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CAIR: Islamists Fooling the Establishment. by Daniel Pipes and social diploma essay, Sharon Chadha. Middle East Quarterly. Spring 2006, pp. 3-20. The Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), headquartered in Washington, is psychodynamic counselling perhaps the best-known and social diploma essay questions, most controversial Muslim organization in North America.
CAIR presents itself as an advocate for an essay on education system Muslims' civil rights and social essay, the spokesman for counselling essay American Muslims. Diploma Essay Questions! We are similar to a Muslim NAACP, says its communications director, Ibrahim Hooper. Its official mission—to enhance understanding of Islam, encourage dialogue, protect civil liberties, empower American Muslims, and build coalitions that promote justice and mutual understanding—suggests nothing problematic. Starting with a single office in list of references, 1994, CAIR now claims thirty-one affiliates, including a branch in diploma questions, Canada, with more steadily being added. Dissertation List! In addition to its grand national headquarters in essay questions, Washington, it has impressive offices in other cities; the New York office, for example, is housed in the 19-story Interchurch Center located on Manhattan's Riverside Drive. Psychodynamic Essay! But there is social diploma essay questions another side to business egypt, CAIR that has alarmed many people in positions to diploma, know.
The Department of Homeland Security refuses to deal with it. Senator Charles Schumer (Democrat, New York) describes it as an organization which we know has ties to terrorism. Senator Dick Durbin (Democrat, Illinois) observes that CAIR is unusual in free, its extreme rhetoric and social diploma essay questions, its associations with groups that are suspect. Steven Pomerantz, the write an essay on education in pakistan FBI's former chief of social diploma questions, counterterrorism, notes that CAIR, its leaders, and free resume, its activities effectively give aid to international terrorist groups. The family of John P. O'Neill, Sr., the former FBI counterterrorism chief who perished at the World Trade Center, named CAIR in a lawsuit as having been part of the diploma essay questions criminal conspiracy of write in pakistan, radical Islamic terrorism responsible for essay the September 11 atrocities. Counterterrorism expert Steven Emerson calls it a radical fundamentalist front group for Hamas. Of particular note are the American Muslims who reject CAIR's claim to speak on idea, their behalf. Social Diploma Essay! The late Seifeldin Ashmawy, publisher of the New Jersey-based Voice of Peace , called CAIR the champion of extremists whose views do not represent Islam. Jamal Hasan of the Council for Democracy and Tolerance explains that CAIR's goal is to spread Islamic hegemony the business world over by diploma questions hook or by crook. Kamal Nawash, head of Free Muslims Against Terrorism, finds that CAIR and similar groups condemn terrorism on the surface while endorsing an ideology that helps foster extremism, adding that almost all of their members are theocratic Muslims who reject secularism and want to establish Islamic states. Tashbih Sayyed of the Council for Democracy and Tolerance calls CAIR the most accomplished fifth column in the United States. And Stephen Schwartz of the criteria for evaluating papers Center on Islamic Pluralism writes that CAIR should be considered a foreign-based subversive organization, comparable in the Islamist field to social essay questions, the Soviet-controlled Communist Party, USA. CAIR, for its part, dismisses all criticism, blaming negative comments on list of references, Muslim bashers who can never point to essay, something CAIR has done in its 10-year history that is free idea objectionable. Actually, there is much about the organization's history that is objectionable—and it is readily apparent to essay questions, anyone who bothers to plan, look. When President George W. Bush visited the Islamic Center of Washington several days after September 11, 2001, to signal that he would not tolerate a backlash against Muslims, he invited CAIR's executive director, Nihad Awad, to join him at the podium. Two months later, when Secretary of State Colin Powell hosted a Ramadan dinner, he, too, called upon CAIR as representative of Islam in America. More broadly, when the State Department seeks out Muslims to social diploma, welcome foreign dignitaries, journalists, and academics, it calls upon CAIR. The organization has represented American Muslims before Congress. The National Aeronautics and Space Agency hosted CAIR's Sensitivity and Diversity Workshop in an effort to criteria for evaluating papers, harmonize space research with Muslim sensibilities. Law-enforcement agencies in Florida, Maryland, Ohio, Michigan, New York, Arizona, California, Missouri, Texas, and Kentucky have attended CAIR's sensitivity-training sessions. The organization boasts such tight relations with law enforcement that it claims to have even been invited to monitor police raids. In July 2004, as agents from the social FBI, Internal Revenue Service, and criteria for evaluating papers, Homeland Security descended on the Institute of Islamic and Arabic Sciences in America, a Saudi-created school in Merrifield, Virginia, a local paper reported that the FBI had informed CAIR's legal director, Arsalan Iftikhar, that morning that the raid was going to take place.
CAIR is also a media darling. It claims to log five thousand annual mentions on newspapers, television, and radio, including some of the most prestigious media in the United States. The press dutifully quotes CAIR's statistics, publishes its theological views, reports its opinions, rehashes its press releases, invites its staff on television, and generally dignifies its existence as a routine part of the social diploma essay American and Canadian political scenes. CAIR regularly participates in seminars on Islamic cultural issues for idea corporations and has been invited to speak at many of America's leading universities, including Harvard, Stanford, Johns Hopkins, and Columbia. American high schools have invited CAIR to promote its agenda, as have educationally-minded senior citizens. Perhaps the most obvious problem with CAIR is the fact that at least five of its employees and board members have been arrested, convicted, deported, or otherwise linked to terrorism-related charges and activities. Randall (Ismail) Royer , an social diploma questions American convert to Islam, served as CAIR's communications specialist and civil rights coordinator; today he sits in jail on terrorism-related charges. In June 2003, Royer and ten other young men, ages 23 to 35, known as the Virginia jihad group, were indicted on forty-one counts of conspiracy to train for and participate in a violent jihad overseas. Write System In Pakistan! The defendants, nine of them U.S. citizens, were accused of association with Lashkar-e-Taiba, a radical Islamic group designated as a foreign terrorist organization by the U.S. Department of State in 2001. They were also accused of meeting covertly in private homes and at the Islamic Center in Falls Church to prepare themselves for battle by listening to lectures and social essay, watching videotapes. As the prosecutor noted, Ten miles from an essay on education in pakistan Capitol Hill in the streets of northern Virginia, American citizens allegedly met, plotted, and recruited for social questions violent jihad. According to Matthew Epstein of the Investigative Project, Royer helped recruit the others to the jihad effort while he was working for CAIR.
The group trained at firing ranges in Virginia and Pennsylvania; in addition, it practiced small-unit military tactics at a paintball war-games facility in Virginia, earning it the moniker, the paintball jihadis. Eventually members of the group traveled to free, Pakistan. Five of the men indicted, including CAIR's Royer, were found to have had in their possession, according to the indictment, AK-47-style rifles, telescopic lenses, hundreds of rounds of ammunition and tracer rounds, documents on undertaking jihad and martyrdom, [and] a copy of the terrorist handbook containing instructions on how to manufacture and use explosives and chemicals as weapons. After four of the eleven defendants pleaded guilty, the remaining seven, including Royer, were accused in a new, 32-count indictment of yet more serious charges: conspiring to help Al-Qaeda and diploma essay, the Taliban battle American troops in Afghanistan. Royer admitted in his grand jury testimony that he had already waged jihad in how to, Bosnia under a commander acting on orders from Osama bin Laden. Prosecutors also presented evidence that his father, Ramon Royer, had rented a room in his St. Louis-area home in social essay questions, 2000 to Ziyad Khaleel, the in pakistan student who purchased the satellite phone used by Al-Qaeda in planning the two U.S. embassy bombings in social diploma essay, East Africa in August 1998. Royer eventually pleaded guilty to lesser firearms-related charges, and resume idea, the former CAIR staffer was sentenced to twenty years in prison. A coda to social essay questions, the Virginia jihad network came in 2005 when a Federal court convicted another Virginia man, Ahmed Omar Abu Ali, of business plan egypt, plotting to kill President Bush. Prosecutors alleged that Abu Ali participated in the Virginia jihad network's paintball games and perhaps supplied one of social essay questions, his fellow jihadists with an assault rifle. Royer's possible role in Abu Ali's plans are unclear.
Ghassan Elashi , the founder of CAIR's Texas chapter, has a long history of funding terrorism. First, he was convicted in psychodynamic counselling, July 2004, with his four brothers, of having illegally shipped computers from their Dallas-area business, InfoCom Corporation, to two designated state-sponsors of terrorism, Libya and Syria. Second, he and two brothers were convicted in April 2005 of knowingly doing business with Mousa Abu Marzook, a senior Hamas leader, whom the U.S. State Department had in social questions, 1995 declared a specially designated terrorist. Elashi was convicted of all twenty-one counts with which he was charged, including conspiracy, money laundering, and dealing in the property of a designated terrorist. Third, he was charged in July 2004 with providing more than $12.4 million to Hamas while he was running the Holy Land Foundation for Relief and an essay on education, Development, America's largest Islamic charity. When the U.S. Essay Questions! government shuttered Holy Land Foundation in late 2001, CAIR characterized this move as unjust and disturbing. Bassem Khafagi , an Egyptian native and CAIR's onetime community relations director, pleaded guilty in September 2003 to how to, lying on his visa application and diploma essay questions, passing bad checks for substantial amounts in early 2001, for which he was deported. CAIR claimed Khafagi was hired only after he had committed his crimes and that the organization was unaware of his wrongdoing. But that is unconvincing, for a cursory background check reveals that Khafagi was a founding member and essay, president of the questions Islamic Assembly of North America (IANA), an organization under investigation by the U.S. Department of Justice for terrorism-related activities.
CAIR surely knew that IANA under Khafagi was in the business of, as prosecutors stated in Idaho court papers, disseminating radical Islamic ideology, the purpose of resume idea, which was indoctrination, recruitment of diploma essay questions, members, and the instigation of acts of criteria for evaluating research papers, violence and terrorism. For example, IANA websites promoted the views of two Saudi preachers, Salman al-Awdah and Safar al-Hawali, well-known in Islamist circles for having been spiritual advisors to Osama bin Laden. Under Khafagi's leadership, Matthew Epstein has testified, IANA hosted a conference at which a senior Al-Qaeda recruiter, Abdelrahman al-Dosari, was a speaker. IANA disseminated publications advocating suicide attacks against diploma questions, the United States, according to federal investigators. Also, Khafagi was co-owner of how to homework, a Sir Speedy printing franchise until 1998 with Rafil Dhafir, who was a former vice president of IANA and social essay questions, a Syracuse-area oncologist convicted in February 2005 of illegally sending money to Iraq during the Saddam Hussein regime as well as defrauding donors by using contributions to his Help the Needy charitable fund to psychodynamic counselling, avoid taxes and to purchase personal assets for himself. Dhafir was sentenced to twenty-two years in prison. Rabih Haddad , a CAIR fundraiser, was arrested in December 2001 on terrorism-related charges and questions, deported from the of references United States due to his subsequent work as executive director of the Global Relief Foundation, a charity he cofounded which was designated by the U.S. Treasury Department in October 2002 for financing Al-Qaeda and other terrorist organizations. Siraj Wahhaj , a CAIR advisory board member, was named in 1995 by U.S. attorney Mary Jo White as a possible unindicted coconspirator in the plot to blow up New York City landmarks led by the blind sheikh, Omar Abdul Rahman. In defense of having Wahhaj on its advisory board, CAIR described him as one of the most respected Muslim leaders in America. In October 2004, he spoke at a CAIR dinner. This roster of employees and social diploma essay questions, board members connected to terrorism makes one wonder how CAIR remains an acceptable guest at U.S. government events—and even more so, how U.S. law enforcement agencies continue to plan, associate with it. CAIR has a number of links to the terror organization Hamas, starting with the founder of its Texas chapter, Ghassan Elashi, as noted above. Secondly, Elashi and another CAIR founder, Omar Ahmad, attended a key meeting in social questions, Philadelphia in 1993. How To Homework! An FBI memo characterizes this meeting as a planning session for Hamas, Holy Land Foundation, and Islamic Association of Palestine to find ways to disrupt Israeli-Palestinian diplomacy and diploma, raise money for Hamas in the United States. The Philadelphia meeting was deemed such strong proof of Islamic Association of Palestine's relation to Hamas that a federal judge in Chicago in December 2004 ruled the Islamic Association of Palestine partially liable for US$156 million in damages (along with the Holy Land Foundation and Mohammad Salah, a Hamas operative) for having aided and abetted the plan Hamas murder of David Boim, an American citizen. Third, CAIR's founding personnel were closely linked to the Islamic Association of Palestine, which was founded by Ibrahim Abu Marzook, a senior Hamas operative and husband of diploma essay, Elashi's cousin; according to Epstein, the Islamic Association of homework, Palestine functions as Hamas's public relations and recruitment arm in the United States. The two individuals who established CAIR, Ahmad and Nihad Awad, had been, respectively, the president and public relations director of the Islamic Association of Palestine. Hooper, CAIR's director of communications, had been an social diploma essay employee of the Islamic Association of Palestine. Rafeeq Jabar, president of the for evaluating Islamic Association of Palestine, was a founding director of CAIR. Social Diploma! Fourth, the Holy Land Foundation, which the U.S. government has charged with funneling funds to Hamas, provided CAIR with some of its start-up funding in idea, 1994. Social Questions! (See $5,000 money transfer, figure 1.) In the other direction, according to Joe Kaufman, CAIR sent potential donors to egypt, the Holy Land Foundation's website when they clicked on their post-September 11 weblink, Donate to the NY/DC Disaster Relief Fund. Fifth, Awad publicly declared his enthusiasm for Hamas at Barry University in Florida in 1994: I'm in support of Hamas movement more than the PLO.
As an social questions attorney pointed out in the course of deposing Awad for the Boim case, Awad both supported Hamas and acknowledged an awareness of its involvement in violence. A class-action lawsuit brought by papers the estate of John P. O'Neill, Sr. Diploma Essay! charges CAIR and its Canadian branch of being, since their inception, part of the how to rush criminal conspiracy of radical Islamic terrorism with a unique role in the terrorist network: both organizations have actively sought to social, hamper governmental anti-terrorism efforts by direct propaganda activities aimed at police, first-responders, and intelligence agencies through so-called sensitivity training. Their goal is to create as much self-doubt, hesitation, fear of name-calling, and litigation within police departments and intelligence agencies as possible so as to render such authorities ineffective in pursuing international and domestic terrorist entities. It would be hard to dissertation of references, improve on this characterization; under the guise of diploma essay questions, participating in counterterrorism, CAIR does its best to counselling, impede these efforts. This approach can be seen from its statements. CAIR encourages law enforcement in its work—so long as it does not involve counterterrorism.
Wissam Nasr, the head of CAIR's New York office, explains: The Muslim community in New York wants to play a positive role in protecting our nation's security, but that role is made more difficult if the FBI is social perceived as pursuing suspects much more actively than it is on education system searching for community partners.  Nasr would have the social essay questions FBI get out of the unpleasant business of pursuing suspects and instead devote itself to building social good will—through CAIR, naturally. Likewise, on the eve of the U.S. Essay! war with Iraq in March 2003, CAIR distributed a Muslim community safety kit that advised Muslims to Know your rights if contacted by questions the FBI. It tells them specifically, You have no obligation to talk to the FBI, even if you are not a citizen. … You do not have to permit them to enter your home. … ALWAYS have an attorney present when answering questions. On the other hand, when it comes to protecting Muslims, CAIR wants an active FBI. The same Muslim community safety kit advised: If you believe you have been the victim of an anti-Muslim hate crime or discrimination, you should: 1. Homework! Report the social incident to your local police station and FBI office IMMEDIATELY. In January 2006, CAIR joined a lawsuit against the National Security Agency demanding that the U.S. intelligence agency cease monitoring communications with suspected Islamist terrorists. Part of its complaints concerned a belief that the U.S. government monitored its communications with Rabih Haddad, the suspected Al-Qaeda financier who has since moved to Lebanon. Upon learning that CAIR was a fellow plaintiff in the suit, political writer Christopher Hitchens said, I was revolted to papers, see who I was in company with. CAIR is a lot to swallow. Finally, CAIR discourages Americans from improving their counterterrorism skills. Deedra Abboud, CAIR's Arizona director, approves of police learning the Arabic language if that lowers the essay questions chances of write an essay system, cultural and linguistic misunderstandings. However, if they're learning it in social diploma questions, order to better fight terrorism, that concerns me.
Only because that assumes that the how to rush only fighting we have to do is among Arabic speakers. That's not a long-term strategy. Apologizing for social questions Islamist Terrorism. CAIR has consistently shown itself to be on the wrong side of the war on free resume, terrorism, protecting, defending, and supporting both accused and social diploma, even convicted radical Islamic terrorists. In October 1998—months after Osama bin Laden had issued his first declaration of war against the United States and had been named as the chief suspect in the bombings of two U.S. embassies in Africa—CAIR demanded the psychodynamic counselling removal of a Los Angeles billboard describing Osama bin Laden as the sworn enemy, finding this depiction offensive to Muslims. CAIR also leapt to bin Laden's defense, denying his responsibility for the twin East African embassy bombings.
CAIR's Hooper saw these explosions resulting from misunderstandings of both sides. Even after the social diploma essay September 11 atrocity, CAIR continued to how to homework, protect bin Laden, stating only that if [note the if] Osama bin Laden was behind it, we condemn him by name. Not until December 2001, when bin Laden on social diploma essay, videotape boasted of his involvement in how to rush, the attack, did CAIR finally acknowledge his role. CAIR has also consistently defended other radical Islamic terrorists. Rather than praise the conviction of the perpetrators of the social 1993 World Trade Center bombing, it deemed this a travesty of justice. It labeled the extradition order for suspected Hamas terrorist Mousa Abu Marzook anti-Islamic and anti-American. CAIR has co-sponsored Yvonne Ridley, the dissertation list of references British convert to Islam who became a Taliban enthusiast and a denier that Al-Qaeda was involved in 9-11. When four U.S. civilian contractors in Falluja were (in CAIR's words) ambushed in their SUV's, burned, mutilated, dragged through the streets, and then hung from a bridge spanning the Euphrates River, CAIR issued a press release that condemned the mutilation of the corpses but stayed conspicuously silent on the actual killings. During the 2005 trial of diploma questions, Sami Al-Arian, accused of heading Palestinian Islamic Jihad in the United States, Ahmed Bedier of how to, CAIR's Florida branch emerged as Al-Arian's effective spokesman, providing sound bytes to the media, trying to get his trial moved out of social diploma essay, Tampa, commenting on the jury selection, and so on. More broadly, TheReligionofPeace.com website pointed out that of the write more than 3100 fatal Islamic terror attacks committed in the last four years, we have only seen CAIR specifically condemn 18. Ties to diploma essay, Extremists, Left and Right. The Council on American-Islamic Relations has affinities to extremists of both the left and right, sharing features with both. Free Resume Idea! Its extensive ties to far-left groups include funding from the diploma essay questions Tides Foundation for an essay system its Interfaith Coalition against Hate Crimes; endorsing a statement issued by Refuse Resist and diploma questions, a National Day of Protest … to Stop Police Brutality, Repression and the Criminalization of a Generation. CAIR supported the Civil Liberties Restoration Act, legislation drafted by rush homework Open Society Policy Center, an organization founded by George Soros that would obstruct U.S. law enforcement from prosecuting the questions War on on education in pakistan, Extremism. Far-left members of Congress such as Dennis Kucinich (Democrat, Ohio) and Jim McDermott (Democrat, Washington) have turned up as featured speakers at CAIR fundraising events.
Its neo-Nazi side came out most clearly in CAIR's early years. In 1996, according to social essay, testimony by Steven Emerson, Yusuf Islam—the Muslim convert formerly known as the singer Cat Stevens—gave a keynote speech at a CAIR event. The contents of the speech itself are not known but Islam wrote a pamphlet published by write system the Islamic Association of Palestine, CAIR's stepparent, which included these sentences: The Jews seem neither to respect God nor his Creation. Their own holy books contain the curse of diploma questions, God brought upon them by their prophets on account of their disobedience to Him and mischief in the earth. We have seen the disrespect for religion displayed by those who consider themselves to be God's Chosen People. In 1998, CAIR co-hosted an event at which an dissertation of references Egyptian Islamist leader, Wagdi Ghunaym, declared Jews to be the descendants of the apes. CAIR continues to expose its fascistic side by its repeated activities with William W. Baker, exposed as a neo-Nazi in March 2002. Even after that date, CAIR invited Baker to speak at several events, for example in essay, Florida on August 12, 2003 and New Jersey on October 18, 2003 .  CAIR liked Baker's work so much, it used the title of his book, More in Common Than You Think , in one of an essay on education system, its ad campaigns in March 2004 and as the social questions title of an Elderhostel lecture. According to filed copies of its annual Internal Revenue Service Form 990, CAIR's U.S. chapters have more than doubled their combined revenues from the $2.5 million they recorded in 2000 to $5.6 million in 2002, though the number dipped slightly to $5.3 million in 2003, the most recent year for which figures are available.
That CAIR has recorded at least $3.1 million on its year-end combined balance sheets since 2001, combined with its minimal grant-making ($27,525 was the total that all CAIR chapters granted in 2003), suggests that CAIR is building an endowment and planning for the long term. The Internal Revenue Service filings claim that the idea bulk of its funds come from direct public support and its website explicitly denies that CAIR receives support from foreign sources: We do not support directly or indirectly, or receive support from, any overseas group or government. However, this denial is flatly untrue, for CAIR has accepted foreign funding, and from many sources. A press release from the Saudi Arabian embassy in Washington indicates that in August 1999, the Islamic Development Bank—a bank headquartered in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia—gave CAIR $250,000 to purchase land for its Washington, D.C. headquarters. CAIR's decision to diploma essay, accept Islamic Development Bank funding is unfortunate, given the bank's role as fund manager of the Al-Quds and the Al-Aqsa Funds, established by twelve Arab countries in order to fund the Palestinian intifada and provide financial support to the families of Palestinian martyrs. According to how to homework, records made public by Paul Sperry, CAIR purchased its national headquarters in 1999 through an unusual lease-purchase transaction with the diploma United Bank of free resume, Kuwait. The bank was the deed holder and leased the social diploma essay building to CAIR; yet despite not owning the write an essay system in pakistan building, CAIR recorded the social diploma essay property on its balance sheet as a property asset valued at $2.6 million. This arrangement changed in September 2002 when CAIR bought out the Kuwaiti bank with funds provided, at least in part, by rush Al-Maktoum Foundation, based in social essay, Dubai and headed by Dubai's crown prince and defense minister, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid al-Maktoum. The markings on the deed indicate that the foundation provided purchase money to for evaluating research, the extent of social diploma questions, $978,031.34 to CAIR, or roughly one-third the value of the property. One only wonders what a more complete investigation of its real estate transactions would turn up. In December 1999, the World Assembly of free, Muslim Youth (WAMY), an social diploma questions organization benefiting from Saudi patronage, announced at a press conference in Saudi Arabia that it was extending both moral and financial support to business, CAIR  to help it construct its $3.5 million headquarters in Washington, D.C. WAMY also agreed to diploma essay questions, introduce CAIR to Saudi philanthropists and recommend their financial support for the headquarters project. In 2002, CAIR and WAMY announced, again from Saudi Arabia, their cooperation on a $1 million public relations campaign. The Saudi Gazette , which reported the story, said that CAIR's leader, Nihad Awad, had already met leading Saudi businessmen in order to brief them about the projects and business plan egypt, raise funds. Later that week on the same fundraising trip through the Middle East, CAIR reportedly received $500,000 from Saudi prince Al-Waleed bin Talal, reputed to be one of the world's richest men. Waleed also, in May 2005, stated that he is more than prepared to work with organizations such as CAIR, and to diploma, provide needed support to them. CAIR has received at least $12,000 from the International Relief Organization (also called the International Islamic Relief Organization, or IIRO), which itself was the recipient of some $10 million from its parent organization in Saudi Arabia. (See a 1994 check from the IIRO for $5,000, figure 2.) The International Institute of homework, Islamic Thought (IIIT) gave CAIR's Washington office $14,000 in 2003. According to a court-filed affidavit, David Kane of the U.S. Customs Service determined that the IIIT receives donations from overseas via its related entities. Law enforcement is looking at the IIIT connection with Operation Green Quest, the questions major investigation into the activities of individuals and organizations believed to be ardent supporters of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Hamas, and Al-Qaeda. CAIR, not surprisingly, criticized the probe of its donor, telling the Financial Times of rush, London that the investigation is an attack on social questions, respected Islamic institutions. Despite these many foreign sources, CAIR still claims to for evaluating papers, receive no funds from outside the diploma essay questions United States. An Integral Part of the Wahhabi Lobby. Plan Egypt! CAIR has a key role in the Wahhabi lobby—the network of organizations, usually supported by donations from Saudi Arabia, whose aim is to propagate the especially extreme version of Islam practiced in Saudi Arabia.
For one, it sends money to other parts of the lobby. Social Diploma Essay Questions! According to CAIR's Form 990 filings for 2003, its California offices invested $325,000 with the North American Islamic Trust (NAIT). The NAIT was established in list, 1971 by the Muslim Student Association of the social diploma essay U.S. and Canada, which bills itself as the precursor to the Islamic Society of North America, now the business plan egypt largest member of the Wahhabi lobby. According to Newsweek , authorities say that over the years NAIT money has helped the Saudi Arabian sect of Wahhabism—or Salafism, as the social essay questions broader, pan-Islamic movement is called—to seize control of hundreds of mosques in U.S. Muslim communities. J. Michael Waller, a terrorism expert, testified before the psychodynamic essay Senate Judiciary Committee that NAIT is believed to own 50 to 79 percent of the mosques in social, North America. According to Waller, NAIT was raided as part of Operation Green Quest in free, 2002, on suspicions of social, involvement in terrorist financing. CAIR affiliates regularly speak at events sponsored by the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), an system umbrella organization of the Wahhabi lobby. Nabil Sadoun, a director of CAIR-DC, spoke at the ISNA's regional conference in 2003. Hussam Ayloush, executive director of social diploma, CAIR's Southern California chapter, and Fouad Khatib, the CAIR-California chairman, spoke at an ISNA-sponsored event. Safaa Zarzour, president of CAIR-Chicago, was also an ISNA speaker, as was Azhar Azeez, a board member of CAIR-Dallas, who has spoken at several ISNA conferences. In January 2003, the Saudi newspaper Ar-Riyadh reported that Nihad Awad appeared on a panel along with 'Aqil ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz al-'Aqil, secretary-general of the Saudi charity Al-Haramain Foundation—despite that organization's well-known ties to terrorism and the fact that already in March 2002, long before Awad's visit with Al-Haramain, the U.S. and Saudi governments had jointly designated eleven of rush homework, its branches financial supporter[s] of terrorism. The U.S.-based branch of the essay questions organization was also subsequently designated in September 2004. To fully appreciate what it means that more than half of U.S. mosques are promoting Saudi Islam, we refer to rush, the Freedom House report, Saudi Publications on questions, Hate Ideology Invade American Mosques.
It explains that Saudi documents disseminated at U.S. mosques are telling America's Muslims that it is a religious obligation for write in pakistan them to essay questions, hate Christians and Jews and warning that Muslims should not have Christians and Jews as friends, nor should they help them. The Freedom House report indicates that Saudi publications disseminated by U.S. List! mosques: say it is lawful for Muslims to physically harm and steal from adulterers and homosexuals; condemn interpretations of Islam other than the strict Wahhabi version preached in questions, Saudi Arabia; advocate the killing of those who convert out of Islam; assert that it is business plan egypt a Muslim's duty to eliminate the State of Israel; and promote the idea that women should be segregated and veiled and, of course, barred from diploma essay questions some employment and activities. But not to worry; CAIR's spokesman, Ibrahim Hooper, tells us, The majority of the stuff they picked is in Arabic, a language that most people in mosques don't read. CAIR's personnel are normally tight-lipped about the organization's agenda but sometimes let their ambitions slip out. CAIR's long-serving chairman, Omar Ahmad, reportedly told a crowd of California Muslims in free, July 1998, Islam isn't in America to be equal to any other faith, but to become dominant. The Koran . should be the social diploma questions highest authority in America, and Islam the only accepted religion on earth. Five years later, Ahmad denied having said this and issued a press release saying he was seeking a retraction. But the counselling essay reporter stood behind her story, and the newspaper that reported Ahmad's remarks told WorldNetDaily it had not been contacted by CAIR. In 1993, before CAIR existed, Ibrahim Hooper told a reporter: I wouldn't want to create the impression that I wouldn't like the government of the United States to be Islamic sometime in essay questions, the future. On the Michael Medved radio show in 2003, Hooper made the same point more positively: if Muslims ever become a majority in the United States, it would be safe to assume that they would want to replace the U.S. Rush! Constitution with Islamic law, as most Muslims believe that God's law is superior to social essay questions, man-made law. Other CAIR personnel also express their contempt for idea the United States. Ihsan Bagby of CAIR's Washington office has said that Muslims can never be full citizens of this country, referring to social diploma, the United States, because there is no way we can be fully committed to the institutions and homework, ideologies of this country. Ayloush said that the war on terror has become a war on Muslims with the U.S. government the diploma questions new Saddam. He concluded: So let's end this hypocrisy, this hypocrisy that we are better than the other dictator. In a bizarre coda, Parvez Ahmed, the current CAIR chairman, touted the virtues of Islamic democracy in 2004 by portraying the Afghan constitutional process as superior to the U.S. Dissertation! one: The new Afghan constitution shows that the constitution of diploma essay, a Muslim nation can be democratic and yet not contradict the essence of Islam. Business Plan! During my meeting with a high-ranking Afghan delegation during their recent visit to the United States, I was told that the Afghan constitutional convention included Hindu delegates despite Hindus accounting for social only 1 percent of the population. Contrast this with our own constitutional convention that excluded women and blacks. CAIR attempts to close down public debate about itself and plan egypt, Islam in several ways, starting with a string of lawsuits against public and essay questions, private individuals and several publications. CAIR's Rabiah Ahmed has openly acknowledged that lawsuits are increasingly an instrument for it to use. In addition, CAIR has resorted to financial pressure in an effort to silence critics. One such case concerns ABC radio personality Paul Harvey, who on how to rush homework, December 4, 2003, described the vicious nature of social diploma essay, cock fighting in Iraq, then commented: Add to the [Iraqi] thirst for blood, a religion which encourages killing, and it is entirely understandable if Americans came to this bloody party unprepared. CAIR responded a day later with a demand for an on-air apology.
CAIR then issued a call to its supporters to contact Harvey's advertising sponsors to press them to pull their ads until Harvey responds to Muslim concerns. Although Harvey quickly and publicly retracted his remarks, CAIR continued its campaign against him. An Essay On Education In Pakistan! Another case of financial intimidation took place in March 2005, when CAIR campaigned to have National Review remove two books—Serge Trifkovic's The Sword of the Prophet  and J.L. Menezes' The Life and Religion of Mohammed —as well as the positive reviews of those books, from social diploma essay questions its on-line bookstore. CAIR claimed the essay books defame Islam and the Prophet Muhammad. When it did not get immediate satisfaction from National Review , it instructed its partisans to pressure the Boeing Corporation to withdraw its advertisements from the magazine.
National Review briefly took down both books but then quickly reposted the one by social diploma questions Trifkovic. Trifkovic himself argued that CAIR's success here will only whet Islamist appetites and encourage their hope that the end-result will be a crescent on the Capitol a generation or two from now. CAIR resorted to resume, another form of social essay questions, intimidation versus Florida radio show host and Baptist pastor Mike Frazier. Frazier had criticized local and state officials in September 2004 for business plan attending a CAIR awards dinner because, as he put it, If these people would have bothered to check CAIR out beforehand they would have seen that it is social questions a radical group. He termed what followed absolutely unbelievable. Within a month, he says he received six death threats and forty-seven threatening phone calls, was accosted by strangers, was labeled an extremist and a fundamentalist zealot, and business, accused of propagating fear, terror and disunity by the St. Petersburg Times . Several members of his church fled his congregation because, according to social diploma essay, Frazier, they were afraid. Other CAIR targets of counselling essay, intimidation have included the Simon Wiesenthal Center for juxtaposing a picture of the Ayatollah Khomeini next to Adolf Hitler, and the Reader's Digest for social diploma essay questions an article, The Global War on Christians, which CAIR found smears Islam by citing well-documented cases of dissertation, Christian persecution. CAIR's Nihad Awad faulted the Reader's Digest for leaving the impression that Islam somehow encourages or permits rape, kidnapping, torture, and forced conversion. In December 2003, CAIR ruined the diploma questions career of an army officer and nurse, Captain Edwina McCall, who had treated American soldiers wounded in Iraq and research papers, Afghanistan but ended up resigning under a cloud of suspicion. Her crime? Using her military e-mail address on an Internet discussion board concerning the Islamist agenda. CAIR sent the comments to the secretary of essay, defense, calling attention to her allegedly bigoted anti-Muslim comments and demanding that her extremist and Islamophobic views be investigated and then followed by appropriate action.
The Army immediately cast the write officer under suspicion, leading her to resign from social diploma essay a career she had loved. At times, CAIR inspires its attack dogs to an essay system in pakistan, make threats and diploma questions, sits back when they follow through. After Daniel Pipes published an article in July 1999 explaining the business egypt difference between moderate and social essay questions, radical Islam, CAIR launched fifteen separate attacks on psychodynamic counselling essay, him in the space of two months, attacks widely reprinted in Muslim publications. Dozens of letters followed to questions, the newspapers that carried Pipes' articles, some calling him harsh names (bigot and racist), others comparing him to the Ku Klux Klan and the neo-Nazis, or characterizing his writings as an atrocity filled with pure poison and outright lies. More alarmingly, the letter-writers accused the author of perpetrating a hate crime against Muslims or of promoting and abetting such crimes. One threatened: Is Pipes ready to write on education in pakistan, answer the diploma questions Creator for his hatred or is he a secular humanist . He will soon find out. CAIR metes out even worse treatment to Muslim opponents, as the case of Khalid Duran shows. Duran taught at leading universities and wrote about essay, Islam for think tanks; he was commissioned by the American Jewish Committee to write Children of Abraham: An Introduction to Islam for questions Jews . Fourteen scholars of Islam endorsed the manuscript prior to publication; it won glowing reviews from business plan egypt such authoritative figures as Cardinal William Keeler of Baltimore, the eminent church historian Martin Marty, and Prince Hassan of Jordan. Then, before the book was even released, CAIR issued two press releases insulting Duran personally and demanding that the diploma essay questions Children of dissertation, Abraham be withheld until a group of social diploma questions, CAIR-approved academics could review the rush book to correct what it assumed (without having read the manuscript) would be its stereotypical or inaccurate content. Islamist publications quickly picked up CAIR's message, with Cairo's Al-Wafd newspaper announcing that Duran's book spreads anti-Muslim propaganda through its distortions of Islamic concepts. A weekly in Jordan reported that 'Abd al-Mun'im Abu Zant—one of that country's most powerful Islamist leaders—had declared that Duran should be regarded as an apostate, and on this basis called for an Islamic ruling to condone Duran's death. Days later, Duran's car was broken into, and a dead squirrel and excrement were thrown inside. CAIR, far from apologizing for the evil results of its handiwork, accused the American Jewish Committee of fabricating the death edict as a cheap publicity stunt to boost book sales. CAIR has a long record of unreliability and social questions, deceit even in relatively minor matters.
To begin with, it has the free idea audacity to claim to be America's largest civil rights group, ignoring much larger groups by far, such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the Anti-Defamation League. Essay Questions! In May 2005, CAIR published its annual report on the violations of Muslim civil rights in dissertation list of references, America which purported to document a significant rise in the number of social diploma questions, hate crimes directed at Muslims. Resume! According to social essay, the report, anti-Muslim hate crimes in the United States have gone up dramatically: from 42 cases in 2002, to 93 cases in 2003, to 141 in 2004. The mainstream media dutifully recycled CAIR's press release, effectively endorsing this study by reporting it as a serious piece of research. But closer inspection shows that of twenty anti-Muslim hate crimes for which CAIR gives information, at least six are invalid. David Skinner points out a further problem with the 2004 report: its credulity in write system, reporting any incident, no matter how trivial, subjective or unsubstantiated. One anecdote concerns a Muslim college student who encountered flyers and posters with false and degrading statements about the social diploma essay questions Qur'an and the prophet Muhammad; another concerns a student at Roger Williams in Rhode Island who wrote that a true Muslim is taught to slay infidels. Also, any reluctance to accommodate Muslim women wearing a headscarf or veil was tallied as a bias incident, even in the case of psychodynamic, genuine quandaries (such as veiled athletes or drivers applying for their licenses). Nor is essay this the first unreliable CAIR study. Write An Essay On Education In Pakistan! Referring to the 1996 version, Steven Emerson noted in congressional testimony that a large proportion of the complaints have been found to be fabricated, manufactured, distorted, or outside standard definitions of hate crimes. Jorge Martinez of the U.S. Department of Justice dismissed CAIR's 2003 report, Guilt by Association , as unfair criticism based on a lot of misinformation and propaganda. CAIR's manipulative habits assert themselves even in petty ways. For example, CAIR is not above conducting straw polls in an effort to forward its political agenda and may even be willing to exaggerate its own outreach efforts. This seems to be the case in CAIR's library project, where it claims to diploma essay questions, have sent thousands of packages of books and tapes to American libraries. List Of References! An inquiry turned up the curious fact that while CAIR claimed the District of Columbia had received thirty-seven such packages, records showed only one such copy being recorded. Maybe the diploma mailmen lost the remaining thirty-six?
In September 2005, CAIR indulged in some Stalinist revisionism: as Robert Spencer revealed, CAIR doctored a photo on its website to make it more Islamically correct by manually adding a hijab onto psychodynamic counselling a Muslim woman. Despite all this, CAIR's statements continue to gain the respectful attention of uncritical media outlets. The few hard-hitting media analyses of CAIR generally turn up in the conservative press. Otherwise, it generally wins a pass from news organizations, as Erick Stakelbeck has documented. The mainstream media treat CAIR respectfully, as a legitimate organization, avoiding the diploma questions less salutary topics explored here, even the multiple connections to terrorism. One telling example of the media's negligence in research papers, investigating CAIR occurred when Ghassan Elashi—a founding board member of diploma essay, CAIR's Texas chapter—was indicted and convicted of supporting terrorism by sending money to free resume, Hamas and Mousa Abu Marzook. Reporting on this, not one single mainstream media source mentioned Elashi's CAIR connection. Worse, the media went to social, CAIR and quoted it on Elashi's arrest, without noting their close connection. The Washington Post seems particularly loath to write system, expose CAIR's unsavory aspects.
For example, on January 20, 2005, it ran a story about the opening of CAIR's new Virginia office on Grove Street in Herndon. The article not only passed up the opportunity to social diploma essay questions, consider CAIR's presence in a town notorious for Islamist organizational connections to Al-Qaeda and to the Wahhabi network, but it was also remarkably similar in rush, tone and style to CAIR's own press release on the same subject. (A later Washington Post article did mention that the new CAIR offices are located on the very street where federal agents had conducted a major raid in essay questions, March 2002.) There is much else for the press to look into. One example: CAIR-DC lists the Zahara Investment Corporation as a related organization on its IRS Form 990. Curiously, Zahara Investment Corporation was listed as a tax-exempt entity in 2002; in free idea, 2003, it became a non-tax-exempt entity. This prompts several questions: how is a tax-exempt like CAIR related to an investment company, much less a corporation? How does an investment corporation become a tax-exempt? And how does it change itself into a non-exempt?
And why did CAIR-DC invest $40,000 of the public's money in 1998 in securities that it would have to write off less than three years later? Whose securities were these? The usual databases have nothing on social questions, Zahara Investment Corporation; all this took place under the radar screen. That the U.S. government, the mainstream media, educational institutions, and others have given CAIR a free pass amounts to a dereliction of duty. Yet, there appear to be no signs of change. List Of References! How long will it be until the establishment finally recognizes CAIR for social diploma what it is and denies it mainstream legitimacy? Daniel Pipes is how to director of the questions Middle East Forum. Sharon Chadha is the co-author of Jihad and International Security .  Columbus Dispatch (Ohio), Jan. How To Homework! 1, 2002.  FDCH Political Transcripts , Sept. 10, 2003.  Bad CAIR Day: Ex-staffer pleads guilty to terror charges, Senate asks questions on diploma, 9/11 anniversary, Center for Security Policy, accessed Jan.
9, 2006.  Joseph Farah, Between the Lines: The Real CAIR, WorldNetDaily , Apr. 25, 2003; Steve Pomerantz, Counterterrorism in a Free Society, The Journal of Counterterrorism Security International , Spring 1998.  Estate of John P. O'Neill, Sr. et al. vs. Al Baraka Investment and plan egypt, Development Corporation , DanielPipes.org, accessed Jan. Essay! 9, 2006.  Steven Emerson, Re: Terrorism and the Middle East Peace Process, prepared testimony before the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Subcommittee on Near East and South Asia, Mar. 19, 1996. Free Idea!  The Jerusalem Post , Mar. 5, 1999.  Personal communication from questions Jamal Hasan to Daniel Pipes, July 25, 2003.  Melissa Radler , A Different Face of Islam, Jerusalem Post International Edition , July 18, 2003.  Stephen Schwartz, An Activist's Guide to Arab and Muslim Campus and Community Organizations in North America, FrontPageMagazine.com , May 26, 2003.  Colin Powell, remarks at Iftaar dinner, Benjamin Franklin Room, Washington, D.C., Nov. 18, 2002.  Partial List of CAIR's Work with Local State and Federal Law Enforcement Authorities, CAIR website, accessed Jan.
9, 2006.  The Connection Newspapers , July 8, 2004. In Pakistan!  Muslim-American Activism: CAIR Marks Decade of Dedication, The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs , Oct. 2004, p. 76.  CAIR-Chicago Extends Lecture Series on Islam, 'Building Bridges to essay questions, Islam' Events Co-hosted by how to Edlerhostel, CAIR, Feb. Social! 1, 2005.  United States of America v. Randall Todd Royer, et al , United States District Court for essay the Eastern District of Virginia, Alexandria Division, June 2003.  CNN, June 27, 2003.  FDCH Political Transcripts , June 27, 2003.  U.S. Questions! Department of Justice, news release, Apr. 9, 2004.  All Things Considered, National Public Radio, Nov. 22, 2005.  U.S. Free! Department of Justice, news release, July 8, 2004. Social Diploma Essay Questions!  U.S. Department of plan, Justice, news release, July 27, 2004.  Articles of Incorporation of social diploma essay, a Colorado Nonprofit Corporation, 931135840, Dec.
8, 1993.  Matthew Epstein, Saudi Support for business plan Islamic Extremism in the United States, testimony before the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology, and Homeland Security, Sept. Social Questions! 10, 2003.  The Post-Standard (Syracuse), Jan. 23, 2004.  CAIR et al v. Ashcroft and Mueller complaint, p. 13.  U.S. Department of the Treasury, news release, Oct. 18, 2002.  Ibrahim Hooper, CAIR Responds to Daniel Pipes' Anti-Muslim Hysteria, Middle East News World Report , Aug.
25, 2000.  Epstein, Saudi Support for Islamic Extremism. Plan!  Epstein, Saudi Support for Islamic Extremism.  Text from Lawsuit Response, Council on social diploma, American-Islamic Relations, Inc. v. Andrew Whitehead , law no. CL04-926, Virginia: In the Circuit Court for the City of Virginia Beach, Apr. 30, 2004. How To Homework!  Steven Emerson, American Jihad: The Terrorists Living Among Us (New York: Free Press, 2003); Deposition of Nihad Awad , Oct. 22, 2003, In the Matter of: Stanley Boim, et al. v. Quranic Literacy Institute, et. al , p. 58.  ACLU et al. vs. National Security Agency , U.S. Essay! District Court, Eastern District of Michigan, Southern Division, Jan. 17, 2006, pp.
30-1. Plan!  The New York Sun , Jan. 18, 2006.  The Arizona Republic (Phoenix), Mar. 25, 2004.  Steven Emerson, statement to the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, July 9, 2003.  Jake Tapper, Islam's Flawed Spokesmen, Salon , Sept. 26, 2001.  Newsletter of the Marzuk Legal Fund , June 1996.  The Oracle (University of South Florida), Mar. 31, 2004.  CAIR Condemns Mutilation of Bodies in Iraq, CAIR, Mar.
31, 2004.  The Tides Community Responds to 9/11/01, Groundsprings.org, accessed Jan. 10, 2006. Diploma Questions!  February 20, 2002—National Day of how to, Solidarity with Muslim, Arab and South Asian Immigrants, Refuse and Resist, New York, N.Y., accessed Jan. 10, 2006.  The Call for a National Day of Protest on October 22nd, 2002, to Stop Police Brutality, Repression and the Criminalization of a Generation, October 22 Coalition, accessed Jan. 10, 2006. Social Questions!  Steven Emerson, Foreign Terrorists in America: Five Years after the World Trade Center Bombing, statement before the U.S. Dissertation Of References! Senate Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology and Government Information, Feb.
24, 1998.  Pomerantz, Counterterrorism in a Free Society; Schwartz, An Activist's Guide.  The Palestine Chronicle (Mountlake Terrace, Wash.), Aug. 4, 2003.  CAIR Promotes and Hosts William W. Diploma! Baker, Neo-Nazi, DanielPipes.org, Mar. 9, 2004.  A Day of Discovery: Building Bridges to Islam in Arizona, program guide, Islamic Community Center, Tempe, Ariz., May 31, 2005 and June 14, 2005.  The IRS offers several choices under the item Revenues, including direct public support, indirect public support, government contributions (grants), membership dues and assessments, and net income or (loss) from special events or rental properties—the categories in which CAIR has classified its revenues.  Epstein, Saudi Support for dissertation list Islamic Extremism. Diploma!  Paul Sperry, Chapter 13: The 9/11 Imam, SperryFiles , accessed Jan. 10, 2006.  Deed of Trust, Doc. Rush! # 2002105143, Commercial Settlements, Inc., Washington, D.C., Aug. 7, 2002, SperryFiles , accessed Jan. Social Diploma Essay! 10, 2006.  WAMY's relationship to Saudi Arabia was described this way by its secretary general: The Kingdom provides us with a supportive environment that allows us to business plan, work openly within the society to collect funds and spread activities. Social Diploma Essay! It also provides us with protection abroad through Saudi embassies and consulates, in of references, addition to financial support.
WAMY Team in Afghanistan Risks Life to Deliver Aid, Middle East Newsfile, Nov. 20, 2001. Diploma Questions!  WAMY Spends SR12m on New Mosques, Middle East Newsfile, Dec. Business Egypt! 23, 1999.  Epstein, Saudi Support for Islamic Extremism.  Kingdom Holding Company, news release, May 20, 2005.  David Kane, (Proposed Redacted) Affidavit in Support of Application for Search Warrant (October 2003), United States District Court, Eastern District of Virginia. Social!  Operation Green Quest, brochure, U.S. Customs Service, Office of Investigations, Washington, D.C.  Financial Times (London), Mar. 28, 2002.  A Little Taste of History, Muslim Student Association of the United States and Canada website, accessed Jan. 11, 2006.  J. Michael Waller, statement before the U.S. Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology and Homeland Security, Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Oct. 14, 2003.  Muslims and plan egypt, the Information Superhighway (MSIC 2000), Hilton Long Beach, Long Beach, Calif., July 14 -16, 2000. Social Diploma Essay!  U.S.-Saudi Arabia Terrorist Financing Designations, U.S. Department of the Treasury, news release, Mar. 11, 2002.
 Office of Foreign Assets Control, U.S. For Evaluating! Department of the Treasury, news release, Sept. 9, 2004.  New Report on Saudi Government Publications, Center for Religious Freedom, Freedom House, accessed Jan. Diploma! 11, 2006.  Dallas Morning News , Feb. Dissertation Of References! 5, 2005.  National Review , Apr.
8, 2003.  Star Tribune (Minneapolis), Apr. 4, 1993.  Personal communication from Michael Medved, Oct. 21, 2004.  Quoted in Steve A. Johnson, Political Activities of Muslims in America, in Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, ed., The Muslims of America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), p. Social Diploma Essay! 115. Dissertation Of References!  Associated Press, May 8, 2004. Essay!  Orlando Sentinel , Feb. 23, 2004.  Regina Orthodox Press, 2002.  Sands Publishers, 1912. Business Egypt!  Srdja Trifkovic, Caving in to Jihad: National Review , CAIR, and My Book, Chronicles Magazine , Apr.
6, 2005. Social Essay!  Erick Stakelbeck, Jihad at dissertation list of references the St. Essay Questions! Petersburg Times , FrontPageMagazine.com , Nov. 3, 2004.  Muslims Exchange Letters with Wiesenthal Center about Possible Changes to criteria papers, Museum of Tolerance, CAIR, Jan. 6, 1998.  Ralph Kinney Bennett, The Global War on Christians, Reader's Digest , Aug.
1997.  Andrew Whitehead and social essay, Lee Kaplan, CAIR's War from Within, FrontPageMagazine.com , Mar. 9, 2004.  Interview with Ahmed Bedier, Fox Hannity Co ., Fox News Network, Feb. 15, 2005.  Daniel Pipes and write an essay on education system in pakistan, Sharon Chadha, CAIR's Hate Crime Nonsense, FrontPageMagazine.com , May 18, 2005. Questions!  Emerson, Foreign Terrorists in America.  Robert Spencer, Stalinism at CAIR: Photo Doctored for Islamic Correctness, Jihad Watch , Sept. List! 15, 2005.  Zev Chafets, Beware the Wolves Among Us, The New York Daily News , Sept. 28, 2001; editorial, CAIR and Terrorism, The Washington Times , July 24, 2004; David Frum, The Question of CAIR, The National Post , Nov. 23, 2004; Eli Lake, Me Rethinks a CAIR Event, The New York Sun , Nov. Social Diploma Questions! 12, 2003; Daniel Pipes, CAIR: 'Moderate' Friends of Terror, The New York Post , Apr. 22, 2002; Michael Putney, Pressure May Smother Dialogue, The Miami Herald , Sept. 10, 2003; Stephen Schwartz, Not So Holy after All; The Bush Administration Takes on criteria research papers, a Hamas Front Group, The Weekly Standard , Dec. 17, 2001; and Glenn Sheller, Muslim Group's Conflict with Discrimination Is Uphill Fight, The Columbus Dispatch , Aug.
31, 2004. Social Diploma Questions!  4 Indicted in Texas Terror Probe, The Boston Globe , Dec. 19, 2002; 5 Brothers Charged with Aiding Hamas, The New York Times , Dec. 19, 2002; Hamas Arrests Called Unfair, Fort Worth Star-Telegram , Dec. 20, 2002; Aid Sought for 5 Suspected of Terror Ties, Associated Press, Feb. 15, 2003; Muslim Leader Criticizes Prosecution, United Press International, July 9, 2004; Muslim Leaders Blast Brothers' Convictions, The Dallas Morning News , July 10, 2004.  CAIR's DC office is required to make its Form 990 available to the public upon request.
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Feature Articles - The Causes of World War One. We'll start with the social diploma, facts and work back: it may make it all the easier to understand how World War One actually happened. The events of July and criteria papers early August 1914 are a classic case of one thing led to another - otherwise known as the treaty alliance system. The explosive that was World War One had been long in essay, the stockpiling; the spark was the how to homework, assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, in social diploma, Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. (Click here to view film footage of business plan Ferdinand arriving at Sarajevo's Town Hall on 28 June 1914.) Ferdinand's death at the hands of the Black Hand, a Serbian nationalist secret society, set in train a mindlessly mechanical series of events that culminated in the world's first global war. Austria-Hungary's reaction to diploma the death of their heir (who was in any case not greatly beloved by the Emperor, Franz Josef, or his government) was three weeks in coming. Arguing that the Serbian government was implicated in the machinations of the Black Hand (whether she was or not remains unclear, but it appears unlikely), the Austro-Hungarians opted to take the psychodynamic counselling, opportunity to stamp its authority upon the Serbians, crushing the nationalist movement there and cementing Austria-Hungary's influence in the Balkans. It did so by issuing an ultimatum to Serbia which, in the extent of its demand that the assassins be brought to justice effectively nullified Serbia's sovereignty. Social Essay. Sir Edward Grey, the counselling, British Foreign Secretary, was moved to comment that he had never before seen one State address to social essay another independent State a document of so formidable a character. Austria-Hungary's expectation was that Serbia would reject the remarkably severe terms of the ultimatum, thereby giving her a pretext for how to rush, launching a limited war against Serbia. However, Serbia had long had Slavic ties with Russia, an altogether different proposition for Austria-Hungary.
Whilst not really expecting that Russia would be drawn into the dispute to any great extent other than through words of social questions diplomatic protest, the business egypt, Austro-Hungarian government sought assurances from her ally, Germany, that she would come to her aid should the unthinkable happen and Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary. Germany readily agreed, even encouraged Austria-Hungary's warlike stance. Quite why we'll come back to later. So then, we have the diploma, following remarkable sequence of events that led inexorably to the 'Great War' - a name that had been touted even before the coming of the psychodynamic counselling, conflict. Austria-Hungary , unsatisfied with Serbia's response to her ultimatum (which in the event was almost entirely placatory: however her jibbing over social diploma essay a couple of free resume idea minor clauses gave Austria-Hungary her sought-after cue) declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914. Russia , bound by diploma essay questions, treaty to Serbia, announced mobilisation of its vast army in her defence, a slow process that would take around six weeks to complete. Dissertation. Germany , allied to social essay Austria-Hungary by psychodynamic, treaty, viewed the Russian mobilisation as an act of war against Austria-Hungary, and after scant warning declared war on social diploma questions Russia on counselling 1 August.
France , bound by treaty to Russia, found itself at war against Germany and, by extension, on Austria-Hungary following a German declaration on diploma essay 3 August. Germany was swift in invading neutral Belgium so as to for evaluating papers reach Paris by the shortest possible route. Britain , allied to France by a more loosely worded treaty which placed a moral obligation upon her to defend France, declared war against Germany on 4 August. Her reason for entering the conflict lay in social diploma, another direction: she was obligated to defend neutral Belgium by the terms of rush homework a 75-year old treaty. With Germany's invasion of Belgium on 4 August, and the Belgian King's appeal to Britain for assistance, Britain committed herself to Belgium's defence later that day. Like France, she was by extension also at war with Austria-Hungary. With Britain's entry into the war, her colonies and dominions abroad variously offered military and financial assistance, and included Australia , Canada, India , New Zealand and the Union of South Africa . Diploma Essay Questions. United States President Woodrow Wilson declared a U.S. policy of for evaluating absolute neutrality, an official stance that would last until 1917 when Germany's policy of unrestricted submarine warfare - which seriously threatened America's commercial shipping (which was in questions, any event almost entirely directed towards the Allies led by Britain and France) - forced the U.S. to finally enter the war on 6 April 1917. Japan , honouring a military agreement with Britain, declared war on Germany on 23 August 1914.
Two days later Austria-Hungary responded by declaring war on Japan. Italy , although allied to both Germany and an essay system Austria-Hungary, was able to avoid entering the fray by citing a clause enabling it to social diploma essay evade its obligations to both. In short, Italy was committed to defend Germany and Austria-Hungary only in dissertation list of references, the event of a 'defensive' war; arguing that their actions were 'offensive' she declared instead a policy of neutrality. The following year, in social, May 1915, she finally joined the conflict by siding with the Allies against her two former allies. Click here for more extensive information detailing who entered the war - and when.
Such were the mechanics that brought the world's major nations into the war at one time or another. It's clear from the summary above that the alliance system was as much at fault as anything in bringing about the scale of the how to, conflict. What was intended as a strictly limited war - a brief war - between accuser and accused, Austria-Hungary and Serbia, rapidly escalated into something that was beyond the expectations of even the most warlike ministers in Berlin (and certainly Vienna, which quickly became alarmed at spiralling events in late July and sought German reassurances). It's possible to delve deeply into European history in the quest to social essay unearth the roots of the various alliances that were at play in criteria research papers, 1914. However, for our purposes it serves to date the origins of the core alliances back to Bismarck's renowned intrigues, as he set about creating a unified Germany from the loose assembly of German confederated states in the 1860s. Bismarck, first Prime Minister of Prussia and questions then Chancellor of the German Empire (once he had assembled it), set about the how to homework, construction of Germany through high politics judiciously assisted by war against Austria and France. Appointed Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Prussia by social diploma essay questions, Kaiser Wilhelm I in 1862, Bismarck was consumed with a desire to achieve the creation of a German Empire out of the collection of smaller German states largely led by Austria's influence (another German-speaking nation). His first step was to of references oust Austria as the essay questions, prime influence among these German states. He achieved this by engineering war with Austria in 1866 over disputed territory in the duchy of Holstein (much against the wishes of his own Kaiser).
The resulting war lasted just seven weeks - hence its common title 'The Seven Weeks War' - and ended with the papers, complete dominance of the supremely efficient Prussian military. In a peace mediated by the French Emperor, Napoleon III, Bismarck extracted from diploma questions Austria not only resume idea Schleswig and Holstein, but also Hanover, Hesse, Nassau and Frankfurt, creating the North German Federation. As importantly, Bismarck had successfully displaced Austria in the spheres of influence over the many small German states. Having assembled a united assembly in the north Bismarck determined to diploma achieve the same in dissertation, the south - and so unite all of the German states under the Prussian banner. How to achieve this? Bismarck resolved that war with the French, a common enemy, would attain his aims. First, he needed to engineer a credible reason for social diploma questions, war. Thus, in 1870, Bismarck attempted to place a Hohenzollern prince on the throne in Spain. Napoleon III, fearful of the prospect of theoretical war on two fronts - for the Hohenzollern prince was a relative of Kaiser Wilhelm I - objected. Bismarck turned up the diplomatic heat by releasing, on 14 July 1870, a doctored version of a telegram ostensibly from the Kaiser to Bismarck himself, called the Ems Telegram. The effect of the telegram was to simultaneously insult both France and Prussia over their inability to resolve the dispute over the Spanish throne.
Napoleon III, facing civil revolt at home over quite unrelated matters, and write an essay on education system in pakistan receiving encouraging noises from his military commanders, responded by declaring war against Prussia five days later, on social diploma 19 July 1870. Once again, as was the case against Austria, the Prussian military machine demolished the French forces. Napoleon III, who personally led his forces at the lost Battle of Sedan, surrendered and was deposed in the civil war that boiled over in France, resulting in of references, the Third French Republic. Meantime the Prussian forces laid siege to Paris between September 1870 and January 1871, starving the city into surrender. The consequences of the war were numerous. Aside from the usual territorial gains - France ceded both Alsace and Lorraine to Prussia and was forced to pay swingeing reparations (equivalent to around $1 billion today) - the southern German states agreed to an alliance with their northern counterparts, resulting in the creation of Bismarck's cherished German Empire. Bismarck's creation of a unified Germany was of direct relevance to the outbreak of war some 43 years later, since it resulted in the assembly of the key alliances that later came into play. For, having achieved his life's aim, Bismarck's expansionary plans were at an end. Social Diploma Essay Questions. He had secured what he wanted, and business his chief desire now was to maintain its stability.
He therefore set about building European alliances aimed at protecting Germany from potentially threatening quarters. He was acutely aware that the French were itching to revenge their defeat at essay questions, the earliest opportunity - and resume the loss of Alsace and Lorraine to Prussia would prove to be a lasting sore. Indeed, the French plan for war in 1914, Plan XVII, was largely based around the social essay questions, recapture of Alsace and Lorraine in the shortest possible time - with disastrous consequences. Bismarck did not initially fear an alliance between France and Britain, for the latter was at that time in rush homework, the midst of questions a self-declared 1870s policy of splendid isolation, choosing to stay above continental European politics. If not Britain then, how about Russia and, conceivably, beaten foe Austria-Hungary? The Three Emperors League Dual Alliance. He began by on education system in pakistan, negotiating, in 1873, the social diploma, Three Emperors League, which tied Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia to each other's aid in time of list of references war.
This however only lasted until Russia's withdrawal five years later in 1878, leaving Bismarck with a new Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary in diploma essay, 1879. This latter treaty promised aid to free resume idea each other in social diploma, the event of an attack by Russia, or if Russia aided another power at war with either Germany or Austria-Hungary. Should either nation be attacked by another power, e.g. France, they were to remain - at the very least - benevolently neutral. This alliance, unlike others, endured until war in 1914. It was this clause that Austria-Hungary invoked in calling Germany to her aid against Russian support for of references, Serbia (who in turn was protected by treaty with Russia). Two years after Germany and Austria-Hungary concluded their agreement, Italy was brought into the fold with the signing of the Triple Alliance in diploma, 1881. Under the provisions of this treaty, Germany and Austria-Hungary promised to assist Italy if she were attacked by France, and vice versa: Italy was bound to lend aid to Germany or Austria-Hungary if France declared war against either. Additionally, should any signatory find itself at free resume idea, war with two powers (or more), the other two were to provide military assistance.
Finally, should any of the three determine to social diploma questions launch a 'preventative' war (a euphemism if ever there was one), the an essay system, others would remain neutral. One of the chief aims of the Triple Alliance was to prevent Italy from declaring war against Austria-Hungary, towards whom the questions, Italians were in for evaluating research papers, dispute over territorial matters. In the event the Triple Alliance was essentially meaningless, for Italy subsequently negotiated a secret treaty with France, under which Italy would remain neutral should Germany attack France - which in the event transpired. In 1914 Italy declared that Germany's war against France was an 'aggressive' one and so entitled Italy to claim neutrality. A year later, in 1915, Italy did enter the First World War, as an ally of Britain, France and Russia. Austria-Hungary signed an alliance with Romania in 1883, negotiated by social diploma essay questions, Germany, although in the event Romania - after starting World War One as a neutral - eventually joined in essay, with the Allies; as such Austria-Hungary's treaty with Romania was of no actual significance. Potentially of greater importance - although it was allowed to social essay lapse three years after its signature - Bismarck, in 1887, agreed to a so-called Reinsurance Treaty with Russia. This document stated that both powers would remain neutral if either were involved in a war with a third (be it offensive or defensive). However, should that third power transpire to be France, Russia would not be obliged to provide assistance to Germany (as was the free idea, case of Germany if Russia found itself at war with Austria-Hungary).
Bismarck's intention was to avoid the possibility of a two-front war against both France and Russia. A decidedly tangled mesh of alliances; but the Russian Tsar, Nicholas II, allowed the Reinsurance Treaty to social lapse in 1890 (the same year the new German Kaiser, Wilhelm II, brought about the dismissal of his veteran Chancellor, Bismarck). The year after the Reinsurance Treaty lapsed Russia allied itself with France. Both powers agreed to dissertation list of references consult with the other should either find itself at war with any other nation, or if indeed the stability of Europe was threatened. This rather loosely worded agreement was solidified in 1892 with the Franco-Russian Military Convention, aimed specifically at counteracting the potential threat posed by the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. In short, should France or Russia be attacked by one of the Triple Alliance signatories - or even should a Triple Alliance power mobilise against either (where to mobilise meant simply placing a nation on a war footing preparatory to social diploma essay the declaration of hostilities), the other power would provide military assistance. British Emergence From Splendid Isolation. Meanwhile, Britain was awaking to the emergence of Germany as a great European power - and a colonial power at egypt, that. Kaiser Wilhelm's successor, Wilhelm II, proved far more ambitious in social diploma questions, establishing a place in the sun for list of references, Germany. With the effective dismissal of Bismarck the essay questions, new Kaiser was determined to establish Germany as a great colonial power in the pacific and, most notably, in Africa.
Wilhelm, encouraged by naval minister Tirpitz, embarked upon a massive shipbuilding exercise intended to produce a naval fleet the equal of Britain's, unarguably by far and away the world's largest. Britain, at that time the greatest power of all, took note. In the early years of the twentieth century, in 1902, she agreed a military alliance with Japan, aimed squarely at limiting German colonial gains in the east. She also responded by commissioning a build-up in her own naval strength, determined to outstrip Germany. In this she succeeded, building in just 14 months - a record - the enormous Dreadnought battleship, completed in December 1906. By the counselling, time war was declared in social diploma essay questions, 1914 Germany could muster 29 battleships, Britain 49. Despite her success in the naval race, Germany's ambitions succeeded at the very least in pulling Britain into the European alliance system - and, it has been argued, brought war that much closer. Cordial Agreements: Britain, France - and psychodynamic counselling Russia. Two years later Britain signed the social essay, Entente Cordiale with France. This 1904 agreement finally resolved numerous leftover colonial squabbles.
More significantly, although it did not commit either to the other's military aid in criteria research papers, time of war, it did offer closer diplomatic co-operation generally. Three years on, in 1907, Russia formed what became known as the Triple Entente (which lasted until World War One) by signing an agreement with Britain, the Anglo-Russian Entente. Together the two agreements formed the three-fold alliance that lasted and social diploma essay effectively bound each to the other right up till the outbreak of world war just seven years later. Again, although the two Entente agreements were not militarily binding in criteria papers, any way, they did place a moral obligation upon the signatories to aid each other in time of war. It was chiefly this moral obligation that drew Britain into social the war in defence of France, although the British pretext was actually the papers, terms of the largely forgotten 1839 Treaty of social London that committed the British to egypt defend Belgian neutrality (discarded by the Germans as a scrap of paper in 1914, when they asked Britain to ignore it). In 1912 Britain and France did however conclude a military agreement, the social essay questions, Anglo-French Naval Convention, which promised British protection of France's coastline from criteria for evaluating papers German naval attack, and French defence of the Suez Canal. Agreements Set, The Occasional Minor War. Such were the alliances between the major continental players. There were other, smaller alliances too - such as Russia's pledge to protect Serbia, and Britain's agreement to defend Belgian neutrality - and each served its part in drawing each nation into essay questions the coming great war.
In the interim however, there were a number of 'minor' conflicts that helped to stir emotions in the years immediately preceding 1914, and which gave certain nations more stake than others in entering the world war. Russian War With Japan: Shock Japanese Victory. Ever since Russia declined Japan's offer in 1903 for each to recognise the other's interests in dissertation list of references, Manchuria and Korea, trouble was looming. The Japanese launched a successful attack upon Russian warships in Korea, at diploma essay questions, Inchon, and in Port Arthur, China. This was followed by a land invasion of both disputed territories of Korea and Manchuria in 1904. Among other set-pieces, the for evaluating papers, Japanese astonished the western powers by destroying the diploma, entire Russian fleet at dissertation list, the Battle of Tsushima (27-28 May 1905) for the loss of two torpedo boats - a humiliating Russian defeat. The U.S. Essay Questions. President, Theodore Roosevelt, mediated a peace agreement between Japan and Russia, one that resulted in material gains for Japan and with note being taken in Berlin of the fallacy of the myth of criteria for evaluating research Russian invincibility. The scale of Russia's defeat in part contributed to the attempted Russian Revolution of 1905, and the battered and shaken Tsar, Nicholas II, was determined to restore Russian prestige (not least in the Romanov dynasty itself): and social what better way to business egypt achieve this than through military conquest? The Balkans, 1912: Italy Versus Turkey. Strife in the Balkans was nothing new.
In 1912 it continued with war between Italy and Turkey, over the latter's African possessions. Turkey lost and was forced to hand over Libya, Rhodes and the Dodecanese Islands to the Italians. The Balkans, 1912 (Part II): The First Balkan War. Turkey's troubles were not yet over. Having concluded peace with the Italians it found itself engulfed in war with no fewer than four small nations over the possession of Balkan territories: Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria - and later Montenegro. The intervention of the larger European powers brought about an end to this the First Balkan War of 1912-13.
Again Turkey lost out, shedding Crete and social diploma essay all of dissertation list its European possessions. The Balkans, 1913: The Second Balkan War. Later in the 1913, conflict erupted again in the Balkans, as Bulgaria, unsatisfied with its earlier spoils, fought with its recent allies in social diploma, an attempt to control a greater part of Macedonia; and when the so-named Young Turks - Turkish army officers - denounced the psychodynamic, earlier peace as unfair. Between May and July 1913 Bulgaria's former allies beat back the new aggressor, Bulgaria, and Romania captured the social, Bulgarian capital Sofia in August. Beaten and having surrendered on 10 August 1913, Bulgaria also lost Adrianople back to an essay system Turkey. Despite the re-establishment of social diploma peace in the Balkans, nothing had really been settled and tensions remained high. The numerous small nations that had found themselves under Turkish or Austro-Hungarian rule for many years stirred themselves in nationalistic fervour. Yet while these Balkan nations sought their own individual voice and free resume idea self-determination, they were nevertheless united in identifying themselves as pan-Slavic peoples, with Russia as their chief ally. The latter was keen to encourage this belief in the Russian people as the Slav's natural protectors, for aside from diploma questions a genuine emotional attachment, it was a means by which Russia could regain a degree of lost prestige. Come 1914, trouble was not restricted to the smaller nations outlined above.
The Austro-Hungarian empire was directly impacted by resume idea, troubles in diploma questions, the Balkans and, under the dissertation list of references, ageing Emperor Franz Josef, was patently struggling to maintain coherence of the various diametrically opposed ethnic groups which fell under the Austro-Hungarian umbrella. As such, the assassination of social diploma questions Franz Ferdinand by the Serbian nationalist secret society, the Black Hand, provided the Austro-Hungarian government with a golden opportunity to stamp its authority over the region. Russia, ally of the Slavs - and criteria research papers therefore of social essay questions Serbia - had been struggling to hold back full-scale revolution ever since the Japanese military disaster of business plan 1905. In 1914, while the essay questions, Tsar himself was reluctant, his government saw war with Austria-Hungary as an opportunity to restore social order - which indeed it did, at least until the continuation of repeated Russian military setbacks, Rasputin's intrigue at court and food shortages combined to bring about the psychodynamic essay, long-threatened total revolution (which, encouraged by essay questions, Germany, brought about Russia's withdrawal from the war in 1917). Then there is France. Psychodynamic Essay. Almost immediately following her defeat by Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, together with the humiliating annexation by the newly unified Germany of the coal-rich territories of Alsace and Lorraine, the French government and military alike were united in social diploma, thirsting for revenge. To this end the French devised a strategy for a vengeful war upon Germany, Plan XVII, whose chief aim was the defeat of Germany and the restoration of rush homework Alsace and Lorraine. The plan was fatally flawed, and relied to an untenable extent upon the lan which was believed to form an integral part of the French army - an diploma irresistible force that would sweep over its enemies. As for Germany, she was unsettled socially and research papers militarily. Social Diploma Questions. The 1912 Reichstag elections had resulted in the election of no fewer than 110 socialist deputies, making Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg's task in dissertation list, liaising between the Reichstag and social diploma the autocratic Wilhelm, not to mention the rigidly right-wing military high command, next to impossible. Bethmann Hollweg, who became most despondent, came to believe that Germany's only hope of avoiding civil unrest sooner rather than later lay in how to rush, war: preferably a short, sharp war, although he did not rule out a European-wide conflict if it resolved Germany's social and political woes.
This outlook on diploma life fuelled his decision of 6 July 1914 - whilst the Austro-Hungarian government was weighing its options with regard to Serbia - to offer the former what has been commonly referred to write on education as a blank cheque; that is, an unconditional guarantee of support for Austria-Hungary no matter what she decided. Germany's military unsettlement arose in social diploma questions, the sense that Kaiser Wilhelm II was finding himself largely frustrated in his desire to carve out a grand imperial role for free, Germany. Whilst he desired a place in the sun, he found that all of the bright areas had been already snapped up by the other colonial powers, leaving him only with a place in the shade. Not that Wilhelm II was keen upon a grand war. Rather, he failed to foresee the consequences of his military posturing, his determination to construct both land and naval forces the equivalent - and better - than those of Britain and France (with varying success). However his government and his military commanders assuredly did anticipate what was to come. Diploma Questions. A plan to take on both Russia and France, a war on two fronts, had long been expected and taken into write an essay account. The so-called Schlieffen Plan, devised by social diploma essay questions, former Army Chief of Staff Alfred von Schlieffen, had been carefully crafted to deal with a two-front war scenario. The plan, which very nearly succeeded, outlined a plan to criteria research papers conquer France, to knock her out diploma essay of the war, on a 'Western Front', within five weeks - before, the Germans calculated, Russia could effectively mobilise for war on the 'Eastern Front' (which they estimated would take six weeks). It is often speculated - and argued - that the plan would have succeeded but for the decision of the then-German Chief of Staff in 1914, Helmuth von Moltke, to on education authorise a critical deviation from the plan that, it is believed, stemmed from a lack of nerve, and social diploma essay crucially slowed the business plan egypt, path towards Paris - with fatal consequences (and which ended in static trench warfare).
Still, the German plan took no real account of Britain's entry into the war. The German government gave no credence to questions the possibility that Britain would ignore her own commercial interests (which were presumably best served by staying aloof from the conflict and maintaining her all-important commercial trading routes), and would instead uphold her ancient treaty of obligation to recover violated Belgian neutrality. For a fuller explanation of the powers' war plans, and of their upshot, click here. It is also suggested that Germany would have backed away from war had Britain declared her intentions sooner. Believing that Britain would stay out of the coming conflict, and would limit herself to diplomatic protests - after all, Britain was under no strict military obligation to France - Germany, and Austria-Hungary, proceeded under the belief that war would be fought solely with France and Russia. The British Government, and its Foreign Minister, Sir Edward Grey, attempted to mediate throughout July, reserving at how to rush, all times its right to remain aloof from the dispute. It was only social essay questions as the war began that the British position solidified into support for, ostensibly, Belgium.
Hence the oft-levelled criticism that had Britain come out clearly on the side of resume idea Belgium and France earlier in July, war would have been avoided: Germany would have effectively instructed Austria-Hungary to settle with Serbia, especially given the latter's willingness to co-operate with Austria-Hungary. Whether this would have transpired given the German war machine's determination for war is of course unknown. The First World War has sometimes been labelled, with reason, a family affair. Diploma Essay Questions. This is derived from the reality that many of the European monarchies - many of which fell during the war (including those of Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary) - were inter-related. The British monarch George V's predecessor, Edward VII, was the free resume idea, German Kaiser's uncle and, via his wife's sister, uncle of the Russian Tsar as well. His niece, Alexandra, was the Tsar's wife. Edward's daughter, Maud, was the essay questions, Norwegian Queen, and his niece, Ena, Queen of essay Spain; Marie, a further niece, was to become Queen of social diploma essay questions Romania.
Despite these familial relations - nine Kings attended Edward's funeral - European politics was all about in pakistan power and influence, of social protection and encirclement. Business Egypt. Thus the social diploma essay questions, tangled web of alliances which sprung up in the wake of the rise of the newly united German Empire in 1871. This article has not by any means encompassed all of the suggested contributory factors that led inexorably to world war. It has however attempted to pull together the main strands: Austro-Hungarian determination to impose its will upon the Balkans; a German desire for criteria for evaluating research papers, greater power and international influence, which sparked a naval arms race with Britain, who responded by building new and greater warships, the Dreadnought ; a French desire for revenge against social diploma essay questions Germany following disastrous defeat in 1871; Russia's anxiety to restore some semblance of national prestige after almost a decade of civil strife and a battering at the hands of the Japanese military in 1905. Having dealt with these topics, however briefly, feel free to further explore the First World War.com site to how to rush gain a wider perspective of what happened, when, and to whom. The How It Began section is probably as good a place as any to start.
Click here to view a map of pre-war Europe. Saturday, 22 August, 2009 Michael Duffy. Suicide Ditch was a term used by questions, British soldiers to refer to the front-line trench.
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100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. Essay Questions? VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Explain something or answer questions like: What is homework it? How should we define it?
How do you do it? How does it work? What is the history of it? What caused it? What are the effects? What is the meaning of it? This type of social diploma questions essay doesn't have to be dry and uninteresting. Choose a topic you really like or know something about and make it interesting to the reader by telling unusual details or making it humorous. Write On Education System In Pakistan? Expository Essays Answer: How can I do it well? What caused it to happen? Why should it matter?
Want a fast and easy essay? Follow these three easy steps: Choose a great topic: Scan the questions list of topics below, or pick something you either know a lot about or would like to how to rush homework learn about. Writing is always easier if you are interested in social questions, the topic. Pre-write: Use my pre-writing worksheet questions at the bottom of this article to help guide you through the business plan egypt process of diploma gathering and organizing the information you’ll need to write your essay. It may take 30 minutes (or more if you do research), but when you are done you should be ready to essay write. Edit: Use your computer's spell and essay grammar check program, and idea use Grammarly, which is a free check for errors. Diploma Essay Questions? Have at least one other person read your paper and how to give you advice. Finally, read your paper out loud so that you slow down as you read and notice your errors. One of the easiest topics is to social diploma questions write something that explains a person, place, event or organization at your University. Not only is it easy to get information, you will probably enjoy learning more about rush homework, your campus or the diploma essay questions history of your college.
Interview other students, staff, or faculty. You can use their quotes or stories as evidence for your paper. Resume Idea? Observe the place you are writing about. Sit down with a notepad or your phone and write down your sensory experiences (what you smell, hear, see, taste, and touch). Diploma Essay? You can even listen to conversations and observe people.
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How do they help the needy? (Or choose another non-profit charity that helps the poor.) What are the effects on a family when a parent becomes a meth addict? What causes teenagers to run away? How does having a single parent affect children in the areas of education, hygiene, and nutrition? How do people without health insurance get medical treatment? What is it like to be an how to rush illegal alien?
What is the history of the foster care system in social essay, the U.S.? What is the history of affirmative action in rush, education? What are its effects? What is the process of prosecuting someone for domestic abuse? Why do women stay with men who beat them up? What does living below the poverty line mean?
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What is the effect of ability grouping in a classroom? What happens to kids when they drop out of idea school? What effect does social media have on interpersonal relationships? Good places to research social problems are government websites (which give current statistics), non-profit websites (which have information about programs to social diploma essay questions help alleviate social problems), and major news sources. Here are some places to business start: Write About Science and Technology. What is social diploma essay Google Glass? How will it change the way we live our lives?
What are nanobots? How can they be used? What is how to rush a black hole and why are they important? What causes obesity? What is climate change? How is electronic music made? Why is questions there an increase in how to rush, autism? What is an allergen? What is an allergic reaction? Why is there a startling increase in people with allergies and autoimmune diseases in social diploma, Western countries?
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Explain Stanley Milgram's psychological experiments of 1961 and the controversy about the results. What is electronic paper? What is bioengineering? How has bioengineering changed our lives? Need help researching?
Here are some links to good sources for accurate science and technology information, and how to rush homework ideas for social essay, your essay: CNN Latest Tech News: Updated regularly. Popular Science: Links to business current articles about science innovations. Diploma Questions? Discover Magazine: Features articles on science and dissertation list technology. How does having a special needs child affect a family? What is the cause of depression and why is diploma essay questions it rising in how to rush homework, the United States? What is schizophrenia? What are the different types of this disease? Is there a cure? What does it mean to diploma questions be OCD? How can you recognize it?
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You can open up a word processing program, copy these questions, and then answer them, or do it the old-fashioned way with paper and pen. Topic idea: ______________________________________________. (Write yours out.) What kind of expository essay is counselling this? (How to? How does it work? Definition? Fact?
Cause? History of?) List or cluster different aspects or parts of your topic. Circle the social aspects which are most interesting to you. Cluster those. Do you have enough to say or too much? Do you need to narrow your topic or expand it? What sources can you use? Where can you find them? What are some things your audience would be familiar with which you can compare your topic with? What do they already know?
What would they be interested in knowing? What kind of tone would be best for this audience? (informational, satiric, humorous, folksy, professional?) Considering your audience, which point of view would be the write an essay on education system most effective one to social questions write in? Would it be better to write in the first person (I or we), second person (you), or third person (impersonal)? Your purpose (What do you want audience to think, do, or know after reading? This will be related to what your audience doesn't know.) Turn your topic into a question: ___________________________________________ Answer that question: __________________________________________________ Make a thesis statement: _______________________________________________ Essay map—sentence(s) which list main sub-topics: ______________________________________________________________ (These can be headers for sections of the paper.) Which sort of organization would work best for you? Examples: chronological (in time), spatial (in space and write an essay system in pakistan time), process (step-by-step), topical (part-by-part), cause/effect, historical overview, comparison and contrast, or reverse expectations.
Write a brief outline for how you will structure the body of the paper. Which of these introduction and diploma essay conclusion ideas could you use? Reverse expectation, expectation fulfilled, scenario (imagined typical story, also called a case study), personal story, frame story, vivid description, conversation, definition, comparison and contrast, analogy, startling statistic or fact, quotation, story from book or movie. Business Plan Egypt? Choose the best one(s) for your essay and explain what you will do. Which person will you write in for your essay? (1 st “I,” 2 nd “you,” or 3 rd “he, she, it.”) Why? What sort of tone will you have? Why? (Example: serious and informative, humorous, sarcastic, enthusiastic.) How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. by diploma questions, Virginia Kearney 32. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by counselling essay, Virginia Kearney 21.
50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 4. 100 Cause and diploma essay Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by resume, Virginia Kearney 127. avanka stump 4 months ago. vanika chawla 4 months ago. really helpful for me as i have an exam this gives a lot of information, made me understand well. nattalie yousefian 8 months ago. this is a very great to look at social because it made me understand what this means more than before I recommend this website for others who do not get the explanation because it definitely helps a lot. This is really great stuff.Thanks a million. Cameron Farley 11 months ago. Love the topics. munaza chaudhry 24 months ago. It is amazing and proves very useful for me. this is dissertation list a great list i'm in middle school and it helps when you have writers block my biggest surprise was so many variety's thank you so much.
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A very useful list. I'm keeping this one and write an essay on education will refer to it when I need inspiration. Thank you! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on diploma essay, affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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You should visit this page periodically to review the most current Terms because they are binding on You. Users who violate these Terms may have their access and use of the psychodynamic counselling OracleStars Sites suspended or terminated, at OracleStars’s discretion. You must be 13 years of diploma age or older to visit or use any OracleStars Site in any manner, and, if under the age of 18 or the age of majority as that is defined in Your jurisdiction, must use any OracleStars Site under the supervision of a parent, legal guardian, or other responsible adult. You may not use the of references OracleStars Content or Profiles to determine a consumer's eligibility for: (a) credit or insurance for personal, family, or household purposes; (b) employment; or (c) a government license or benefit. OracleStars authorizes You, subject to these Terms, to access and use the OracleStars Sites and the OracleStars Content (as defined below) and to download and print a single copy of the content available on or from the diploma questions OracleStars Sites solely for Your personal, non-commercial use. Criteria For Evaluating Research? The contents of the OracleStars Sites, such as designs, text, graphics, images, video, information, logos, button icons, software, audio files and other OracleStars content (collectively, OracleStars Content), are protected under copyright, trademark and other laws. Diploma Essay Questions? All OracleStars Content is the rush homework property of OracleStars or its licensors. The compilation (meaning the social essay collection, arrangement and assembly) of all content on the OracleStars Sites is the exclusive property of OracleStars and is protected by for evaluating, copyright, trademark, and social questions other laws. Unauthorized use of the OracleStars Content may violate these laws and/or applicable communications regulations and statutes, and is strictly prohibited. You must preserve all copyright, trademark, service mark and other proprietary notices contained in list, the original OracleStars Content on any authorized copy You make of the OracleStars Content.
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Violations of system or network security may result in civil and/or criminal liability. OracleStars will investigate occurrences which may involve such violations and may involve, and cooperate with, law enforcement authorities in an essay, prosecuting Users who are involved in such violations. 3. Additional Terms Applicable to Employers. Employers are solely responsible for their postings on social, OracleStars Sites. Plan? OracleStars is not to be considered to be an employer with respect to Your use of any OracleStars Site and OracleStars shall not be responsible for any employment decisions, for whatever reason, made by any entity posting jobs on any OracleStars Site. You understand and acknowledge that if You cancel Your employer account or Your employer account is terminated, all Your account information from OracleStars, including saved resumes, network contacts, and email mailing lists, will be marked as deleted in and may be deleted from OracleStars’s databases. Information may continue to diploma essay, be available for some period of time because of delays in propagating such deletion through OracleStars’s web servers. In order to write an essay on education system in pakistan, protect our OracleStars Users from commercial advertising or solicitation, OracleStars reserves the right to restrict the number of e-mails which an employer may send to Users to a number which OracleStars deems appropriate in its sole discretion.
You shall use the OracleStars Networking and Profiles in diploma essay, accordance with all applicable privacy and data protection laws. (a) any hyperlinks in the “Job Description” section; (b) misleading, unreadable, or hidden keywords, repeated keywords or keywords that are irrelevant to the job opportunity being presented, as determined in OracleStars’ s reasonable discretion; (c) the names, logos or trademarks of companies, including the hiring company in the “Job Description” section; (d) the names of colleges, cities, states, towns or countries that are unrelated to the posting; (e) more than one job or job description, more than one location, or more than one job category, unless the product so allows; (f) Email Addresses, Phone Numbers, or Postal Mailing addresses in the “Job Description” section; (f) inaccurate, false, or misleading information; and. (g) material or links to material that exploits people in a sexual, violent or other manner, or solicits personal information from free idea anyone under 18. You may not use Your OracleStars job posting, OracleStars Networking, or Profiles to: (a) post jobs in social, a manner that does not comply with applicable local, national and essay international laws, including but not limited to laws relating to labor and employment, equal employment opportunity and employment eligibility requirements, data privacy, data access and use, and intellectual property; (b) post jobs that require citizenship of any particular country or lawful permanent residence in diploma essay questions, a country as a condition of employment, unless otherwise required in order to comply with law, regulations, executive order, or federal, state or local government contract; (c) post jobs that include any screening requirement or criterion in connection with a job posting where such requirement or criterion is not an actual and legal requirement of the posted job; (d) with respect to egypt, Profiles, determine a consumer's eligibility for: (i) credit or insurance for social, person, family, or household purposes; (ii) employment; or (iii) a government license of resume idea benefit. (e)post jobs or other advertisements for competitors of social diploma essay OracleStars or post jobs or other content that contains links to any site competitive with OracleStars; (f) sell, promote or advertise products or services; (g) post any franchise, pyramid scheme, club membership, distributorship, multi-level marketing opportunity, or sales representative agency arrangement; (h) post any business opportunity that requires an up front or periodic payment or requires recruitment of other members, sub-distributors or sub-agents; (i) post any business opportunity that pays commission only unless the posting clearly states that the available job pays commission only and clearly describes the how to product or service that the social diploma job seeker would be selling; (j) promote any opportunity that does not represent bona fide employment which is generally indicated by the employer’s use of IRS forms W-2 or 1099; (k) post jobs on any OracleStars Site for modeling, acting, talent or entertainment agencies or talent scouting positions; (l) advertise sexual services or seek employees for write on education system, jobs of a sexual nature; (m) request the use of human body parts or the donation of human parts, including, without limitation, reproductive services such as egg donation and surrogacy; (n) endorse a particular political party, political agenda, political position or issue; (o) promote a particular religion; (p) post jobs located in countries subject to economic sanctions of the United States Government; and. (q) except where allowed by social diploma essay questions, applicable law, post jobs which require the applicant to provide information relating to his/her (i) racial or ethnic origin (ii) political beliefs (iii) philosophical or religious beliefs (iv) membership of a trade union (v) physical or mental health (vi) sexual life (vii) the dissertation list of references commission of criminal offences or proceedings or (vii) age. OracleStars reserves the right to remove any job posting or content from any OracleStars Site, which in the reasonable exercise of OracleStars’ s discretion, does not comply with the social diploma essay above Terms, or if any content is posted that OracleStars believes is not in the best interest of OracleStars.
If at any time during Your use of the criteria research papers OracleStars Services, You made a misrepresentation of fact to diploma essay questions, OracleStars or otherwise misled OracleStars in regards to the nature of Your business activities, OracleStars will have grounds to terminate Your use of the OracleStars Services. Use of the OracleStars Resume Database by Employers. You shall use the business OracleStars Resume Database as provided in these Terms and in any contract You have with OracleStars. You shall use the social OracleStars Resume Database in accordance with all applicable privacy and data protection laws, and counselling You agree You shall not further disclose any of the data from OracleStars Resume Database to essay questions, any third party, unless You are an authorized recruitment agency, staffing agency, advertising or other agency or using the resume explicitly for dissertation of references, employment purposes. You shall take appropriate physical, technical, and administrative measures to protect the data You have obtained from OracleStars Resume Database from loss, misuse, unauthorized access, disclosure, alteration or destruction.
You shall not share Resume Database seat-based license login credentials with any other party, nor share Resume Database pay-per-view license login credentials with any party. The OracleStars Resume Database shall not be used: (a) for any purpose other than as an employer seeking employees or consultants, including but not limited to diploma, advertising promotions, products, or services to any resume holders; b) to make unsolicited phone calls or faxes or send unsolicited mail, email, or newsletters to resume holders or to contact any individual unless they have agreed to be contacted (where consent is required or, if express consent is not required, who has not informed you that they do not want to be contacted); or. (c) to source candidates or to free resume idea, contact job seekers or resume holders in regards to career fairs and business opportunities prohibited by Section 3. (d) Contact prospective OracleStars candidates for social diploma essay, employment or contract work without first signing the OracleStars Master Service’s Agreement and accompanying Work Order (WO or Statement of Work). In order to ensure a safe and resume idea effective experience for all of our customers, OracleStars reserves the right to limit the amount of data (including resume views) that may be accessed by diploma essay questions, You in any given time period. These limits may be amended in OracleStars’s sole discretion from time to list of references, time. 4. Additional terms applicable to social diploma essay, Job Seekers.
Information may continue to be available for some period of time because of delays in social, propagating such deletion through OracleStars’s web servers. In addition, third parties may retain saved copies of Your Information. OracleStars reserves the criteria for evaluating right to delete Your account and all of Your Information after a significant duration of diploma essay inactivity. You understand that all information, data, text, software, music, sound, photographs, graphics, video, advertisements, messages or other materials submitted, posted or displayed by You on or through a OracleStars Site (User Content) is the sole responsibility of the person from list of references which such User Content originated. Social Essay? OracleStars claims no ownership or control over any User Content.
You or a third party licensor, as appropriate, retain all patent, trademark and copyright to write an essay system, any User Content you submit, post or display on or through OracleStars and social diploma essay you are responsible for protecting those rights, as appropriate. By submitting, posting or displaying User Content on or through OracleStars, you grant OracleStars a worldwide, non-exclusive, royalty-free, transferable, sub-licensable license to use, reproduce, adapt, distribute and publish such User Content through OracleStars. Write In Pakistan? In addition, by submitting, posting or displaying User Content which is intended to be available to the general public, you grant OracleStars a worldwide, non-exclusive, royalty-free license to social essay questions, reproduce, adapt, distribute and criteria for evaluating research publish such User Content for social essay questions, the purpose of psychodynamic counselling promoting OracleStars and its services. Diploma Questions? OracleStars will discontinue this licensed use within a commercially reasonable period after such User Content is removed from OracleStars. OracleStars reserves the right to refuse to accept, post, display or transmit any User Content in its sole discretion. You also represent and warrant that You have the list right to grant, or that the holder of any rights, including moral rights in such content has completely and effectively waived all such rights and validly and irrevocably granted to You the right to grant, the license stated above. If You post User Content in any public area of any OracleStars Site, You also permit any User to access, display, view, store and reproduce such User Content for essay questions, personal use. Subject to the foregoing, the owner of such User Content placed on homework, any OracleStars Site retains any and all rights that may exist in diploma essay questions, such User Content. OracleStars may review and remove any User Content that, in its sole judgment, violates these Terms, violates applicable laws, rules or regulations, is abusive, disruptive, offensive or illegal, or violates the rights of, or harms or threatens the safety of, Users of any OracleStars Site. OracleStars reserves the right to expel Users and prevent their further access to the OracleStars Sites and/or use of dissertation list of references OracleStars Services for violating the Terms or applicable laws, rules or regulations.
OracleStars may take any action with respect to social diploma questions, User Content that it deems necessary or appropriate in its sole discretion if it believes that such User Content could create liability for for evaluating research papers, OracleStars, damage OracleStars’s brand or public image, or cause OracleStars to lose Users or (in whole or in part) the services of its ISPs or other suppliers. OracleStars does not represent or guarantee the truthfulness, accuracy, or reliability of User Content, derivative works from User Content, or any other communications posted by Users nor does OracleStars endorse any opinions expressed by essay, Users. You acknowledge that any reliance on dissertation list, material posted by diploma essay, other Users will be at Your own risk. The following is a partial list of an essay User Content that is prohibited on the Application. Social Essay Questions? The list below is for dissertation, illustration only and is not a complete list of all prohibited User Content. is implicitly or explicitly offensive, such as User Content that engages in, endorses or promotes racism, bigotry, discrimination, hatred or physical harm of any kind against diploma, any group or individual; harasses, incites harassment or advocates harassment of any group or individual; involves the transmission of how to rush “junk mail”, “chain letters,” or unsolicited mass mailing, “spamming” or “phishing”; promotes or endorses false or misleading information or illegal activities or conduct that is abusive, threatening, obscene, defamatory or libelous; promotes or endorses an illegal or unauthorized copy of another person's copyrighted work, such as providing or making available pirated computer programs or links to them, providing or making available information to circumvent manufacture-installed copy-protect devices, or providing or making available pirated music or other media or links to pirated music or other media files; contains restricted or password only essay, access pages, or hidden pages or images; displays or links to pornographic, indecent or sexually explicit material of any kind; provides or links to material that exploits people under the age of 18 in a sexual, violent or other manner, or solicits personal information from anyone under 18; or provides instructional information about illegal activities or other activities prohibited by rush homework, these Terms, including without limitation, making or buying illegal weapons, violating someone's privacy, providing or creating computer viruses or pirating any media; and social diploma essay questions solicits passwords or personal identifying information from other Users. Your Name, Email Address, Phone Number, Postal Mailing Address, or any Hyperlinks in plan, the “Resume” section. Any Profile You submit must describe You, an individual person.
Examples of diploma essay inappropriate and prohibited Profiles include, but are not limited to, Profiles that purport to represent an animal, place, inanimate object, fictional character, or real individual that is not You. You may not include, in resume idea, any User Content submitted to social diploma essay questions, OracleStars Networking, information that may be interpreted as a direct solicitation, advertisement or recruitment for an available job position directed to write system, individuals seeking employment on essay, either a full time or part time basis. Counselling? In order to protect our OracleStars Community Users from commercial advertising or solicitation, OracleStars reserves the social diploma right to restrict the free number of e-mails or other messages which a User may send to other Users to essay questions, a number which OracleStars deems appropriate in its sole discretion. Profiles derived from User Content may also be made available through the OracleStars Sites. OracleStars does not make any representations regarding the accuracy or validity of such derived works or their appropriateness for evaluation by employers. Derived Profiles may differ significantly from list of references User Content. We appreciate hearing from social diploma questions our Users and welcome Your comments regarding our services and rush the OracleStars Sites. Please be advised, however, that our policy does not permit us to essay questions, accept or consider creative ideas, suggestions, inventions or materials other than those which we have specifically requested. System In Pakistan? While we do value Your feedback on our services, please be specific in Your comments regarding our services and do not submit creative ideas, inventions, suggestions, or materials. If, despite our request, You send us creative suggestions, ideas, drawings, concepts, inventions, or other information (collectively the Submission), the social Submission shall be the property of OracleStars.
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