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british resume cv This page explains how to writing write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and covering letter, used when applying for jobs in the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Driving Age Should Be Raised To 21? Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is creative writing, a summary of your work experience and driving age should, education, used for job applications. A resume (properly written as resumé) is an American English term for creative writing forum, a CV. Korczak Essays? A covering letter is writing forum australia, a letter sent with your CV which explains details about how long be your application to australia a particular company. A reference is a formal letter to should be an employer, from creative forum somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability. Driving Essay? A referee is creative, a person who provides a reference for you. How should I design the layout of my CV?

There are many ways to design a CV. This section gives an example. Print your CV on good quality white paper. The paper size should be A4 (this is 21.0 cm wide and 29.7cm tall). Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at least 2 centimetres on the top, bottom, left and right). How Long? A good font size to creative use is 12 (or 10 if you want to put more information on your CV). The document should use only one font style, for example Times New Roman. Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to emphasise important words. Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words).

If you make a list (for example, a list of your job achievements), consider using bullet points. Try to keep the CV on one side of on can success be disastrous, paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications. Creative Writing Forum? Keep your sentences short and simple. A typical section order is: There is an example CV shown below. When writing your name, always put your own name first and your family name last (even if you write the family name first in your own country). Include the full postcode in your address. Make sure that you will be able to collect all mail sent to this address (if you move, ask the owner to forward letters to success you). Creative Writing Australia? If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on your CV, so that you can be contacted easily. If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for callers to leave a message for driving age should be raised to 21 essay, you. If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the number of the telephone at your accommodation.

The telephone number should start with the area code, written in brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. If the creative writing forum telephone has an answering machine, make sure that you check the messages every day. If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on your CV. Write your e-mail address next to your telephone number, and check your messages regularly. Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, provide information about each of on can success, your job roles. Writing Forum Australia? Start by writing the name of the company (in bold) and its location. On the next line you might give a brief description of what the company does. You might give a title for your job (and perhaps a department name) on resume in xml, another line (highlighting this in writing forum australia, bold italics) You should list your main responsibilities and achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points) Give more detail for recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in the job for to 21 essay, which you are now applying.

If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid. When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote). Creative? You should not use the word I on resume in xml, your CV; this is creative writing forum, understood. For example, you might write Increased sales at the shop, but not I increased sales at the shop. Remember that the person reading your CV may not be familiar with the education system in resume help, your country. Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for writing, the dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the essay on can success be disastrous month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the forum australia right-hand column, list the name of the school or university on one line, followed by further details (the course name or the number of exam subjects passed) on the next line. List formal educational qualifications only in this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the most recent (and highest level) qualifications first.

If you have been to a post-graduate school or college, put the name of this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the level is clear. If you have been to a university, use the word University in essay on can be disastrous, the name, or put a label such as University: before the name so that the writing level is clear. If the how long should university is one of the creative writing forum australia top universities in your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it). State the name of the town and country after the university's name. In the description, put the name of the main subject studied (try to janusz korczak essays avoid using the words major or minor, which are used in creative, American English). If you studied English, the compare contrast paragraph subject should perhaps be described as English language and literature, not just English literature. Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. Forum Australia? 80%, or top grade) - the resume in xml British university grade system is probably different from that in your country. Creative Writing Australia? You should list any schools you have attended between the ages of about 15 and 18, but not before this age.

You should add the label Secondary school: before the name of the school, or include the words High School in the name. How Long? If you took exams in a wide range of subjects, you may prefer to creative australia list only the number of subjects passed instead of the subject names, or if you have been to university you may choose not to list any secondary school qualifications. Resume In Xml? If you are studying in the UK, you may want to include details of this course. If so, write this in a line under the main table. For example, you could write Currently studying English at writing australia, ABC school, London (since January 2001). If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these. English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of English). Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of standard office software, including e-mail and on can success, the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for data entry or secretarial jobs) An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to drive for the job) Create two columns; use the left-hand column for labels and the right-hand column for creative forum, information. The exact list of personal details you want to give may depend on your circumstances and what the job requires, but the list below will give you a guide. Write Date of birth:, followed by the day you were born in the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980. Note that the date should be written in British date order (day, month, year), not in American date order (month, day, year).

Write Nationality:, followed by your nationality eg Japanese. Essays? You may want to write Gender:, followed by Male or Female, if this is not obvious to a British person from your name. Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for some jobs. Write Work status:, followed by creative writing forum a description of the status implied by writer help the stamp in your passport, for example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Write Interests: followed by a short list of perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. Forum Australia? As you have come to the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to janusz essays discuss at an interview. Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in the job (for example, computer or language skills). If you think it is necessary, write References:, followed by Available on request. You should only provide references if your employer asks for them.

If you do need to give a reference, make sure that you have asked the person beforehand. Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer. It may complicate your application if you give the name of a referee who lives abroad; if you want to creative forum do this, make sure that the person will be able to provide comments in English, and give an e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT. Resume Help? Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: akiko9999@hotmail.com. Forum? · Advised the main shop's customers about organic and health foods. Resume In Xml? · Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the benefits of supplements and organic food to potential new customers. · Increased sales at both the main and writing australia, the satellite shops. The extra profits were used to expand the business by establishing a new shop. · Examined incoming mail and redirected this to the appropriate division. · Translated foreign letters (written in resume writer help, English) into Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and procedures. Computer literate: good knowledge of Word and australia, Excel, as well as e-mail and the internet.

Fluent in Japanese; practical knowledge of English and contrast essay introduction paragraph, Korean. If you are sending an application directly to a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to accompany your CV (a covering letter). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). There is an example covering letter shown below. State what type of visa you have, so that the potential employer knows that you will be able to writing australia work legally. You may want to essay mention the level of your English ability.

Explain in your letter how you can be contacted. If you are about to change your accommodation, you should ask to be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by creative writing australia e-mail. If you give the telephone number of age should to 21 essay, your host family, you should ask them for their permission first, and writing forum australia, you should check if they have an answering machine. EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to thesis should be apply for the job of a part-time sales assistant in the food section of Fortnum Mason's in Piccadilly, as advertised in Loot Recruit on 2 August. Please find attached a copy of forum, my CV. My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in an organic food shop in Japan. Janusz Essays? This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and a basic knowledge of food retailing. I have been living in London since last September, and forum, am currently studying English at essay introduction, a language school.

I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the Cambridge First Certificate in creative forum australia, English exam). My fluency in Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. I am an enthusiastic worker, and write compare contrast essay, enjoy working in a team. My student visa entitles me to work up to 20 hours per week (or longer during my school holidays), and I could start work immediately. Writing Forum? I would welcome the thesis how long should be opportunity to writing forum discuss the resume writer help job vacancy with you on the telephone or at an interview. I can be contacted most easily on creative australia, my mobile telephone or by help e-mail (see details at the top of this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the spell-checker on the computer (set the language to creative British English rather than American English). Ask a native English speaker to compare essay check what you have written, and writing forum, ask this person for any comments they may have. If sending your application by post, send it by first class rather than by essays second class (it shows that you care about getting the job).

If you send an application by writing forum australia e-mail, telephone to make sure that it has arrived, or send an application in age should to 21, the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to hand in your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to find out more about the creative australia company and ask when you can expect to hear from them. If you have not heard from the company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the closing date for resume in xml, applications, if there is one), telephone the company to check that your job application has been received and that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is often the case that people are invited for an interview for only a small number of the jobs to which they apply. Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to get a job. If you are rejected by a company, ask them to give you some comments, so that you can improve the creative forum australia quality of your later applications.

Prepare for a job interview: Work/Interview. Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.

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Freud, Sigmund - Der Dichter und das Phantasieren - Ein Essay. Seminararbeit 1995 14 Seiten. 3 Der Dichter und das Phantasieren Wertvolle Bundesgenossen sind aber die Dichter, und ihr Zeugnis ist hoch anzuschlagen, denn sie pflegen eine Menge von Dingen zwischen Himmel und Erde zu wissen, von denen sich unsere Schulweisheit noch nichts traumen la?t. Creative Writing Australia? Sigmund Freud, Der Wahn und die Traume in writer W. Jensens 'Gradiva', 1907. Eine Biographie uber Sigmund Freud beginnt mit den Worten: Trotz seiner literarischen Qualitat gehort das Werk von Freud doch nicht in erster Linie zur Literatur; es visiert eine Wahrheit an. Writing Australia? Die Kommentatoren eines solchen Werkes konnten zwischen verschiedenen Arten des Zugangs wahlen, je nach ihrer eigenen Auffassung vom Wahren. Janusz Korczak? 1 Sind auch die diversen Essays Sigmund Freuds lediglich der Wahrheit verpflichtet, und entziehen sie sich einer literaturkritischen Betrachtung - wie es der Freud-Biograph Mannoni (1971, S. Forum Australia? 96) fordert, der schreibt, Freuds Arbeiten auf dem Gebiet der psychoanalytischen Literaturbetrachtung durften weder vom Standpunkt der Asthetik noch von dem der Literaturkritik betrachtet werden? Diese Frage kann bezuglich des Freudschen Essays verneint werden. Schon Michel Eyquem, Seigneur de Montaigne (1533-1592), Schlo?herr und Burgermeister von Bordeaux, bezeichnete seine Essais als blo?e Versuche, die Wahrheit zu ergrunden.

Von Interesse fur die Philologie ist Freuds Essay Der Dichter und das Phantasieren (1907), steht doch in write compare contrast essay introduction ihm eindeutig die Vorstellung im Vordergrund, Texte seien als Au?erungen des Seelenlebens ihrer Autoren aufzufassen - die Grundlage jeder Art von Interpretation. Man konnte es auch einfacher ausdrucken: Ist die Frage geklart, woher der Dichter seine Phantasien bezieht, gelingt die vollstandige Interpretation des Textes. Writing Forum? Der Essay, sofern es sich um einen handelt, ermoglicht im Prinzip auch eine Anwendung seiner Inhalte auf den Autor wie auch den Verfasser dieser Hausarbeit. Den Namen Essay pragte zuerst der bereits erwahnte Montaigne (1580), spater dann in help England 1597 Bacon, im 18. Jh. Creative Australia? folgten die englischen Essayisten, Addison, Steele und andere. Age Should To 21? Gemeinhin versteht man unter einem Essay, fur den in forum Deutschland vor 1859 die Bezeichnung Versuch gelaufig war, eine kurzere, bewu?t subjektiv gehaltene Abhandlung uber einen wissenschaftlichen Gegenstand. Writer? Auf eine erschopfende, vollstandige Analyse desselben wird im Essay bewu?t verzichtet. Creative? In einem Bereich zwischen Wissen und Zweifel werden Zusammenhange unverbindlich aufgezeigt; uber das metaphorisch zu verstehende Herumwandern auf einem Weg gelangt der Autor des Essays zu einer gedanklichen Klarung. Um eine Antwort auf die Frage zu finden, ob es sich also bei dem hierzu naher betrachteten Text Der Dichter und das Phantasieren uberhaupt um einen Essay handelt, wird er nach einer Beschreibung seiner Entstehung auf diesbezugliche charakteristische Merkmale untersucht. Als weitere Essays Freuds gelten u. Resume In Xml? a. Zur Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens (1901), Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie (1905), Der Witz und seine Beziehung zum Unbewu?ten (1905) 2 , Psychopathische Personen auf der Buhne (1905-06), Der Wahn und die Traume in creative writing forum W. On Can Success? Jensens 'Gradiva' (1907), Jenseits des Lustprinzips (1920) und Das Unbehagen in der Kultur (1929).

Der im folgenden als Gradiva-Studie bezeichnete Essay, dessen Inhalt als bekannt vorausgesetzt wird, korrespondiert mit dem untersuchten Text uber den Dichter und das Phantasieren und findet deshalb besondere Berucksichtigung. Da Freuds Ansatze zur psychoanalytischen Literaturbetrachtung Fortfuhrungen erfahren haben, wird gegen Ende der Arbeit auch diesem Aspekt Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt. Writing Forum? Auf eine prazise Erlauterung oder Definition der psychoanalytischen Fachbegriffe (Verleugnung, Verdrangung, Regression etc.) verzichte ich, da dies umfangreich erfolgen mu?te und eine vollstandige Darlegung wissenschaftlicher Hintergrunde auch nicht Sinn einer Hausarbeit zum Thema Essayismus sein kann. Freud fand viele, in driving age should to 21 seiner psychoanalytischen Praxis gewonnenen Erkenntnisse in creative writing australia literarischen Texten bestatigt. Resume Help? Sich auf die Biographie Heinrich Heines beziehend, analysierte er beispielsweise ein Wortspiel in creative writing australia einem Witz 3 . Resume Help? Psychische Phanomene belegte er mit Namen aus antiken Tragodien (Odipus-Komplex u. a.), die haufig zu beobachtenden Parallelen motivierten ihn zu dem spateren, folgenrichtigen Schlu?, Dichter und Psychologe seien aufs engste miteinander verbunden; in writing australia der Gradiva-Studie (S. Driving Be Raised Essay? 43) hei?t es: So kann der Dichter dem Psychiater, der Psychiater dem Dichter nicht ausweichen (. Writing? ). Die literarische Phantasie zeichnet sich gegenuber der freien Assoziation durch den Zwang zur Darstellung, zur asthetischen Form aus.

Bewu?te und unbewu?te Erlebnisgehalte werden in on can success be disastrous der Dichtung wie auch in der Psychoanalyse mit und in creative writing australia Sprache verstehbar. Nachdem Freud in essay be disastrous der Traumdeutung 1900 ausgefuhrt hatte, da? Traumgedanken durch Verschiebung und Verdichtung von Erlebnismomenten zustande kamen und da? durch die Methode der freien Assoziation die Bedeutung der Traume entschlusselt werden konne, stellt er dann 1907 die Analogie zu den sog. Creative Writing Forum? Tagtraumen her. Sein Weg fuhrt ihn uber die Analyse der Novelle von Wilhelm Jensen (1837-1911), La Gradiva, im Untertitel auch als pompejanisches Phantasiestuck bezeichnet, in thesis how long should be der Freud Wahn und Traume der fiktiven Charaktere und deren bewu?te oder unbewu?te Schopfung durch den Autor untersucht. Writing Forum Australia? Im zweiten Essay nahert sich Freud der Fragestellung (vgl. Essay Success? Kap. Writing Australia? 3) uber die Deutung des Phanomens der Tagtraume.

Im Jahr 1905 (unsicher, evtl. Essay Success Be Disastrous? 1906) widmet sich Freud in dem Essay Psychopathische Personen auf der Buhne ausfuhrlicher den Dramen , die er in creative writing forum australia religiose, soziale und CharakterDramen unterteilt. Essay Success Be Disastrous? In einem Falle handelten sie vom Kampf des Menschen gegen die gottliche Ordnung (antike Tragodie), im anderen gegen die menschliche (burgerliche Tragodie), im letzten Fall schlie?lich gehe es um den Kampf zwischen den Menschen selbst (Charaktertragodie). Forum? Der Bedeutung des Helden wird besondere Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt, als Beispiele werden Ajax, Philoktet und Hamlet genannt. Success Be Disastrous? Auch in diesem kurzen Essay wird das Interesse Freuds an forum, den Schopfern der Dramen, den Dichtern, spurbar. Lust und Leid als Grundmotive sowie erotische Tagtraume werden thematisiert. Die Essays Psychopathische Personen auf der Buhne, Der Dichter und das Phantasieren und die zuvor verfa?te Gradiva-Studie fallen zeitlich eng zusammen. Essay Paragraph? Der an zweiter Stelle genannte ist kurzer und komprimierter angelegt, bedingt durch die Konzeption als Vortrag, den Freud am 6. Creative Forum? Dezember des Jahres 1907 in thesis how long should den Raumlichkeiten des Wiener Verlagsbuchhandlers Hugo Heller, Mitglied der Psychoanalytischen Vereinigung, hielt und dessen Wortlaut recht genau am folgenden Tag in der Wiener Tageszeitung Die Zeit wiedergegeben wurde. Creative Australia? Fur den Abdruck in einer neugegrundeten Berliner Zeitschrift Anfang 1908 besorgte dann Freud den vollstandigen Text. Der Gradiva-Studie gingen einige Auseinandersetzungen Freuds mit Literatur voraus, z. B. Essays? die kurze Analyse der Novelle Die Richterin von C. Creative? F. Meyer (Brief vom 20. Juni 1898 an resume writer, Flie?) und die Betrachtungen zu Konig Odipus oder Hamlet in forum der Traumdeutung (1900) sowie die bereits angesprochenen Helden im Essay Psychopathische Personen auf der Buhne (1905/06?).

Bevor sich C. Resume In Xml? G. Jung und Freud personlich kennenlernten, machte jener diesen auf Wilhelm Jensens Buch La Gradiva aufmerksam. Creative Writing Forum? Freud schrieb seinen Essay vor allem Jung zuliebe, und man kann sagen, da? der Zeitpunkt des Entstehens der Freundschaft beider Manner, die einige Jahre dauerte, mit dem Erscheinen der Gradiva-Studie (Mai 1907) zusammenfallt. Resume Writer? Im ubrigen eine der fruhen psychoanalytischen Arbeiten Freuds, wird diese auch als Vorbote ihrer Freundschaft bezeichnet (Freud 1907, S. 11). Writing Australia? Mannoni (1971, S. Janusz Essays? 98) weist darauf hin, da? es der wachsenden Freundschaft beider Manner zuzuschreiben sei, da? Freud die Analyse mit viel Eleganz verfa?te. Die Naivitat des Werkes erleichtere dessen Interpretation. Creative Writing Forum Australia? Der Roman selbst (richtiger: die Novelle, Anm.) verdanke es ausschlie?lich Freud, da? er nicht langst vergessen sei. In seiner Selbstdarstellung (1925) spricht Freud zwar etwas abschatzig von einer an resume writer, sich nicht besonders wertvollen Novelle, er schickte jedoch ein Exemplar seiner Analyse an creative writing forum australia, Jensen, der sich offenbar geschmeichelt fuhlte und mit Freud eine Zeitlang korrespondierte. Resume In Xml? Es ist interessant, da? Jensen die Interpretationen Freuds zu billigen schien.

Im Nachtrag zur zweiten Auflage (1912) gibt Freud an, weitere Werke Jensens untersucht zu haben, und zwar die Novellen Der rote Schirm und Im gotischen Hause. Es sei leicht zu ersehen, da? alle drei Erzahlungen das gleiche Thema behandelten, die Entwicklung einer Liebe (. Forum? ) aus der Nachwirkung einer intimen, geschwisterahnlichen Gemeinschaft der Kinderjahre. Writer? Auch Jensens letzter Roman, der viel von dessen eigener Jugend enthalte, schildere das Schicksal eines Mannes, der in der Geliebten eine Schwester erkennt. Creative Writing Forum? 4. Oft wird darauf hingewiesen, da? Freud in janusz korczak der Archaologie eine Analogie zu seinen eigenen psychoanalytischen Forschungen (Verschuttung als Verdrangung, Analyse als Ausgrabung) gesehen hat, auf die ihn auch Jensen in creative writing forum australia beider Korrespondenz aufmerksam machte. Neben der spater entstandenen Geschichte des Rattenmannes (1909) findet sich bereits in driving age should be raised essay der Gradiva- Studie das Beispiel der im Jahre 79 verschutteten romischen Stadt Pompeji als Gleichnis fur die Verdrangung: Es gibt wirklich keine bessere Analogie fur die Verdrangung, die etwas seelisches zugleich unzuganglich macht und konserviert, als die Verschuttung, wie sie Pompeji zum Schicksal geworden ist und aus der die Stadt durch die Arbeit des Spatens wieder erstehen konnte. Creative Writing Australia? 5.

Freud war von Kindheit an help, von archaologischen Vorhaben und Fundstucken fasziniert gewesen; neben Italien interessierte ihn vor allem das alte Agypten. Seine eigene Antikensammlung umfa?te zuletzt rund 3000 Objekte. Creative Australia? Er unterhielt beispielsweise Kontakte zu dem Sammler, Archaologen und Kunsthandler Pollack, zu dem Antiquar Lustig sowie zu dem Wiener Archaologen Loewy, mit dem ihn eine Freundschaft verband. 3 Der Dichter und das Phantasieren Ein Autor uberlegt sich stets, auf welche Art und Weise er durch seinen Text den Leser oder Zuhorer am besten erreichen kann - und dies kann ganz im psychoanalytischen Sinne bewu?t oder unbewu?t geschehen. Essay On Can? Er bezieht dabei die au?eren Umstande der Prasentation (Vortrag oder Druck) mit in forum seine Uberlegungen ein. Age Should Be Raised? In dem vorliegenden Falle eines Essays uber den Dichter und seine Phantasien mussen wir davon ausgehen, da? der Text als Redetext konzipiert war. Dem Leser der gedruckten Fassung eroffnen sich aber an creative forum, manchen Stellen Moglichkeiten tieferer Interpretation, die hier nicht unberucksichtigt bleiben sollen. Schon der erste Satz, mit dem Freud seinen Vortrag eroffnet, ist charakteristisch fur seine gesamte Ausfuhrung: Uns Laien hat es immer machtig gereizt zu wissen, woher diese merkwurdige Personlichkeit, der Dichter, seine Stoffe nimmt (. ) 6. Vom Publikum in on can den Raumen des Verlagsbuchhandlers Heller sicher nur kurz zur Kenntnis genommen, kommt der Au?erung doch tiefere Bedeutung zu:

Freud nimmt in writing diesem ersten Satz einige Implikationen vor, er bezeichnet sich und seine. Zuhorer als Laien auf dem Gebiete der Dichtkunst, eine feinsinnige Ironie, denn erstens ist belegt, da? er selbst gerne schriftstellerisch tatig war und sich durchaus ein gewisses Talent zugestand, und zweitens wird gerade am Gegenstand seiner Ausfuhrungen wenig spater klar, da? der Vortragende sich keineswegs als Laien zu betrachten hat, denn die Dichter selbst versichern uns so haufig, da? in should jedem Menschen ein Dichter stecke und da? der letzte Dichter erst mit dem letzten Menschen sterben werde. Freud reflektierte fruh seine literarischen Qualitaten, dies wird bereits in australia dem altesten erhaltenen Brief an resume in xml, Emil Flu?, einen Kindheitsfreund, deutlich: Mein Professor sagte mir zugleich - und er ist der erste Mensch, der sich untersteht, mir das zu sagen -, da? ich hatte, was Herder so schon einen idiotischen Stil nennt, das ist einen Stil, der zugleich korrekt und charakteristisch ist. Creative Writing Australia? 7. Weiterhin behauptet der Redner im ersten Satz, der Dichter sei eine merkwurdige Personlichkeit. Resume In Xml? Bedenkt man, da? es sich bei dem Vortragenden immerhin um dem Begrunder der Psychoanalyse handelt, wiegt die Au?erung schwerer, als wenn sie etwa von einem anderen Literaturkritiker getan worden ware, denn der Begriff Personlichkeit ist somit nicht im landlaufigen Sinne zu verstehen, sondern als wissenschaftlicher Terminus, dem aber - ganz essayistisch - das betont unwissenschaftliche Attribut merkwurdig mit anheimgegeben wird, wodurch ein spannungsreicher Kontrast von Objektivitat und Subjektivitat erzeugt wird, der auf diese Weise die Neugier des Publikums zu wecken geeignet ist.

Ferner wird beim genaueren Betrachten deutlich, da? bereits im ersten Satz eine erschopfene Analyse und eine Beantwortung der Frage, woher denn der Dichter nun seine Phantasien nehme, nicht in Aussicht gestellt wird. Creative Writing Australia? Handelte es sich um einen voll und ganz wissenschaftlich konzipierten Vortrag, hie?e es vermutlich: Sie haben sich sicher schon immer gefragt, woher der Dichter seine Phantasien nimmt (Implikation: Ich, der Redner, habe die Antwort fur Sie). Der erste Satz kann so - unter Berucksichtigung der Kurze des Gesamttextes (gut neun Seiten) - als Mikro-Exposition bezeichnet werden. Weiterhin fuhrt Freud aus, der Dichter wisse selbst nicht genau, woher er seine Stoffe nehme, und wenn auf der anderen Seite der Redner und seine Zuhorerschaft Einsicht in das Wesen poetischer Gestaltungskunst nahmen, so machte sie dies noch lange nicht selbst zu Dichtern. Janusz Essays? Wie bereits erwahnt, wird dann aber scheinbar widerspruchlich hinzugefugt, in creative writing forum jedem Menschen stecke ein Dichter. Aus diesem paradox anmutenden erneuten Verwirrspiel des Vortragenden entsteht auf seiten des Zuhorers mit Sicherheit eine zusatzliche Spannung, der Freud direkt im Anschlu? dann eine zwar oberflachliche, aber doch wissenschaftlich erscheinende Gedankenfuhrung folgen la?t. Resume Writer Help? Die Kindheit musse - wie meistens - zu Rate gezogen werden, um tiefere Einblicke in writing australia den Gegenstand der Untersuchung zu gewinnen.

Das Kind ersetze sich die Wirklichkeit im Spiel durch eine Phantasie, in how long should der es seine eigene Welt erschaffe. Australia? Beim erwachsenen. Menschen wie beim Dichter ersetze das Spiel gleichfalls die Wirklichkeit, Ziel sei in success be disastrous allen Fallen ein Lustgewinn, was sich auch in der Sprache widerspiegele, die Lust-, Trauer- und Schauspiel unterscheide. Beim Erwachsenen finde eine Ersatzbildung statt, denn Phantasieren sei letzlich Spielersatz, im Unterschied zum Kinde sei das Spielen nun gesellschaftlich nicht mehr erlaubt. Phantasie sei also Wunscherfullung, beim Kranken (Nervosen) wie beim Gesunden - oder genauer: beim Unbefriedigten wie beim Befriedigten.

An dieser Stelle wird offensichtlich kein Anspruch auf Vollstandigkeit erhoben, die Unterscheidung erscheint durftig - ein essayistisches Merkmal. Von den Phantasien wird nun ein Bogen geschlagen zu den sogenannten Tagtraumen. Writing? Solche schmiegten sich den Lebenseindrucken an, von Bedeutung sei eine Zeitmarke, fur die Freud ein Beispiel anfuhrt, das er selbst als das banalste relativiert und so abermals seine Subjektivitat betont: Nehmen Sie den Fall eines armen und verwaisten Junglings an, welchem Sie die Adresse eines Arbeitgebers genannt haben, bei dem er vielleicht eine Anstellung finden kann. Essay? Auf dem Wege dorthin mag er sich in creative writing australia einem Tagtraum ergehen, wie er angemessen aus seiner Situation entspringt. How Long Should? Der Inhalt dieser Phantasie wird etwa sein, da? er dort angenommen wird, seinem neuen Chef gefallt, sich im Geschafte unentbehrlich macht, in die Familie des Herrn gezogen wird, das reizende Tochterchen des Hauses heiratet und dann selbst als Mitbesitzer wie spater als Nachfolger das Geschaft leitet. Creative Writing Forum Australia? Und dabei hat sich der Traumer ersetzt, was er in essays der glucklichen Kindheit besessen: das schutzende Haus, die liebenden Eltern und die ersten Objekte seiner zartlichen Neigung. Creative Writing? Sie sehen an resume in xml, solchem Beispiele, wie der Wunsch einen Anla? der Gegenwart benutzt, um sich nach dem Muster der Vergangenheit ein Zukunftsbild zu entwerfen. Writing Forum Australia? 8.

Mit Traumen verhalte es sich ebenso, in beiden Fallen spielten vor allem verdrangte Wunsche eine Rolle. Hierbei nennt Freud im Prinzip ein alltaglicheres Beispiel, das seiner Zuhorerschaft naher steht, als die zuvor in resume in xml der Gradiva-Studie analysierten Traume des Protagonisten Norbert Hanold. Gleichwohl hatte er einen beliebigen Traum aus der Novelle Jensens wahlen konnen, um seine Ausfuhrungen zu verdeutlichen. Writing Forum Australia? Ein Gro?teil der Studie handelt von nichts anderem als vom Nachweis verdrangter Wunsche, die sich in be raised essay Hanolds Traumen manifestieren, es geht in creative writing australia dem Vortrag nicht um die Phantasien oder Tagtraume einer fiktiven Person, sondern um die des Dichters. Als sei der Vortragende an resume, dieser Stelle trotzdem an creative writing, den Autor Jensen erinnert worden, nimmt er nun eine Unterscheidung der Dichter vor: Man musse die Dichter, die fertige Stoffe ubernehmen wie die alten Epiker und Tragiker, sondern von jenen, die ihre Stoffe frei zu schaffen scheinen. Essay On Can Be Disastrous? Halten wir uns an creative writing, die letzteren und suchen wir fur unsere Vergleichung nicht gerade jene Dichter aus, die von der Kritik am hochsten geschatzt werden, sondern die anspruchsloseren Erzahler von Romanen, Novellen und Geschichten, die dafur die zahlreichsten und eifrigsten Leser und Leserinnen finden. Resume In Xml? 9. Es ist bereits an anderer Stelle (vgl.

Kap. Forum? 2) darauf verwiesen worden, da? Freud Jensens Novelle keinen hohen literarischen Stellenwert einraumte, auch wenn er in der Studie die Erzahlung als nicht uninteressant (S. Be Raised To 21? 78) bezeichnet. Creative Writing? Es drangt sich also die Deutung auf, Freud habe mit dieser Unterscheidung mehr bezweckt, als eine wissenschaftliche Aufarbeitung zweier Kategorien von Dichterphantasien, vermutlich liegt es nahe, anzunehmen, da? der Redner meint, seine Erkenntnisse aus dem eigenen Erfahrungsschatz einer ausfuhrlicheren Untersuchung - der Gradiva-Studie namlich - genauer artikulieren zu konnen. Die Ausklammerung einer gro?en Gruppe von Dichtern, die doch eigentlich Gegenstand des Vortrages sind, bedeutet auf jeden Fall einen noch deutlicheren Verzicht auf umfassende und erschopfende Darstellung als an how long be, anderen Stellen bisher erkennbar war. Unter gleichzeitiger Bezugnahme auf das anfangs untersuchte Spiel des Kindes, formuliert Freud ferner: Der psychologische Roman verdankt im ganzen wohl seine Besonderheit der Neigung des modernen Dichters, sein Ich durch Selbstbeobachtung in writing forum Partial-Ichs zu zerspalten und demzufolge die Konfliktstromungen seines Seelenlebens in mehreren Helden zu personifizieren. Essays? [. Creative Forum Australia? ] Ein starkes aktuelles Erlebnis weckt im Dichter die Erinnerung an driving be raised to 21 essay, ein fruhes, meist der Kindheit angehoriges Erlebnis auf, von welchem nun der Wunsch ausgeht, der sich in creative writing der Dichtung seine Erfullung schafft; die Dichtung selbst la?t sowohl Elemente des frischen Anlasses als auch der alten Erinnerung erkennen. [. Resume? ] [Die] Dichtung wie der Tagtraum [sind] Fortsetzung und Ersatz des einstigen kindlichen Spieles [. Writing Forum Australia? ] 10 An dieser Stelle scheint sich nun der Kreis logisch geschlossen zu haben: Das kindliche Spiel werde beim Erwachsenen zum Lusterhalt durch Phantasien bzw. Korczak Essays? Tagtraume ersetzt, denen also ein Muster der Vergangenheit zugrunde liege, nach dem sie sich durch einen aktuellen Anla? entwickelten, und genauso sei es auch beim Dichter: Die Dichtung sei folglich Kindheitserinnerung, gepaart mit einem frischen Anla?.

Und noch ein weiterer Kreis schlie?t sich, bedenken wir die Aussagen Freuds im Nachwort zur 2. Writing Forum? Auflage der Gradiva- Studie, in resume in xml dem er auf weitere Novellen Jensens Bezug nimmt und andeutet, da? sich das Grundmotiv stark ahnele: Geschwisterahnliche Liebe in der Kindheit werde im Erwachsenenalter wiedererweckt. Diese Stelle ist nun eigentlich sehr gut geeignet, um eine Theorie uber die Phantasien des Autors Jensen zu formulieren, die aber unterbleibt. Writing Forum Australia? Da die 2. Help? Auflage erst 1912 entstand, hatte Freud bei seinem Vortrag moglicherweise noch keine Kenntnisse der weiteren Novellen, doch da auch in writing forum der Gradiva Kindheitsspiel und Erwachsenenphantasie sich am Schlu? beim Protagonisten Hanold zur Klarung verdichten, ist anzunehmen, da? Freud an compare contrast essay introduction, die Gradiva- Studie denken mu?te. Der Schlu? seines Vortrages erfolgt dann beinahe abrupt nach einer sehr knapp gehaltenen Deutung der Volksmythen als Wunschphantasien ganzer Nationen. Es scheint, als habe der Redner hier einen Aspekt nur kurz tangieren wollen, dann aber den Gegenstand seiner Uberlegungen doch als insoweit abgehandelt betrachtet, als da? eine hinreichende Klarung erfolgt sei, die es nun gebiete, neue, interessante und verwickelte Untersuchungen zu beginnen oder die Erorterung abzuschlie?en.

Wie der Anfang erscheint auch der Schlu? des Textes essayistisch. Auf eine vollstandige Klarung des Sachverhaltes wird bewu?t verzichtet: Wie der Dichter das zustande bringt, das ist sein eigenstes Geheimnis, und so soll es offenbar auch bleiben. Creative Forum? Die Subjektivitat der Ausfuhrungen wird mehrfach betont: Ich konnte Ihnen nur Anregungen und Aufforderungen bringen. , Ich fuge nun hinzu. Resume In Xml? , Ich bin der Meinung. Creative Writing Forum? Eine gewisse Faszination der eigentlichen Fragestellung Freuds, woher denn der Dichter seine Phantasien beziehe, entsteht durch die Ubertragbarkeit auf alle Situationen, in thesis should be denen ein Autor einen Leser findet, beispielweise als Jung und Freud die Gradiva von Jensen lasen, als ich die Gradiva-Studie Freuds las, aber auch in dem Moment, in writing forum australia dem diese Hausarbeit gelesen wird. Deren Fragestellung lautete nun, inwieweit es sich bei dem Vortrag uber den Dichter und das Phantasieren um einen Essay handele. Essay On Can Be Disastrous? Nach eingehender Betrachtung erscheint es plausibel, sowohl den als Vortrag konzipierten Text als auch die Abhandlung uber den Wahn und die Traume in W. Creative Forum? Jensens 'Gradiva' als Essay zu bezeichnen. Janusz Korczak? In beiden Werken - besonders im Vortrag - wird der Verzicht auf umfassende Klarung des Sachverhaltes deutlich.

Ein immer wieder vorgenommenes Herausstellen der Subjektivitat der Untersuchung und eine Anlehnung an creative forum australia, den metaphorisch beschrittenen Weg auch in der Gradiva-Studie (Wie kam es denn, da? wir uns [. Resume Writer? ] fortrei?en lie?en?; Unser Vorgehen [erscheint] 11 Ich will nun zum Traum zuruckkehren 12 ; [Es] wurde uns viel zu weit weg [. Creative? ] fuhren 13 ) unterstreichen eindeutig den essayistischen Charakter der Texte. Abschlie?end sei noch kurz auf die weitergehenden Untersuchungen von Literatur aus psychoanalytischem Blickwinkel verwiesen. Write Compare Contrast Essay Introduction? Neben beispielsweise Peter von Matt (1972, 1994), der einen Uberblick uber das Verhaltnis von Literatur und Psychoanalyse liefert und das Schicksal der Phantasie erforscht, erscheinen auch bis heute in creative writing forum australia gro?er Zahl Zeitschriftenartikel, die sich mit dem Thema auseinandersetzen, von denen hier exemplarisch einige angefuhrt werden sollen: - In seinem Artikel Der Wahn und die Traume in thesis how long should 'Der Tod in forum Venedig'. Resume? Thomas Manns folgenreiche Freud-Lekture im Jahr 1911 untersucht Manfred Dierks (1990) den Einflu? der Psychoanalyse auf den genannten Roman sowie den Zauberberg und weist nach, da? Thomas Mann insbesondere von Freuds Arbeit Der Wahn und die Traume in creative forum australia W. Jensens 'Gradiva' stark beeinflu?t war, wie ja bereits der Titel des Artikels nahelegt. - In der Zeitschrift fur psychoanalytische Theorie und Praxis wird von Falk Berger (1994) am Beispiel Rainer Maria Rilkes die psychoanalytische Deutung von literarischen Werken erortert. Writer? Einleitend wird darauf hingewiesen, da? Kunstwerke fur die Identitat von Individuen oder gro?en Gruppen unterschiedliche Bedeutung haben konnten und da? die widerspruchliche Rezeption der Dichtung Rilkes auf deren vielschichtigen Charakter verweise.

Sie sei einerseits Beispiel fur differenzierte und individuelle Wahrnehmungsmoglichkeit, andererseits lose sie eine asthetische Regression aus, in creative writing der an to 21, Stelle der Wahrnehmung der Realitat der Genu? einer perversen Phantasie trete. Creative Writing? Hieran werde die von Freud beschriebene Funktion der Kunst als Ersatzbefriedigung besonders deutlich. Man findet in resume writer psychoanalytischen Literaturkritiken auch ubertrieben anmutende Analysen, von denen exemplarisch eine erwahnt werden soll, da sie sich mit der Gradiva unter Berucksichtigung der Studie Freuds beschaftigt: In ihrem Artikel Verleugnung in Wilhelm Jensens 'Gradiva' versucht Margret Fischer (1993), Freuds Untersuchungen um einige Aspekte zu erweitern. Forum Australia? Das Geheimnis des schonen Ganges, ein wesentliches Kennzeichen der Gradiva sei als Verleugnung und heimliche Verspottung korperlicher Einstellungen durch Mi?bildung oder Schwangerschaft zu entschlusseln. Be? Die Abscheu als authentisches Gefuhl angesichts korperlicher Behinderung werde duch das idealisierte Gegenteil (schwarmerische Hingabe) ersetzt. Forum? Sprach- und naturwissenschaftliche Exkurse sowie die Einbeziehung des gesellschaftlichen Umfeldes Jensens sollen die Beweisfuhrung stutzen. An dieser Stelle kann die Arbeit - ganz essayistisch - mit einem Zitat Freuds beendet werden: Jeder soll mit seinen Ansichten uber die Entwicklung des Helden recht behalten, ich freue mich schon, wie die sich irren werden.

14. Berger, F. Resume Help? (1994): Eine lachende Wasserkunst. Creative Forum? Asthetisches Regression und psychoanalytische Deutung am Beispiel Rainer Maria Rilkes. Thesis How Long Should Be? Zeitschrift fur psychoanalytische Theorie und Praxis, 9 (1), S. Creative Forum Australia? 25-42. Bondy , F., et al. Thesis How Long Should Be? (Hrsg., 1989): Harenbergs Lexikon der Weltliteratur. Creative Australia? Band 2. Janusz Korczak Essays? Dortmund. Writing? S. Korczak Essays? 1010 f. Dierks, M. Creative Writing Forum Australia? (1990): Der Wahn und die Traume in on can success be disastrous Der Tod in Venedig. Thomas Manns folgenreiche Freud-Lekture im Jahr 1911.

Psyche, 44 (3), S. Australia? 240-268. Fischer, M. Resume In Xml? (1993): Verleugnung in writing Wilhelm Jensens Gradiva. System ubw, 11 (1), S. Korczak? 86- 97. Freud, S. (1907): Der Wahn und die Traume in W. Creative Writing Forum? Jensens Gradiva. Janusz? In: Freud, S.: Studienausgabe. Band 10 (Bildende Kunst und Literatur). Australia? S. Thesis Should? 9-85. Freud, S. Creative? (1908): Der Dichter und das Phantasieren.

In: Freud, S.: Studienausgabe. Essay Success? Band 10 (Bildende Kunst und Literatur). Australia? S. 169-180. Freud, S. Write Essay Paragraph? (1940): Gesammelte Werke. Writing Australia? Hrsg. Write Compare Contrast Essay? von Anna Freud. Writing Forum Australia? Frankfurt a. M. Age Should To 21? 1940-1968. Writing Forum? Freud, S. Should Be? (1942): Psychopathische Personen auf der Buhne.

In: Freud, S.: Studienausgabe. Creative Australia? Band 10 (Bildende Kunst und Literatur). S. 161-168. Freud, S. Janusz Korczak Essays? (1956): Totem und Tabu. Frankfurt a. Forum? M. Freud, S. Contrast Essay Paragraph? (1958): Der Witz und seine Beziehung zum Unbewu?ten. Creative Writing Australia? Frankfurt a. M. Freud, S. Thesis How Long? (1969): Studienausgabe. Creative? Band 10 (Bildende Kunst und Literatur). Driving Be Raised To 21 Essay? Hrsg. Writing Forum? von Mitscherlich, A., Richards, A., und Strachey, J. On Can Success? Frankfurt a. Creative Forum Australia? M.

Mannoni, O. Korczak Essays? (1971): Sigmund Freud. Reinbek. von Matt, P. Creative Australia? (1972): Literaturwissenschaft und Psychoanalyse. Write Essay? Munchen. von Matt, P. Creative Writing? (1994): Das Schicksal der Phantasie. Essay On Can Success Be Disastrous? Studien zur deutschen Lietratur. Writing Australia? Munchen.

1 Mannoni (1971), S. 7. 2 Freud hatte die Manuskripte der beiden letzteren Texte offen auf zwei Tischen vor sich liegen. Should Be? Er arbeitete abwechselnd an forum australia, ihnen und fand offensichtlich Entspannung darin (vgl. Writer Help? Mannoni 1971, S. Writing Forum? 91). 3 Freud, Der Witz und seine Beziehung zum Unbewu?ten, S. Janusz Korczak Essays? 106.

4 Freud (1969), S. 85. 5 Freud (1907), S. 40. 6 Freud (1908), S. Creative Forum? 171. 7 Freud, S.: Zur Psychologie des Gymnasiasten. Help? Gesammelte Werke, Band 10 (204-207), S. 205. 8 Freud (1908), S. 175. 9 Freud (1908), S. 176.

10 Freud (1908), S. Writing Forum Australia? 177 f. Resume In Xml? In Totem und Tabu findet sich zu diesem Thema eine Anmerkung: Den Projektionsschopfungen der Primitiven stunden die Personifikationen nahe, durch welche der Dichter die in creative forum australia ihm ringenden etgegengesetzten Triebregungen als gesonderte Individuen aus sich herausstellt. Janusz Korczak? (Freud 1956, S. 71, Anm. Australia? 1.). 11 Freud (1907), S. Resume In Xml? 41. 14 Freud, S.: Brautbriefe. Writing Australia? Briefe an essay success be disastrous, Martha Bernays aus den Jahren 1882-1886. Writing? Hrsg. Write Compare Essay Paragraph? von Ernst L. Freud. Creative Writing Forum? Neuausg.

Frankfurt a. Driving To 21? M. Creative Forum? 1988. Writer Help? Zit. Writing Forum Australia? in: Mannoni (1971), S. 9.

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3 Tips To Write Modern Allegorical Novels. I recently finished reading the Nobel Prize winner Jose Saramago’s Death with Interruptions . It fascinated me in countless ways: the style uniqueness, easy flow, ideas represented, underlying themes, references. What’s so special about it? Well, it’s an allegorical story about what could happen if people suddenly stopped dying. Straight and simple, and yet complicated. Creative Forum. Photo by Harry Sherman.

It#8217;s been some time since I last read an allegory by a modern author. Have you noticed that writers stopped writing them as much? Perhaps the explanation for this lies in that earlier writers had to mask their ideas under metaphorical and allegorical representation because of the age should essay, harsh government regimes. Maybe exactly this limitation made them more creative? Food for thought, for sure. As for allegory, it is a literary genre concerned about principals and writing forum ideas represented abstractly. So how do you go about it? Consider these basic steps towards writing one: An allegory is a symbol of your idea. What this means in practice is that your story is just a cover-up for the theme you’re representing; a surface story for resume in xml the primary one.

This gives you huge freedom in how you decide to represent your topic. It can be fantastical or very down-to-earth, eccentric or with everyday characters – completely your choice. You can set your story in New York, implying the life in any metropolitan city around the world. Creative Forum. Each character in an allegory serves to represent an underlying element to your theme; an archetype if you will. This means that you need to have a reason for introducing a character or a figure, since the thesis should, reader is expected to interpret the whole story and creative find what it means. The same holds for the whole action that happens in driving age should be raised, the story.

It should indicate something, not just push the story forward. Not underestimating your readers or anything, but you’ll be expected to leave clues in your story for easier grasping. Some use irony; others metaphors and forum australia various references. They can be subtle clues; no need to explain yourself, just make sure they’re there to essay success be disastrous, be found. The distinctive characteristic about allegories is that they have a universal application; a collective human issue represented through a unique story. Very literary, indeed.

Do you find allegories interesting? What tips do you have for writing one? For fifteen minutes write allegorically about anything. It can be about human’s permanent incomprehension of the devastation of war, about the trickiness of love or any topic you’re passionate about. How will you represent this idea in a story in writing, a cover-up fashion? When you’re done, post your practice in the comments. As usual, support others’ practices. She originally comes from the sunny heart of the Balkans, Macedonia, and currently lives in the UK. Age Should Be Raised To 21. You can follow her blog and connect with her on Twitter and Facebook.

Sophie, what a well-timed post. I happen to be a great fan of allegories, and share your sentiments that we just don#8217;t see them as much any more, perhaps because we now have, at least technically, so much #8220;freedom of speech#8221;. Cuban music is creative forum australia rich with double and sometimes triple meaning precisely because they are so repressed and cannot express their feelings and thoughts publicly. I know a thing or two about that#8230; I was born in the Czech Republic. Curious that you should post this, too, because my own latest work is in fact an allegory.

It#8217;s called #8220;The Seventh Crane#8221; and janusz essays it#8217;s an allegory about the importance of appreciating your life in writing australia, its totality regardless of your age, not just the day-to-day, short-term horizon that we tend to view it from. What tips do I have for writing allegories: to the three points you#8217;ve listed, I would add that your narrative needs to on can success, have a double life, or double purpose if you will. Creative. One is the literal narrative, the plot, while the be raised to 21 essay, other is the symbolical, metaphorical meaning. Forum. In #8220;The Seventh Crane,#8221; for contrast essay introduction paragraph example, the surface narrative recounts a young woman#8217;s relationship with cranes as she grows up. But the allegorical narrative expands into a much deeper story, which the reader is invited to recount in forum australia, his or her own words#8230;. Sounds interesting, Birgitte! I grew up with Bunyan#8217;s Pilgrims Progress. Like you say you don#8217;t see much of them any more.

Thanks for reminding me of this amazing book. Time I read it again. #128578; Thanks Birgitte! The Seventh Crane sounds like a good story; I wonder what#8217;s the meanung in the allegorical narrative. Great tips too! Maybe we should try and writer help repopularize the writing forum, allegories as a genre today. #128578; Well, without giving away the story#8230;. here#8217;s the compare contrast essay introduction, beginning: At touch of first light, blades of sea grass whistled in the early breeze. They had waited all night for creative australia the sun, and so had the Crane. Too large to catch the small nimble fish frisking her legs, she preferred to nip dragonflies in essay success, mid-flight or crack a fresh mollusk. Dawn had just broken, and the Crane was alone.

She was, after all, always the first one there. Forum Australia. Breakfast would be abundant—and easy. But there was someone else. Thesis Should Be. A child, perhaps a little more than one year of age, sat by the water’s edge. She watched the Crane, little fingers sifting sand. A dragonfly alighted on the child’s knee, and she grabbed for creative writing it clumsily, missing.

It sped off, straight into should be the bird’s beak. The Crane and the child watched each other quietly, waves lapping against their feet. “Lovely of you,” said the mother to the father a little further away. “Baby’s first breakfast on the beach.” She leaned to creative writing, kiss him over finger omelettes, slices of brie and warm bread, and a baby bottle laid out between them. The father smiled and stroked his wife’s hair away from her face. “Look at that great big crane,” she said. “Have you ever seen one so big around here?” “Mm-mm.” He reached for his camera. Perfect shot of his baby with a crane against the steel-cut blue of the bay. He’ll feature it in the exhibit next month. The Crane picked up a tiny crab by its claw, the little creature wriggling in how long should, protest.

The child let out a peal of delight. p.s. I would definitely be up for the challenge of repopularizing allegories. Send me a note and let#8217;s talk! info@birgitterasine.com. I#8217;ll get in touch very soon. #128578; Furbert blinked in the hot sun. Forum Australia. He absentmindedly scratched his long ear with a back claw. He hopped to the nearest dandelion and took a big sniff. Write. Its stem was tender and sweet. He crunched and munched. A sound drew his attention.

Laughter. He hopped to the edge of his yard. Australia. He peered out from behind the fence. “I AM A ROBOT” pronounced a brown-haired boy, his arms stiff, his knees rigid. “No, no, I know how to be a robot!” squealed his blond-haired friend, grabbing the first boy’s arm. In a tangle of arms and driving age should essay legs and giggle, both boys hopped through the sprinkler, reveling in writing, their last day of summer. Furbert hopped across his garden path and thesis thought about how good he was at hopping.

Very interesting. I#8217;m puzzled. Creative Forum Australia. #128578; Furbert is a lonely rabbit. Resume In Xml. #128578; And also, thank you, Sophie. This is a great topic! The rain had stopped during the creative writing australia, night. Driving. Chad wrapped the blanket round his shoulders and hurried to the stream running outside. Creative Writing Forum Australia. In the dim light the water was still clear. Ina few minutes the others in the camp would be up, and thesis be the water would change colour as they went about their ablutions. A quick scoop with a battered aluminium pot and australia he had his breakfast warming over the little wooden fire going in the corner of his hut. When he finished he walked over to the house, entering through the driving, back door. From the modern kitchen he could hear his wife and children stirring in creative writing australia, their bedrooms.

Although he tried to be careful, the aroma of eggs and resume in xml bacon frying in the skillet must have woken them. Very soon the automatic toaster shot up six browned slices; behind him as he fussed over the stove he heard the coffee machine pouring out the creative writing forum, first cup. He glanced up at the wall clock. As usual he was cutting it fine, but as long as his family were pleased with his efforts, that’s all that mattered. Thesis Should. He could hear them moving about the house as he laid out the trays on creative forum, the counter and carefully arranged a morning meal on each one.

His wife’s had an extra – a yellow rose in a glass vase. When he sense they were dressed and ready, he let himself out quietly and headed for work. This is a really interesting allegory, Winnie. I get the sense that all husbands in this world keep themselves separate from their families, never enjoying the fruits of resume in xml, their work and never enjoying the comforts of home. Way to creative australia, drop clues, your yellow rose hints that no passion exists between husband and wife, only friendship. Thesis Be. Well done! Thanks, I appreciate all these comments. Fragility of marriage and taking our partners for granted?

Hmm, you sure got me thinking. Writing. Well done Winnie! Let me preface my comment with the note that when I critique I am fairly direct, but always in the interest of improving fellow authors#8217; writing. Winnie, this narrative does not strike me immediately as an driving age should be raised essay, allegory, primarily because this particular form has to be able to forum australia, stand alone. Without the context of Sophie#8217;s blog post, this story would not be apparent to korczak essays, me as an allegory. I may be missing something since this is just a brief post or excerpt, so I would be keen to know where the writing, element of resume in xml, allegory lies, for australia you as an janusz korczak essays, author. I adore this post! But it made me wonder, what is, or is there, a difference between writing allegory and mere metaphor? They seem similar in writing forum, a lot of ways, so I was wondering how you would differentiate between the two.

Glad you like the post Karoline. As for be metaphor and allegory, well, metaphor is only a figure of speech, whereas an allegory is a whole genre of writing, a story. Writing Australia. Does this clarify? I really like the idea of writing a modern allegory. One of my WIPs is close to that form and I think I#8217;ll push it a little further and work on developing the archetypes of help, my characters. The little girl is gone.

There is a void where she used to play. Writing Australia. Everyone shuffles past the spot and I alone stop and stare at the little mounds of janusz korczak essays, dust and creative litter she set out so carefully in the courtyard. I scrape my slippers past that spot every day. I go out of my way on my ramble from wall to wall just to pass by and look for her small footprints in the dust. I looked out my window today. Her spot was swept bare. How Long Should Be. The little mounds were gone, pushed into the gutters and australia washed away with our piss and filth into the grey beyond. Forgetting my slippers I dashed out into resume writer help the courtyard.

I threw myself to my knees and crawled around the square of cement looking for any signs that she was ever here, looking for a trace of her colour. Writing Forum Australia. I stood up disappointed. There never was a girl with pink cheeks and a skipping step, I imagined it. But to imagine such a thing, how is that possible? Never in my life have I seen a child or pink or the bouncing of dark hair. I must have seen these things, or how else would I have words for them and have imagined them here in this place. In my mind there is compare contrast essay introduction paragraph nothing before the grey, nothing before this place. Damn!

I kicked an uneven paver. Pain bloomed across my bare foot and then something else. Mixing with the dust and ash was a bright colour bubbling out of writing forum australia, my broken toenail. I watched it flow around my foot, darkening where it pooled in age should to 21 essay, the pitted cement. Red. There is red inside me, just like there was pink in that little girl. Terrified, I walked quickly away from the mess I had made, leaving behind me a trail of red foot prints and the cement paver infected with colour. From my window I watched the empty street. I waited for something to happen. Australia. I expected to hear the stomping of janusz korczak essays, boots and the clatter of batons. Colour brings out the writing, boots and the batons.

I focused in on the stone I had kicked. The splash of colour across it was barely visible from up here, but my eye caught the trail of red prints leading straight to my door. They would find me! I hastily wrapped my injured foot in rags and put on my threadbare slippers. I took the seven flights of stairs two steps at how long should, a time to the street, ignoring the pain in my foot. I scuffed my slippers across the red prints that might as well have been arrows marching to my door. I rubbed them out with ash and grit. Writing Forum. They were visible still – wet ashy smudges of a muddy hue – but any one of my neighbours would pass them by without a second glance.

Next I went to the paver and compare contrast essay introduction paragraph levered it out of place. It was awash in red and would surely draw unwanted attention. I dropped it again when I saw a glint of what could only be green in the hollow underneath it. I reached my hand in and my fingers found a smooth surface with rough corners. I pulled it out creative writing forum of the hole.

It was amazingly light with a very green cover. I knew this word a long time ago. It was a, damn it all, I know this. A book! Kneeling there in the street I stared at the treasure I had found. The thud of janusz, boots on concrete sent a shock through me and I remembered what I had been doing and writing forum australia what I must cover up.

I stuffed the book and the paver into success the front of my jacket and scuffed dust over the area where I had been kneeling. I turned and shuffle limped back to my building and painfully climbed the creative writing forum, stairs. thanks for success be disastrous this blogpost. i#8217;ve just written a short story, which is an allegory or extended metaphor. I#8217;ve searched around the net for suitable contests and haven#8217;t found any that mention it as a genre or have a history of publishing allegorical works so I just thought I#8217;d ask if you know of writing australia, any contests or anthologies that have taken an interest in this rather unfashionable style?

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Electronic Road Pricing for traffic congestion Essay. One of the most problems today is the traffic congestion that we experience in creative writing forum australia the large city. We feel that it is a headache during our journey and it gave us a lot of negative effects. Traffic congestion is a condition on road networks that occurs as use increases, and essay be disastrous is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queuing. The most common example is the physical use of roads by vehicles. When traffic demand is writing australia, great enough that the interaction between vehicles slows the speed of the traffic stream, this results in some congestion. As demand approaches the to 21, capacity of a road (or of the creative writing australia, intersections along the road), extreme traffic congestion sets in. When vehicles are fully stopped for periods of time, this is colloquially known as a traffic jam or traffic snarl-up. Traffic congestion can lead to drivers becoming frustrated and engaging in road rage.

If you live in a large city or any area where there are lots of commuters on the road, then you are probably familiar with the essay, effects of traffic congestion. What you may not realize is the extent of the effects heavy traffic congestion can have. This gridlock can have a tremendous impact on your personal life, career, your future and even your safety. Finding a solution to traffic congestion could mean a vast improvement in the quality of creative writing forum life in your area. One example of a large city is the contrast introduction, city of Manila, this city listed in the journal as the 75th most densely population urban center with 14,400 people per square kilometer in creative forum a total land area of 1,437 square kilometers. Janusz Korczak? If the population increase also the forum australia, number of essay on can be disastrous cars increases. The city is notorious for its traffic mess, especially since traffic laws are all but ignored, and a clean driving record is a bribe away. Getting stuck on Manila’s roads is one very unpleasant experience. Writing Forum Australia? During rush hour, traffic in the main thoroughfares in Manila slows to a crawl, and an accident can cause gridlock for hours.

Because of this traffic the drivers, commuters and writer help other people that is belong to the traffic experiencing a negative effect and there are the following: Traffic congestion has a number of negative effects: Wasting time of motorists and passengers (“opportunity cost”). As a non-productive activity for most people, congestion reduces regional economic health. Creative Writing Forum? Delays, which may result in late arrival for resume in xml, employment, meetings, and education, resulting in lost business, disciplinary action or other personal losses. Wasted fuel increasing air pollution and carbon dioxide emissions owing to increased idling, acceleration and braking. Wear and tear on vehicles as a result of idling in traffic and frequent acceleration and braking, leading to more frequent repairs and replacements. Emergencies: blocked traffic may interfere with the passage of emergency vehicles traveling to their destinations where they are urgently needed. Manual paying of toll is also a cause of traffic and wasting time for creative forum australia, the motorist and passengers. Janusz Korczak? . The following is the negative effect of writing forum australia manual paying of roads toll.

1. Wasting time for the motorist. It is wasting time because the motorist stops to pay their toll manually at the toll booth. 2. Cause of traffic. Sometimes the number of vehicles increases that’s why it will be the cause of traffic. 3. Errors because of the toll collector. The collector experiences some error in accepting the essay, toll from the motorists. One good example is when they paid with the big amount of creative writing forum money then the collectors do not have enough money to change it. Because of the traffic, motorist and passengers suffer their times and be raised essay the air is polluted, the creative forum, solution now is here, it can help to minimize traffic.

Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) is an essays, electronic system of road pricing. It uses a dedicated short-range radio communication system to deduct ERP charges from smart-cards inserted in the in-vehicle units of creative forum vehicles each time they pass a pricing point when the system is in operation. The pay-when-you-use principle helps make motorist more aware of the true cost of driving. Resume? This way, road usage can be optimized. The ERP system has three major groups of components. The first centered on the IU and the stored-value smart-card. While the IU was produced specifically for creative writing forum, the ERP system, the smart-cards were marketed by a consortium of local banks for multiple uses. Different IUs were produced for different classes of vehicles, with each type distinguished by different colors. The second group of components comprises those installed at the on-site ERP gantries.

These include the antennae, the vehicle detectors and the enforcement camera system. All these are linked to a controller at each of the site. Data collected is transmitted back to the Control Centre continuously through leased telephone lines. The third group of components is at the Control Centre, and includes various servers, monitoring systems as well as a master-clock to ensure that the timing at all the ERP gantries is synchronized. All the financial transactions are processed here, before being sent to the banks for settlement. In addition, violation images are processed at the Control Centre, and janusz korczak letters are printed and sent out from here to all the writing forum, offenders. What are the purposes of Electronic Road Pricing?

Aim is to charge vehicles for the use of the write compare contrast paragraph, road at times and at places of congestion For congestion management. Not for raising revenue. Every entry or pass under a control point is automatically charged a fee The implementation of electronic road pricing system will be one of the solutions to creative australia, motorist who had to deal with the inconvenience of slowing down vehicle and winding down windows when paying tolls. It is so convenient and efficient motorist is resume in xml, not required to slowdown when the passing the ERP gantries. The Electronic road pricing system to be installed for the congested area can reduce the traffic and creative thus easing overall traffic congestion. Replacing the existing toll collection system to more advance technology, the ERP system, is help, another way to advancement of australia a country. What is korczak essays, Electronic road pricing? Electronic road pricing system (ERP) is simply an electronic system of road pricing. It is writing forum australia, designed to essay be disastrous, automate our current road pricing system with no more paper coupons or enforcement officer at gantries. The system is creative, a dedicated short – range radio communication system.

The ERP consist of four main components: 1. The In – Vehicle Unit (IU) 2. The Cash card. 3. ERP gantries or control points. 4 .The central computer system. The IU is an electronic device installed in essay the vehicle that communicates with the creative writing, gantry point equipment and resume in xml accepts a cash card for payment of ERP charges. Creative? Each unique number is tied to the registration number of the thesis how long should be, vehicle to which it is attached.

The cash card is a stored value of ERP payment. It is called the smart card is creative forum australia, reusable and can topped up. It is easy and convenient to use. The scheme consists of ERP gantries located at resume in xml all roads. They are also located along the expressways and creative writing forum australia arterial roads with heavy traffic to discourage usage during peak hours. Thesis How Long Should Be? The gantry system is actually a system of sensors on 2 gantries, one in forum australia front of the other. Cameras are also attached to to 21, the gantries to capture the rear license plate numbers of vehicles.

There are different IUs for different classes of vehicles i.e. for cars, taxis, light good vehicles, heavy good vehicles, buses, motorcycles and exempted vehicles such as fire engines, ambulances and creative writing forum police cars. This is essential because the ERP charges are different for help, classes. The IUs are color coded so that illegal switching of IUs between different classes of vehicles will e discourage. Creative Writing Australia? Data is transferred from the local controller to central computer. The central computer system is the control room monitors the traffic network and equipment. There it records all ERP transactions, faults in the equipment and digital image of driving age should violating vehicles. The functional requirements of electronic road pricing system are: 1. It should be multi – lane system with no booths. 2. There would be no manual payment. 3. Creative Forum? There would be no need to slowdown at ERP gantry points. 4. There is age should to 21, a possibility that more than one vehicle passing simultaneously under the entry point.

5. Vehicle could travel at writing australia speed of more than limited speed. The ERP system is designed to be simple and easy to driving, understand. The IU is capable of doing self – diagnostics on itself and on the cash card when the card is first inserted. There are a number of icons that appear on creative writing, the LCD display to show errors. When the cash card balance is low, there will be a low balance indicator icon on the LCD display. Furthermore, when the IU with a low cash card goes under an ERP point, there would be continuous long beep to remind the driver to top up his card before the next journey. Violations of the ERP system. A massive campaign needs to be implemented prior to the implementation of ERP to teach motorists how to use the system and avoid violations. There are three types of violations; 1. There is mainly no IU. 3. Insufficient balance in the cash card. To ensure the system can run smoothly and efficiently, service and information must be provided to the public in the beginning.

In addition to the ERP hotlines, brochures, exhibitions, radio and television talk show. Strong marketing campaign is essential to explain the benefits and thesis be costs, the financial, efficiency equity effects of creative forum ERP. Achievement of ERP. The ERP rates are to be such that there is neither congestion nor underutilization of the roads. Hence, we are aiming to operate the roads within arrange of should be speeds at the upper end of the traffic level of services. In addition, ERP would be an effective mean to mange future congestion and maintain average road speed during peak hours by diverting private vehicles trips to public transportation or non – peak travel time under various pricing and traffic growth scenarios.

Main Objective of ERP. Toll is collected before entering the zone. Charges will be levied on a per–pass basis and can vary according to time and congestion levels. With ERP, motorists will be aware of the true cost of driving. With this system of charging, a motorist will be encouraged to choose whether to creative writing forum, drive, when and where to drive. He may choose a different route, destination, time of travel or decide to use public transport.

By doing this, it will reduced traffic congestions. Benefits of ERP. The transport operation benefits relate to reduced vehicular traffic, particularly during congested periods, reduced travel times, and increased public transport use and janusz essays higher car and taxi occupancy. The environmental benefits involve reduced vehicle emissions and reduced exposure to traffic noise inside the charging zone. However, the environmental conditions of creative forum australia other areas may witness some deterioration due to the overall redistribution of traffic. ERP therefore can assist in the overall improvement to the environment, but is not the sole solution to the complex issue of air quality and noise abatement.

If ERP is to be used to be disastrous, meet environmental objectives, further studies will need to be conducted to define the writing, parameters, benchmarks and related implementation details. How does ERP works? 1. When the motorist inserts a cash card into the IU, it checks the health of the IU and cash card. If everything is in order, there will be a short beeping sound and the cash balance of the cash card will be shown on the backlit LCD display of the IU for few seconds. A green light emitting diode (LED) will light up on the IU and remain lit until the cash card is removed. If the system is not working when the cash card is inserted into the IU. Resume Writer Help? An “err” message appears on the IU display with a long beeping sound and a red LED lights up on the IU. In such cases, one or more of the small icons may also be shown on the display; to indicate the type of e.g. Cash card error, and low Cash card balance. Another indication of faulty system is a blank display.

2. At the ERP control point, the first gantry recognizes the presence of an IU and its class and instructs it to debit the cash card with appropriate amount. This amount is determined from table of prevailing charges for forum australia, the various classes of vehicle loaded into the outstation by the central computer. Between the first and second from gantries, the IU debits this amount from the cash card. Essay Success? If the forum australia, debiting is successful, the second gantry queries the IU and then gets such confirmation. The driver hears a short beat and sees the new cash card balance on the IU display. 3. If the IU is help, unable to deduct because of an error in the system or there is creative australia, no cash card (or n invalid card) or insufficient balance in the cash card to meet the amount, the driver hears a long beep sees a red LED on the IU and “err” appears on the IU display with an error, the driver may also hear the long beep and see a blank display on the IU. 4. Meanwhile, the vehicle presents detector detects the passage of a vehicle. The antenna at the gantries, the vehicle presents detector and the IU together with the logic in the local controller decide whether a complete successful transaction has been made. 5. If not, there has been a violation or an error. The cameras are instructed to take a photograph of the rear license plate of the age should be raised to 21 essay, offending vehicle. 6. Violations are committed by vehicles that have no IU, no cash card or an insufficient balance in the cash card to meet the cost of the creative forum, passing under the ERP gantry.

Errors occur when there is a faulty IU, no power to the IU from the vehicle battery, faulty cash card and partial communications between the IU and the antenna. 7. When a photograph is taken, attaches information on why it was taken so that technical errors and violations are differentiated. Errors do not result in prosecution of the contrast essay introduction, motorist. 8. The information from the outstation on successful transaction, violation and creative australia error records and the photograph are sent periodically by telephone lines to age should essay, the control center. Another control center monitors the state of all outstation equipment. Publication of Electronic Road Pricing. Implementation of ERP will not be possible without a general public consensus on the objectives and principles of the proposal.

There will likely be public resistance to ERP arising from creative writing, suspicion about the government’s motive, the janusz korczak essays, reluctance to accept new initiatives and road users’ resentment about the imposition of new charges. A well-planned and executed public consultation programmed to demonstrate how ERP works and to allow public input into the development of system objectives can promote awareness of the ERP system as a measure to relieve traffic congestion and develop understanding in the community for its possible introduction. It is recommended that a public consultation programmed be initiated to increase public understanding of the traffic congestion problem and to encourage public discussion of possible use of restraint measures and writing forum alternative solutions including ERP. The public should be consulted specifically on the acceptable traffic speeds. IU Fitting Program. There were two major program launched prior to the start of the ERP. The first was the installation of IUs on the 680,000 eligible vehicles while the second was on publicity, to get motorists and motorcyclists aware and ready for the ERP system. The IU fitting program took 10 months, starting from September 1997. The 680,000 vehicles that were potential users of the ERP system were grouped into batches, and owners of each batch were invited to have IUs fitted at one of the 200 authorized IU fitting centers. This was spread out over the 10-month period, so that there will be no last-minute rush to fit IUs.

To encourage vehicle owners to keep to the schedule, the IUs were given away at no cost to them if they had their IU fitted during the allocated time period. Otherwise, a charge of S$150 was payable. The fitting of compare contrast essay introduction IUs onto vehicles was not compulsory – it was left very much to writing forum, the individual to decide. Nevertheless, at janusz essays the end of the IU fitting program, about 98% of the registered vehicles were fitted with IUs. Publicity was another important aspect and this started even before the start of the IU fitting program and was in place for more than a year, all the way up to writing australia, and beyond the launch date of the ERP system.

All vehicle owners were sent brochures, detailing the ERP system, how it works and the differences between that and the then working ALS/RPS. Advertisements were also placed in the print media as well as on television to drum up awareness of the new road pricing system. An important awareness and confidence building program was the test phase – all the ERP gantries were switched on and working. The only differences were that the message on be raised to 21 essay, the ERP gantries read “On Test” instead of “In Operation”, and creative writing forum australia that the ERP charge was set to zero. Essay? This allowed motorists to test their IUs and to experience the ERP charging process. One of the differences between the forum australia, ERP and the then ALS/RPS pointed out in the publicity program was that, unlike the latter, the resume in xml, ERP system imposes a charge each time a vehicles passes through the control point. In the ALS/RPS schemes, the fee payable was a daily charge that allowed the vehicle to make unlimited number of passing for that day. Conclusion. (Electronic) Toll Collection may become an increasing important instrument within the big bundle of measures for regional demand and traffic management. The ERP system provides a targeted solution for congestion pricing by allowing the authorities to pin-point specific congested spots and vary the congestion charge according to prevailing traffic conditions. Therefore, the charges can either increase or decrease according to the demand of creative writing australia usage of the priced-road or expressway, which is compare, reviewed quarterly.

By pricing congested stretches, ERP system helps to moderate and spread out writing australia vehicle usage for optimal usage of the road network by write contrast essay, encouraging motorists to consider alternatives. These would include using other routes to creative forum australia, arrive at their destinations, travelling during the off-peak periods, switching to public transport or car-pooling. The ERP system has been effective in managing traffic congestion and resulted in traffic speeds remaining within the optimal speed range. However, the resume in xml, ERP system cannot operate in silo and has to work in tandem with vehicle ownership control measures, increasing and optimizing road capacity, as well as encouraging motorists to shift to public transport to maintain a smooth-flowing road network. As congestion becomes increasingly pervasive, it would not be practical to continue erecting physical gantries to address the australia, congestion problem. In addition, the ERP charges imposed at discrete gantry points also lead to korczak, undesirable consequences e.g. congestion spills over to nearby minor roads in residential areas, thus leading to localized congestion.

This would be a more equitable and economically efficient system than the current point charging system where motorists are charged based on the number of creative writing forum australia gantries they drive through rather than distance travelled on a congested road. Furthermore, motorists who join a congested road after the gantry points are not charged even though they also contribute to the congestion of the driving age should essay, road. Forum Australia? It can help to minimize traffic, this is the way to contrast, help motorist to avoid wasting time. Forum? They can arrive on time on their business and the other things. It can also help to resume in xml, reduce air pollution to avoid the australia, negative effects of human health and also in our environment. Electronic Road Pricing. University/College: University of California.

Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 12 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Electronic Road Pricing for traffic congestion. for only write contrast essay introduction paragraph, $16.38 $13.9/page. 3422 Old Capitol Trail, Suite 267, Wilminton, DE 19808, USA.