis berkeley those applications objects independently and separately, regardless of the number, and not through any single composite object. For example, take three database tables which are related as shown in resume, Figure 9:

A typical screen will list multiple rows from the ORDER table in a single zone using the LIST1 pattern as shown in Figure 10. American Thesis! Data from the CUSTOMER table will not need a separate zone as it can be obtained from a JOIN within the ORDER object. Note that each row of ORDER data may show details for american studies, a different CUSTOMER. A variation of american thesis this may show only those ORDERs for a single CUSTOMER using the LIST2 pattern, as shown in Figure 11. For A Research Paper! Here the CUSTOMER table has its own zone which displays one row at a time. This is american studies thesis, separate from and in addition to the ORDER zone which can display multiple rows. Only those ORDERS which are related to the current CUSTOMER will be shown. Another screen may only show those ITEMs for thesis research paper on autism, a single ORDER using the LIST2 pattern, as shown in Figure 12.

Here the ORDER table has its own zone which displays one row at a time. American Studies Thesis! This is resume, separate from and in berkeley, addition to the ITEM zone which can display multiple rows. Only those ITEMs which are related to the current ORDER will be shown. Thesis For A On Autism! Any CUSTOMER data is obtained using a JOIN within the ORDER object. Another screen may only show those ITEMs for a single ORDER for a single CUSTOMER using the LIST3 pattern, as shown in Figure 13. Here the CUSTOMER table has its own zone which displays one row at american berkeley a time. This is separate from and in american studies, addition to the ORDER zone which can also only american studies thesis berkeley, display one row at a time, and the ITEM zone which can display multiple rows. Only those ITEMs which are related to the current ORDER which are related to the current CUSTOMER will be shown.

The idea of research paper on autism forcing the page controller to go through a single composite object in order to deal with the separate database objects never occurred to me. Doing so would require extra effort which would achieve absolutely nothing (except to conform to a rule which I did not know existed) so as a follower of the KISS principle it is my choice, if not my duty, to avoid unnecessary complexity and stick with the simplest thing that could possibly work. While not a direct criticism of my approach, a blog written by Fabien Potencier (who created the Symfony framework), contains the following statement: I don't like MVC because that's not how the web works. Symfony2 is an HTTP framework ; it is a Request/Response framework . In my opinion anyone who says that the MVC design pattern is american, not suitable for master s thesis in public policy, the web has a blinkered mind which is being constrained by studies thesis the circumstances in which that pattern was created and internal conflict thesis statement, the way it was first implemented. American Studies Berkeley! It was originally designed for and implemented in a language which ran in a stateful environment on the desktop using a bitmapped display, and where it was possible for spinal, every keystroke to thesis, be detected by the program and to internal thesis, have an immediate effect on the output. Twenty plus years later the internet arrived with a totally different stateless protocol with its HTTP Request/Response cycle in which individual keystrokes are not detected - the client sends a request to the server, the sever processes that request and responds with a complete HTML document which causes the american whole display to be rebuilt. If you bother to look at the description of MVC its says nothing about thesis for a research, being tied to software which runs in a stateful environment using a bitmapped display where every keystroke can be detected and studies thesis, processed.

MVC is thesis statement, nothing more than a design which identifies three components which each have their own distinct and thesis, separate responsibilities. How those responsibilities are carried out is not specified, the design simply identifies what should be done and cited in anthology, not how it should be done. American Thesis Berkeley! MVC is mla works cited essay, not tied to a particular language, or a particular protocol, nor is it limited to a particular implementation . That blog also contains the studies thesis berkeley following statement: . because the MVC word is so overloaded and mla works cited, because nobody implements exactly the american studies thesis same MVC pattern anyway. The phrase same MVC pattern is totally meaningless as there is only one MVC pattern, but there may be different implementations of that pattern using either different languages or different programming styles.

There may be different variations with different names, such as Model-View-Presenter or Model-View-Adapter, but there is only one MVC. Provided that your software has three components which fulfil the responsibilities of the Model, View and Controller then you definitely have an implementation of MVC, and thesis statement, anyone who says otherwise is thesis, mistaken. I quite deliberately said an resume implementation of MVC as there is no such thing as the thesis implementation. Msc Chemistry Resume! For example, with PHP applications the View component may use a templating system such as Smarty or one of the studies thesis berkeley many other templating engines. Personally I prefer to use XSL. Some people put data validation in the Controller, but I prefer to keep it in the Model with the spinal other business logic. This means that all knowledge of american thesis berkeley any application is in public, confined to the Model/Business layer while both the Presentation and Data Access layers are application-agnostic by virtue of the fact they do not contain any knowledge of any application. Controllers, Views and DAOs are supplied with the framework while individual Model classes are generated by the framework using table structures obtained from the application database which is designed and built by the developer. The idea that MVC is not suitable for the HTTP Request/Response cycle is also nonsense. Take a look at american studies Figure 14:

Figure 14 - Request/Response cycle with MVC. In my framework this is implemented in the following steps: The Controller receives the HTTP request from the client. The Controller calls the appropriate method(s) on the Model(s) and waits for it/them to finish. Retrolisthesis! Note that the studies berkeley results contain only data, no HTML. If the Model wishes to touch the database it does so by communicating with the DAO. The Controller calls the View with the result(s) from the essay Model(s) in order to transform the raw data into HTML. The Controller sends the HTML response back to the client. My implementation contains three components which carry out the responsibilities of the three components which are described in MVC, so anyone who says it is not MVC is mistaken.

It also runs on the web, so anyone who says that MVC is not suitable for the web is mistaken.

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15 things we learned about american studies thesis twenty one pilots today. April 24 2015, 1:33 PM EDT By Matt Crane. While promoting their upcoming fourth studio album, Blurryface , twenty one pilots engaged in a Reddit AMA with fans todayand we learned a whole bunch of studies berkeley, new stuff about the duo. From Chipotle preferences to american studies the meaning behind their red armbands, read some of the best responses from vocalist Tyler Joseph (TJ) and Josh Dun (JD) below. 1. We learned what their favorite new tracks on internal statement Blurryface are. JD: Mine is The Judge. Or Lane Boy. Berkeley? TJ: I would say there#39;s a difference in my favorite song to play live versus favorite song to for a research listen to.

I think my favorite song to play would be Lane Boy, my favorite song to listen to american studies thesis would be Goner. Essay? 2. American? We learned how they like their Chipotle burritos. TJ: Oh, pfffbbt! We rotate between bowls burritos. JD: I#39;ve been getting tacos lately.

TJ: Don#39;t say that! JD: Black beans. Thesis For A Paper On Autism? chicken AND steak. all of the meat. American Thesis? usually a little hot salsa, corn, cheese, lettuce, sour cream. TJ: Okay, I#39;ll go with my burrito. Master In Public? I do go with white rice on the burrito. I do half chicken, half sofritas. Because the sofritas gives you a flavor that no other meat option will give you.

Then no beans. I go with the pico. Studies Berkeley? Extra sour cream. Cheese and lettuce. You#39;re welcome. 3. How their faith influences their music. TJ: It#39;s never been Josh I#39;s goal to stand up on a stage with a microphone and resume, tell people what to american studies believe. That being said, what I do believe is very important to me, and absolutely is going to always be present whenever i create something, whenever I#39;m working through something. I think what someone believes can define them, even if it#39;s that they don#39;t believe anything, and for mla works cited, me and my faith, it will always be a big part of my music, whether it#39;s directly or indirectly. 4. The best concert moment they’ve ever had.

TJ: We#39;ve had a lot of weird moments. American? I had to spinal retrolisthesis stop a show one time because I saw a guy punch a girl, so we all collectively all kicked him out of the show. Festivals are fun, cuz you see all kinds of crazy things in the crowd. I remember one time in thesis berkeley, particular, no one was really watching us onstage, and I don#39;t blame them, because a guy in a gingerbread man costume was being crowd-surfed to internal conflict statement the front. JD: When Tyler knocked Tyler#39;s piano over by jumping over it. TJ: Say a bunch of american thesis berkeley, times.

JD: Because you#39;re punk rock. I never really get anxiety about Tyler climbing on spinal things, until I watched GoPro footage after a show, and for the first time, I was nervous for my bro. 5. American Studies Thesis Berkeley? How they feel when they get the whole “your music saved my life” speech. TJ: There are artists that I am fans of internal conflict thesis, that have helped me through a lot. And because I know what that feels like, to be on the receiving end of something that someone created, I understand the weight and the importance and the honor in someone saying that our music has helped them in that same way. There#39;s nothing more important in our career than hearing that. JD: I feel a heavy responsibility to continue not only creating or playing music, but also working on my own life, and trying to studies thesis be a person that#39;s worthy of somebody looking up to, I guess. 6. Their favorite video games. TJ: Super Smash Brothers Melee for the Gamecube. number one game of all time.

MarioKart 64. JD: I don#39;t really game, so. I did play Zelda for studies berkeley, 64, both of #39;em. Metal Gear Solid. Tony Hawk games. TJ: WCW versus NWO for 64. JD: Lester The Unlikely for Super Nintendo. That game was SO fun.

TJ: Donkey Kong Country for Super Nintendo. Donkey Kong Country 2 and 3. JD: Bomberman for Super Nintendo. TJ: Dude, I love Frogger. Studies? 7. What type of hair dye Josh uses. TJ: He hasn#39;t found a good brand either, because all of the towels that he uses end up red! JD: I do it myself. I think it#39;s called Splat. And it#39;s like $12 for a whole entire box of internal thesis, stuff. American Thesis Berkeley? TJ: Splat? Sounds like an ol#39; Nickelodeon.

8. Do they miss playing smaller venues? TJ: Yes, absolutely. I think smaller venues - it#39;s more of a controlled environment where Josh and american studies, I can address the thesis berkeley crowd better, talk to spinal them, even take questions. American Studies Berkeley? We used to do that a lot with smaller crowds. JD: I#39;d say that every band wants to get to american berkeley a point where they#39;re playing large venues, but as we do that more and more, I realize how much I miss the personality of small rooms, and more of a connection with the people in studies thesis berkeley, them. 9. The meaning behind the red armbands they wear. TJ: The more and more I got to know the character Blurryface, the more I realized that the thesis for a color blue was not a part of american studies thesis berkeley, who he was. And because of that, red represents him on this record.

10. The meaning behind the Blurryface cover. TJ: There are so many layers- both literally and in the meaning of the album cover - that are so important to Josh I. We#39;ve worked very hard on it. Spinal? We can#39;t wait for you guys to discover it once you get your hands on it. But every element was very thought-through, and very intentional.

11. What artists they are currently listening to. JD: I like the american studies thesis berkeley Skrillex and Diplo album. TJ: I always listen to whatever Death Cab for Cutie puts out. JD: Cashmere Cat. TJ: I#39;m going to say Sigur Ros. JD: I#39;ve been listening to Kishi Bashi. Paper? I#39;ve been listening to a lot of american thesis, electronic music. Oh, Madeon!

12. In Public? “Would you rather fight 1 horse-sized duck, or 100 duck-sized horses?!” JD: We#39;ve asked this question a lot. TJ: I#39;m going to go with 100 duck-sized horses. I feel like you could just kick them across a field. I imagine a lot of showdowns going on. JD: I#39;ll go with the american thesis opposite. Because all I have to s thesis in public do is studies berkeley feed it some bread, haahhaaha! 13. They’ve bumped into fans in the bathroom. TJ: Um.

I#39;ve been trapped in a bathroom a few times. And at that point, you just gotta be like Thanks for liking my band! I just took a dump! There are times when Josh will get recognized and thesis, i won#39;t, and he#39;ll feel really bad for studies, me, and I LOVE when Josh feels bad for me. 14. What the writing process was like for Blurryface . TJ: This time around, there were a lot more ears and opinions around it.

And that can get pretty tough, knowing that there#39;s this expectation of people waiting to hear it, that there are fans other people who want to support us, whether it#39;s management, label, booking agencies, and there were several moments where we felt overwhelmed. But every time we#39;d finish a song, the msc chemistry one thing that gave us the american thesis confidence that we needed is that Josh I would ask ourselves the policy question - do WE like this? 15. Will Josh ever be featured vocally? JD: For rapping. I have really been practicing.

TJ: He#39;s been practicing every night. He#39;s not quite there yet, but maybe with some more work.

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essay topics for american studies thesis, kid As a bonus, site members have access to a banner-ad-free version of the site, with print-friendly pages. More Writing Activities. Essays to Write. for Early Writers. The following are printouts with writing prompts for studies berkeley, short essays. Studies Thesis Berkeley! For early writers, these one-page printout should be enough writing space for a very short essay. For more advanced writers, extra pieces of lined paper will be necessary to complete an essay.

Instructions for the essay writers : For each essay, begin with a topic (focus) sentence that states the spinal retrolisthesis main ideas that you will be writing about. Studies Berkeley! Then write at least four to five sentences that clearly explain the cited essay in anthology point of your essay. Studies Berkeley! End the essay with a strong closing sentence that summarizes what you wrote. Check that your grammar, spelling, and berkeley punctuation are correct. Make sure to use complete sentences and studies thesis berkeley write neatly! Book Report: Use this form to write a book report, noting the book's name, author, main characters, setting, and plot summary.

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What I Worry About: What do you worry about? Describe something that worries you. Write why it worries you, how it affects your life, and how you might be able to solve this problem. The Biggest Thing I've Ever Seen: What is the american largest thing that you have ever seen? Describe this huge object and write about when you saw it, where it was, and mla works essay how you felt when you saw it. The Most Annoying Things: Write about the most irritating, bothersome things in studies thesis berkeley, your life.

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The Best Advice Your Father Gave You: Write about the best advice your father ever gave you. What was it and american studies thesis berkeley why was it important to you? How has it affected your life? The Oldest Thing You've Ever Seen: What is the oldest thing you have ever seen? Write about what it was and how old it was. Conflict! Where did you see it? What did it make you think. The Most Fascinating Thing You've Ever Seen in thesis, the Sky: What is the most interesting thing you have ever seen in the sky?

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Starting off on the right foot. A resume cover letter needs to do more than introduce you and highlight some of your skills. It needs to be engaging, well crafted, and well researched. It needs to conflict avoid sounding like a hard sell while still selling you to berkeley the company. If a resume is a list of your accomplishments, then its cover letter is where you get to spinal retrolisthesis tell the story of how you achieved those accomplishments. Use it to american studies thesis explain how your experiences will benefit the company. Tell the msc chemistry resume, potential employer why this job is important to you. To help you avoid some common pitfalls and maximize the potential of your application, experts agree that you should consider the american studies berkeley, following guidelines.

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The conflict may be experiences you’ve had in american studies, the past that left you wanting to s thesis policy do more than your previous position allowed. And the american thesis, resolution could be getting this new job. Do your research – Research each company you apply to, and craft a new cover letter for each of them. Thesis. With social media, this is far easier than it used to be. Follow accounts of the company and its executives on studies thesis, Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn to study their content and retrolisthesis the culture. Focus on details – Make sure that every word is american thesis, essential. Use a spelling and grammar checker and writing apps. Ask someone else to read it and give you advice. For A On Autism. Read from the end to the beginning and use other editing and proofreading tips.

Learn how to american studies berkeley format a resume by internal conflict making the most of Microsoft Word’s features. Our short video tutorials will teach you some basic formatting tips and tricks. How to use paragraph styles and themes How to change header, footer, margins, and studies page size How to fit resume text on one page, and how to remove blank pages How to customize tabs, text boxes and conflict statement tables How to add and remove sections. Please keep in mind that: All files are compatible with Microsoft Word, and many of them will work in other applications such as Mac Pages, Google Docs and OpenOffice. We create our templates in Microsoft Office 2010 and we use Microsoft Word default fonts. If you do not have these fonts installed or use a different operating system, our templates might look different on your computer. We use text styles and built-in color schemes to create our templates. Knowing how to use paragraph styles will ease the process of modifying a template. While most resumes are US Letter size, some are A4.

You can change the page size to make it compatible with the size used in your country. American Studies Berkeley. For creative designs with colored backgrounds, consider setting the in public policy, page color to studies berkeley “none” and print on a high-quality colored paper. If the design requires borderless printing, a local print shop can help you if that feature is internal conflict, unavailable on studies thesis, your home printer. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited.

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