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How to Write a Bibliography – Examples in MLA Style. Please note, all entries should be typed double-spaced. Essay! In order to highschool keep this Web page short,single rather than double space is used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on narrating this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. If the highschool is sizer essay, example you want is not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to look it up for you. Format for entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark.
When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to narrating a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2? (1.25 cm) from the left margin. Please see Chapter 11. Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography for details. When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find.
Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook. Bell, Stewart. The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of job more important money you earn essay a Homegrown Terrorist . Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005. Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Jews: A New History . New York: Schocken, 2002. Bowker, Michael. Narrating Essay! Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of kracke dissertation Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal. and Still Killing Us . N.p.: Rodale, 2003. N.p. = No place of publication indicated.
Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the narrating essay, World: Masterpieces of Architecture from. 4000 BC to the Present . Vercelli: White Star, 2004. Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix . New York: Maltin, Leonard, ed. Nietzsche Essay 3! Movie Video Guide 2002 Edition . New York: New American, 2001. Meidenbauer, Jorg, ed. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times . Lisse: Rebo, 2004.
Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel . Completed by Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets . New York: Scholastic, 1999. —. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000. Suskind, Ron. The Price of narrating Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and the Education of. Paul O’Neill . New York: Simon, 2004. If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the of a, actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work. Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in narrating essay 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay.
(Title of Vol. 1: Education of the Senses ) Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses . New York: Norton, 1999. (Title of Vol. 2: The Tender Passion) Gay, Peter. Andreas Dissertation! The Tender Passion . Narrating! New York: Oxford UP, 1986. (Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred ) Gay, Peter. College Paper! The Cultivation of Hatred . London: Harper, 1994.
(Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart ) Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart . New York: Norton, 1995. (Title of Vol. 5: Pleasure Wars ) Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars . New York: Norton, 1998. 2. Book with two authors or editors:
Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and International. Environment of narrating essay Business . 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002. Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey. of Spirit . Essay 3! Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001. Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds.
Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for the Papal. Jubilee . New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Cohen, Andrew, and narrating essay, J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and your job more important money, Legacy. of Pierre Elliott Trudeau . Toronto: Random, 1998. Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. Narrating! The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can’t Be Jammed . 2nd ed.
Toronto: Harper, 2005. Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. Frommer’s Australia 2005 . Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005. Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life . New York: Knopf, 2005. Book prepared for publication by two editors: Shakespeare, William.
The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of psychology paper Denmark . Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington. 3. Book with three authors or editors: Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Narrating! Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special. Forces . New York: Putnam, 2002. Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d’Abadie. The Power of Focus for College.
Students . Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005. Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Problem Project! Weiss, eds. Let’s Go: Germany 1998 . New York: St. Martin’s, 1998. Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815 . 9th ed. Narrating Essay! New York: Knopf, 2002. Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and essay, Maria DeCambra.
The Sacred Balance: A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature . Vancouver: Greystone, 2002. 4. Book with more than three authors or editors: You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use “et al.” from the Latin et alii, or et aliae , meaning “and others” after the first author or editor named. Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Essay! Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Perigee, 2003. Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and college cover, Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Hogan, David J., et al., eds.
The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000. Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and narrating, James Musson, eds. Canadian. Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005.
Pound, Richard W., et al., eds. Canadian Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Paper! Markham, ON: Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary. Series for ESL . Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL.
Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989. 5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors: McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds. Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions.
from 1256 A.D. to narrating essay the Present . New York: Barnes, 1994. O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly, comps. and eds. Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa . Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997. Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by. 6. Book with no author or editor stated: Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events.
That Shaped Our Identity . Toronto: Key, 1999. Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step . Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001. The Movie Book . London: Phaidon, 1999. With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913 . Photographs of. Herbert Ponting. Problem Statement Project! New York: BCL, 2004. 7. Book with one author, translated by essay, another: Muller, Melissa.
Anne Frank: The Biography . Trans. Rita and Robert Kimber. New York: Metropolitan, 1998. 8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers: Fox, Charles James. “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue.
Ed. Waller R. Newell. New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7. Wilcox, Robert K. “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and what highschool essay, Survival . Comp. and ed. James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly. San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. 211-22. 9. Article in essay an encyclopedia with no author stated: “Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 1997 ed. “Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places . 2000 ed. 10.
Article in an encyclopedia with an author: If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and nietzsche, page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of narrating essay article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of apa style paper volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication. Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia . 2000 ed. Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians . Ed. D.L. Birchfield. 11 vols.
New York: Cavendish, 1997. 11. Narrating Essay! Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “100 Years of Dust and Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75. “Celestica to Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct. Kracke Dissertation! 2002: B6. “E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4. “McDonald’s Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food.”
National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18. “Pot Use Doubled in essay Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year.” Toronto Star. 25 Nov. 2004: A18. “Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I6. 12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors: Use “+” for what is sizer, pages that are not consecutive. Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive.
Use “A1+” if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of essay more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.g. 220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full. Note also that there is what highschool is sizer essay no period after the month. The period in “Mar.” is for the abbreviation of March.
If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated. If the essay, publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005. Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed. Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g.
Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to is sizer essay enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by essay, you. An article in andreas a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently: Nielsen, Laura Beth. Narrating! “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of college paper Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265. The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number.
If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end, see 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e). Bogomolny, Laura. Narrating! “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. 2006: 47-49. Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London] Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. Satisfaction Your Job More Important! “Shaken and narrating essay, Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+. Coleman, Isobel. “Women, Islam, and the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+. Daly, Rita. “Bird Flu Targeting the Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar.
2006: A1+. Dareini, Ali Akbar. “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News. Hewitt, Ben. Kracke! “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88. Johnson, Linda A. “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom.” Buffalo News. 10 Oct. 2004: A1-2. Mather, Victoria. Narrating Essay! “In Tiger Country.” Photos by James Merrell. Town Country Travel. Fall 2004: 102-111. Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. “The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins.”
Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45. Petroski, Henry. “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean. Machines.” Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan. 2003: 1A+. Sachs, Jeffrey D. “A Practical Plan to what End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan.
2005: I2. Saletan, William. “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: A18. Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. Essay! “Life Among the Ruins.” Time 19 Sept. Nietzsche 3! 2005: 28+. Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and narrating essay, Hugh Sweatman. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51.
Wolanski, Eric, et al. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist. Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. 13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series): Suggested citation example from SIRS: Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the nietzsche essay 3, World Unite.”
Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Reprinted in WORK . Narrating Essay! (Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20. Bluestone, Barry, and your job more important than money you earn, Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40.
Work . Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. Narrating Essay! 5. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Art. 20. Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited. Build-a-Bear. Advertisement. 7 Feb.
2005 http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx. GEICO. Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92. IBM. Advertisement. Globe and what is sizer, Mail [Toronto] . 29 Oct. 2002: B7. Toyota. Advertisement.
Atlantic Monthly . Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30. 15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated: Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring . Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997. 16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an essay author:
Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software . Apa Style Research! Calgary, AB: May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler). Creager, Angela N.H. “Crystallizing a Life in Science.” Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The. Dark Lady of DNA , by Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66. Dillon, Brenda. “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of Hana’s Suitcase , by narrating, Karen Levine. Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36.
Foley, Margaret. “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The. Seven-Year Odyssey and what highschool essay, Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder. Discover Nov. 2002: 77. Groskop, Viv. “Chinese Torture – at narrating essay Five.” Rev. of The Binding Chair, by Kathryn. Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37.
Hoffman, Michael J. Kracke Dissertation! “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of narrating essay The Adventures of what highschool is sizer Huckleberry. Finn , by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea,
Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within , comp. and ed. Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of narrating Medicine 26 Feb. 1998:
Neier, Aryeh. “Hero.” Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov, Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003 , by Emma Gilligan. New York Review of Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33. Onstad, Katrina. “A Life of Pain and Paint.” Rev. of Frida , dir. Julie Taymor. National. Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+.
Redekop, Magdalene. “The Importance of Being Mennonite.” Rev. of A Complicated. Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20. Simic, Charles. “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams , by. Diane Waldman.
New York Review 24 Oct. 2002: 14+. 18. CD-ROM, DVD: See also 35. Apa Style Research! Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip. A Place in the Sun . Dir. George Stevens.
1951. Narrating! DVD. Paramount, 2001 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library . CD-ROM. Nietzsche Essay 3! Microsoft, 2003 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32 . Narrating! Educ. ed. DVD. Microsoft, 2003. LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. “Racism and the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald. 7 Mar. Nietzsche 3! 1992: B1. Essay! CD-ROM.
SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. 4. Art. 42. Links 2003: Championship Courses . CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002. YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition , 1998. CD-ROM. Montreal: 19.
Computer service – e.g. College! BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.: Landler, Mark. “Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times , Late Ed. – Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. 1995. Narrating! DIALOG File 472, item 03072065. When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. Of A! after the word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary. “Mug.” Def.
2. Essay! The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the. English Language . Canadian ed. 1988. Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. Essay! (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by). A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. May add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. Narrating! If citing a particular person involved in of a project the film or movie, begin with name of that person. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir.
Tim Burton. Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Depp, Johnny, perf. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book. by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005.
Burton, Tim, dir. Narrating Essay! Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Monster-in-Law . Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein,
Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005. Nanny McPhee . Dir. Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ. Christianna. Brand. Prod.
Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Apa Style Research! Perf. Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005. One Hour Photo . Writ. and dir. Narrating! Mark Romanek. Prod. Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams.
Fox Searchlight, 2002. Titanic . Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Twentieth. Century Fox and your than, Paramount, 1997. The Tuxedo . Dir. Kevin Donovan. Prod.
John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and essay, Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002. Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication , underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date. Canada. Minister of of a project Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Gathering Strength: Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan . Narrating! Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and. Government Services Canada, 2000. United States.
National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight – Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the Civil and Human. Rights of essay People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures . Washington: Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in essay Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents. In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and indicate only the date and page numbers. Example – for the following record: United States. What! Personal Responsibility and narrating, Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 . PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996.
Cong. Rec . 31 July 1996: 104-193. For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in what highschool MLA Handbook for Writers of essay Research Papers, 6th ed. 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources: Basic components of an Internet citation:
2) “Title of Article, Web page or site” in statement project quotation marks. 3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project , underlined. 5) Indicate type of material, e.g. Narrating! advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious. 6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified. 7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site. 8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site). 9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets. Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individual’s e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons. Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and essay, carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title.
Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or “less than” and “greater than” signs at the end of the citation. Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and narrating essay, URL. If the URL is too long for a line, divide the address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities . Do not divide a term in research the URL that is essay made up of combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock . Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to problem statement of a project indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page. Accuracy and clarity are essential. a. Internet citation for an advertisement: IBM.
Advertisement. Narrating! 23 Mar. 2003 http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/ TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004 http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm. b. Internet citation for an article from an apa style psychology paper online database (e.g.
SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated: Bezlova, Antoaneta. “China to narrating essay Formalize One-Child Policy.” Asia Times Online . 24 May 2001. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html. Clifford, Erin. Psychology Paper! “Review of narrating essay Neuropsychology.” SparkNotes . 10 Oct. 2005. Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada . Ottawa: Public Policy Forum, 2004. 10 Oct.
2005 http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf. Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” 9 Feb. 2001. National Geographic 10 Oct. 2005 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ Thomason, Larisa. Cover! “HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters.” Webmaster Tips. Newsletter . Dec. 2003. NetMechanic. 10 Oct.
2005 http://www.netmechanic.com/ If using an online library subscription database service, add the narrating essay, name of the service, the name of the library or library system, plus the location of the library where the database is accessed, e.g.: Gearan, Anne. “Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected.” Washington Post . 8 May 2002. SIRS. Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr.
2004. Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. 2004 = date of access. Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. 8 May 2002: 12-14. Andreas Kracke! Leave out page numbers if not indicated in essay source. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada.
Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. 10 Apr. 2006. Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school. Pahl, Greg. Problem Statement Of A! “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . Narrating Essay! 12 Jan. 2003.
eLibrary Canada. 10 Apr. 2006. http://www.proquestk12.com. c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia: Duiker, William J. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encarta Online Encyclopedia . 2005. Microsoft. 10 Oct.
2005. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclop?dia Britannica . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica Premium Service. 9 Oct. 2005 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629. “Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC).” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica. 8 Oct. 2005 http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=402567.
d. Internet citation for andreas dissertation, an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “Childcare Industry ‘Should Welcome Men’.” BBC News Online: Education .7 June 2003. 10 Oct. 2005 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm. “Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus.” BrookesNews.Com . 8 Dec. 2003. 10 Oct. Essay! 2005 http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html.
e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003. f. Internet citation for statement project, a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.: “Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map.” Map. Atlapedia Online . 1993-2003. Latimer Clarke. 7 June 2003 http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/
Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. “Congratulations!” Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts . 2000. 7 June 2003 http://www.bluemountain.com/ Lee , Lawrence. Interview. Narrating Essay! JournalismJobs.com . Feb. 2003. Satisfaction Your Job More Than Money You Earn Essay! 10 Oct. 2005.
Schulz, Charles. “Peanuts Collection – Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock.” Cartoon. Art.com . 25 Apr. 2004 http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710RFID=814547. “Woodhull, Victoria C.” American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997. State. Historical Society of Wisconsin. 10 Oct. 2005 http://us.history.wisc.edu/ g. Narrating Essay! Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by statement project, e-mail: Barr, Susan I. “The Creatine Quandry.” Bicycling Nov.
1998. EBSCOhost Mailer. E-mail to E. Narrating Essay! Interior. 11 May 2003. Kenrick, John. “Re: Link to Musicals101.com.” E-mail to I. Lee. 10 May 2003. “NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005.” E-mail to author. 8 Sept.
2005. PicoSearch. “Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed.” E-mail to John Smith. h. Internet citation for an online government publication: Canada. What Essay! Office of the essay, Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board. Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in college paper cover the Public Sector . 6 Jan. 1998.
10 Oct. 2005 http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/ United States. National Archives and Records Administration. Essay! The Bill of Rights . 29 Jan. Your Job More Important Than Money! 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/ i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor: Kao, Ivy. “Keep Spreading the Word.” Online posting. 4 June 2003.
Reader Responses, Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page . Narrating! 10 Oct. 2005. Seaside Harry . “My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!” Online. posting. 10 Oct. 2005. PriusOnline.com Forum Index – Prius – Technical . 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298highlight=. j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site: The MAD Scientist Network . 1995-2001 or 30 Feb.
1906. Washington U. School of what highschool Medicine. 10 Oct. 2005. http://www.madsci.org. O’Connor, J.J., and E.F. Essay! Robertson. “John Wilkins.” Feb. 2002. U of St. Andrews, Scotland. What Highschool Essay! 10 Oct.
2005 http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/ Officer, Lawrence H. “Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty. Other Countries, 1913 -1999.” Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002. 13 Apr. 2006 http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/. Savill, R. Narrating! Richard. “Jazz Age Biographies.” The Jazz Age Page . 23 Oct. 2000. 12 Apr. 2006 http://www.btinternet.com/ Sullivan, Danny. “Search Engine Math.” 26 Oct.
2001. Search Engine Watch . 10 Apr. 2006 http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html. Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. “Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?” Inquiry and Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and. Research Institute.
10 Oct. 2005 http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi? k. Internet citation for highschool, a software download: It is not essential to narrating include the nietzsche, file size. Do so if preferred by your instructor. RAMeSize . Vers.
1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. Narrating Essay! 2000. Blue Dice Software. Problem Of A Project! 12 Oct. Essay! 2004. l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor: Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov. 1863.
The Collected Works of. Abraham Lincoln . Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct.
2005 http://showcase.netins.net/ m. Internet citation for a work translated and essay 3, edited by another: Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions Enchiridion . Trans. and ed. Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993. 10 Oct.
2005 http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/ Blair, Tony. Interview. Prime Minister’s Office. 31 May 2003. 13 Apr. 2006. Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 3 May 2006. Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. 2006. Wyse, Randall. Essay! Personal interview. 24 July 2005.
State name of speaker, title of what highschool is sizer lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date. Bradley, Vicki. “Marriage.” Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. Narrating Essay! 15 Mar. 2003. Wilson-Smith, Anthony. “Hello, He Must Be Going.” Editorial. Maclean’s 26 Aug.
2002: 4. Lange, Rick. “U.N. Statement! Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded.” Letter. Buffalo. News 23 Jan. Narrating! 2005: I5. Woods, Brede M. Letter. Kracke Dissertation! Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16.
Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Six Billion Short: How Will the essay, Mayor Make Ends Meet?” Letter. New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37. Geens, Jennifer. What Highschool Essay! Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1. A letter you received from John Smith: Smith, John. Letter to the author.
15 June 2005. Twain, Mark. “Banned in Concord.” Letter to Charles L. Webster. 18 Mar. 1885. Letter 850318 of Mark Twain . Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. 10 Oct. 2005.
Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the narrating essay, citation is for a chart or a map. 2004 Andex Chart . Chart. What Highschool Essay! Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004. Canada . Map. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003. “Dallas TX.” Map. Essay! 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico . Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005. Components: 1) Name of composer. 2) Title of ballet, music or opera, underlined, 3) Form, number and nietzsche 3, key not underlined.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. Narrating Essay! Fur Elise. Strauss, Richard. Traumerei , op. 9, no. 4. Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underline title of what is sizer essay ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and narrating essay, conjunctions in lower case. 3) Date composition written. 4) Place of publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication. Chopin, Frederic.
Mazurka Op. 7, No. 1 . New York: Fischer, 1918. Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene . 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950. Stier, Walter C. Sweet Bye and Bye . London: Paxton, 1953.
Weber, Carl Maria von. Apa Style! Invitation to narrating essay the Dance Op. 65 . Of A! 1819. London: Harris, 1933. 29. Narrating! Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form. Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of artwork, underlined. 3) Date artwork created.
4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family . 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Brancusi, Constantin.
The Kiss . 1909. Andreas Kracke! Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse. The Great Sphinx . [c. 2500 BC]. Giza. Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque . 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris. Raphael. The School of Athens . 1510-11.
Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rude, Francois. La Marseillaise . 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris. Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Underline title of narrating essay artwork. 3) Date artwork created (if date is uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503).
4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is house, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 6) Title of book used. 7) Author or editor of book. 8) Place of publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of your job more than publication. 11) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number. Abell, Sam.
Japan . 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones . By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999. Carr, Emily. A Haida Village . [c. 1929]. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection . By Jean Blodgett, et al.
Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134. Kasebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal . [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic Society, Bath. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412. Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) . [c. 1503-5]. Louvre Museum, Paris. Favorite Old Master Paintings from the narrating, Louvre Museum . New York: Abbeville, 1979. 31.
Michelangelo. David . 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great. Masters . By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere. New York: Park Lane, 1986. 226. Sullivan, Louis.
Wainright Building . 1890-91. St. Louis, MO. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Kracke! Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, Tohaku, Deme. Ko-omote Female Mask . Narrating! Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Naprstek. Museum, Prague. The World of Masks . By Erich Herold, et al.
Trans. Problem! Dusan. Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207. Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi. Chapel of St. John the Baptist . 1742-51. Sao Roque, Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed.
Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting . Cologne: Konemann, 1998. 118. Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes). 2) Name of person who took the photograph. Narrating Essay! 3) Date photograph taken. War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. Personal photograph by andreas dissertation, author.
Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by narrating essay, Cassy Wyse. Nietzsche Essay 3! 28 July 2005. Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s). 2) Title of patent. 3) Issuing country and patent number. Narrating Essay! 4) Date patent was issued. Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. “Verfahren zur Nachfuhrung eines Stereo-Laparoskope.
in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie.” German Patent 3943917. July 1996. “Conversion of what highschool Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds.” US Patent 5078813. Kamen, Dean L., et al. “Transportation Vehicles and Methods.” US Patent 5971091. 31.
Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance) Disney’s The Lion King . By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir. Julie Taymor. Music and lyrics by Elton John and narrating, Tim Rice. Essay! Princess of Wales Theatre, Toronto.
9 June 2002. The Hobbit . By J.R.R. Tolkien. Dir. Narrating Essay! Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael. Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. College Paper Cover! Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON.
The Nutcracker . By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by James. Kudelka. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of. Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. 30 Dec. 1999. Phantom of the Opera . By Andrew Lloyd Webber.
Lyrics by Charles Hart. Dir. Narrating Essay! Harold Prince. Based on novel by Gaston Leroux. College Paper! Pantages Theatre, Toronto. 20 Sept. 1998. The Shanghai Acrobats . By Incredible! Acrobats of China.
Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005. Components: 1) Title of episode, underlined; or in quotes if appropriate. 2) Title of narrating essay program, underlined. 3) Title of series. 4) Name of apa style psychology paper network. 5) Radio station or TV channel call letters, 6) City of essay local station or channel.
6) Broadcast date. The CFRB Morning Show . By Ted Woloshyn. CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003. Law and Order . Satisfaction Job More Than Money Essay! Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct.
2002. “New Threat from Osama?” By Jim Stewart. CBS News . Narrating! WBEN, Buffalo. “New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein.” By Martha Graybow. Reuters, New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. “The Nightmare Drug.” By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner.
The Fifth Estate . CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct. 2002. “U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden.” AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side . WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. 33.
Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape: 1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor. 2) Title of song (in quotation marks). 3) Title of recording (underlined). Problem Of A! 4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). Essay! 5) Edition, release, or version. 6) Place of nietzsche 3 publication: Publisher, Date of publication. Narrating! If citing from nietzsche essay Internet, see Item 23. Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life . Millennium.
CD. Exclusive Management by. The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Essay! Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and college paper cover, prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir.
Don and Catherine Robertson. Narrating! Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, n.d. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir.
Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, [c. 1997]. Note: “n.d.” means “no date” available. [c. Satisfaction Important You Earn! 1997] means “circa 1997.” McDonald, Michael. No Lookin’ Back . LP. Narrating Essay! Prod. Apa Style Research Psychology Paper! Michael McDonald and. Ted Templeman.
Engineered and mixed by R. ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and 770E . Narrating Essay! Diskette. Vers. 1.0. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette. Covey, Stephen R. Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights . Cassette. tape recording read by statement, author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995.
Ginger . Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from narrating album Far Out . Vancouver: Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Dir. Alfonso Cuar o n. Based on novel. by J.K. Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson. DVD. Dissertation! Warner, 2004. Jane Austen’s Emma . Essay! Videocassette.
Meridian Broadcasting. New York: New Video Group, 1996. Kicking Screaming . Essay! Dir. Jesse Dylan. Writ. Narrating! Leo Benvenuti and college cover, Steve Rudnick. Perf. Will Ferrell and narrating, Robert Duvall. DVD. Universal, 2005.
The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants . Dir. Ken Kwapis. Based on dissertation novel by. Ann Brashares.Perf. Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively, and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Essay! Warner, Dungaree, 2005. Super Searching the Web . Videocassette.
Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect, The Wizard of Oz . Dir. Victor Fleming. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum. Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley,
Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins. MGM, 1939. VHS. Warner, 1999. State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of university, and year. Elmendorf, James. “The Military and your money, the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California.” BA.
thesis. Hampshire College, 1995. Jackson, Marjorie. “The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use.” Diss. Columbia U, 1962.
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The Greek Crisis and the Left Response: Two Essays by Sotiris. Greece, the challenges for the Left and the need for a radical strategy. For the past three years Greece has been at the same time an experiment in essay neoliberal social engineering and a laboratory of movements and collective struggles. For the first time in many decades we have the case of a country entering a phase of profound social and than you earn political crisis that has the narrating essay, potential to turn into a crisis of hegemony opening up the social and political space for a sequence of is sizer social transformation. That is why the Greek case brings forward not only the depth of the narrating, crisis of the project of psychology European Integration, the extreme violence of contemporary neoliberal policies, but also the need for a redefinition of left-wing or radical politics that could go beyond simply resisting austerity toward a new conception of narrating essay a socialist alternative.
In order to understand what is happening we must first of all take a look at the social landscape in Greece. In terms of the social situation we are reaching forms of an open humanitarian crisis. Recession has reached proportions that can only be compared to the consequences of major warfare or of the 1930s Great Depression with a -25 per cent GDP contraction in the 2008-2013 period. Unemployment is at 27 per cent with youth unemployment at apa style research psychology 64 per cent, creating a “no future” generation and narrating essay leading to increased migration, including a “brain drain.” Real wage reduction is at -30 per cent for most of the workforce, with new wage cuts coming in the near future. Health indicators are already showing signs of deterioration along with an impressive rise in suicides. New school closures have been announced along with new reductions in hospital beds. Increased homelessness, soup-kitchens and widespread drug use, also give an image of social devastation. In terms of the political crisis there has been a growing estrangement of the large segments of the andreas kracke, popular classes from pro-austerity parties and the political system. This found its expression in negative feelings and attitudes toward the essay, political system, mainstream parties and a growing feeling of anger and distrust toward the European Union, including Greece's participation in the Eurozone. Large segments of the popular classes, of workers, employees, peasants, youths, members of the “professional classes,” small businessmen, have turned their back on mainstream parties, leading to a political earthquake in the May June 2012 elections when both PASOK and New Democracy suffered great losses and SYRIZA came close to college cover, winning the June election and gaining governmental power.
One can see the same elements of an open political crisis even in narrating essay opinion polls. SYRIZA and New Democracy are running neck and neck for the first position, whereas the once dominant PASOK is polling between 6 and 8 per cent. However, treating these tectonic political shifts as the satisfaction important, simple result of social crisis and the deterioration of social conditions is far from providing a full image of the situation in Greece. Essay? Without a unique and without precedent sequence of struggles and collective practices of resistance and solidarity, without a strong movement, which has been close to a modern version of a “protracted people's war,” we would not have experienced these political earthquakes. It was exactly through these collective experiences of struggle, this feeling of anger turned into hope, this feeling of confidence and of being part of a people in nietzsche 3 struggle, expressed in essay concrete practices such as a demonstration, a clash with the police or a popular assembly, that people were again re-politicized, re-radicalized, moved to apa style research psychology paper, the Left. Were it not for the mass strikes, for the continuing struggles in many sectors, for the hundreds of solidarity initiatives, and for the many forms of resistance and disobedience, the political landscape would have been much more different. I would like to insist that when we talk about the experience of struggle in Greece, we are not talking simply about mass riots and whatever catches the attention of international media, but about a much more complex set of narrating collective experiences and kracke struggles. Apart from general strikes, we have had a whole series of labour confrontations both in the public and the private sector. To give an example, despite efforts from the government including continuous parliamentary ‘coup d’etats’ (in the form of ‘special legislation measures’), the government is far from reaching the essay, quota for public sector lay-offs dictated by the Troika.
Teachers in Secondary Education massively voted in favour of striking during the university entry exams, forcing the government to issue an apa style research paper, authoritarian ‘back to work’ order. In Universities there have been important struggles in the past months against mandatory closures and mergers of Departments and Schools, struggles that in narrating some cases, such as the Athens University Faculty of Letters, were victorious. In Chalkidiki, in the North of Greece, local communities are still waging a heroic struggle against environmentally disastrous Gold mines, despite being treated as terrorists by the police and the justice system. At BIOME, a factory near Salonika we are already witnessing the nietzsche 3, first successful example of a self-managed factory. In many cities local citizen initiatives and popular assemblies are working with the farmer's cooperatives in order for cheap quality agricultural products to be available to narrating, working people. Popular assemblies and people from the Left have organized social medicine centres, cooperative grocery stores, collective kitchens, and collective children day-care centres. Teachers’ unions from both public and private education have organized free tutorial courses for children. There are also experiences with non market exchange networks in many cities. At the same time there has been a flourishing of anti-fascist initiatives and demonstrations, along with struggles against the exploitation of problem immigrant workers. Some weeks ago, in the strawberry plantations in Manolada, in West Peloponnese owners shot at immigrant workers who were demanding to be paid. The reaction was not only impressive demonstrations which united Greek and immigrant workers, but also an impressive organization drive toward the first such union of agricultural labourers in Greece.
I am stressing this because in many instances the Greek Left and especially SYRIZA acts as if political power and consequently an end to austerity and a beginning of social transformation will simply come as the ‘ripe fruit’ of worsening social conditions. Nothing is further from the truth. Without a mass movement, strong, politicized and in a position to make people confident again in their collective ability to change things no political change will ever be possible. What is more important, is that time matters! Without mass collective practices, without struggles, without solidarity, people experience austerity and the constant devastation of their lives in an individualized manner. Essay? This doesn't breed rebellion. It rather breeds that kind of atomized, fragmented despair that fuels neo-fascism. If we look at the people following the neo-fascist Golden Dawn we will see that leaving aside these people that come from the traditions of the Greek far right, most of the people supporting Golden Dawn are people who are channeling exactly this kind of individualized despair toward the extreme reactionary discourse of Golden Dawn and job more than money its ersatz ‘solidarity only for narrating, Greeks.’ I know that many people will raise the objection that simply building a strong movement is satisfaction your job more important than essay not enough, since despite three years of general strikes (more than 25 since the Spring of essay 2010), mass occupations, impressive protests such as the Movement in the Squares from May to statement of a project, July 2011, big street clashes, various forms of civil disobedience to tax hikes, successive governments have managed to pass one austerity bill after the other.
Doesn't this stress the fact that only through a political solution, only through a change in what concerns governmental and political power, can we find a way out of the essay, vicious circle of austerity, recession and what essay unemployment? It is narrating essay obvious that Greece has entered what one might describe as a post-democratic condition. The traditional forms of political pressure that could force a government to step back from statement, introducing reactionary measures through a calculation of the political cost, do not apply to narrating essay, Greece anymore. On the contrary, we have entered a condition of satisfaction your job more money you earn limited sovereignty, with the EU-IMF-ECB ‘Troika’ dictating measures regardless of their social cost and with Greek governments simply capitulating to these demands, under the pressure of the dominant fractions of Greek capital. Narrating? Without a political breakthrough, without a sharp change in the political balance of forces in favour of the nietzsche 3, forces of labour and other popular classes, there can be no end in sight in the politics of austerity. We need such a broad popular alliance under the narrating essay, hegemony of the force of labour that will take governmental and political power and open up a political sequence of social transformation in a socialist direction. Your Job More Important Money You Earn Essay? In sum what we need is to actually try and think how today's dynamics of essay anger, contention and protest can be turned into a highly original revolutionary process, revolutionary in the sense that it must challenge fundamental aspects of capitalist social relations and 3 highly original because we cannot think about it in terms of ready-made conceptions. Can this challenge be answered simply by struggling for a left-wing government, a possibility that has dominated discussions within the Left in Europe, especially after the election of June 2012 when SYRIZA came close to power? First of all, this possibility represents the depth and the extent of the political crisis in narrating Greece, the 3, tectonic shifts in relations of political representation, as a result of the social crisis but also of the impressive series of struggles and collective practices of resistance, protest, disobedience and solidarity.
At the same time it brings forward the centrality of the narrating essay, question of political power in the current conjuncture in Greece. What Essay? However, although the whole question of a possibility of a left-wing government opens up the question of political power, this does not mean that SYRIZA, at least in its current policies and strategic proposals is the answer. That is why it is important to rethink questions of essay political and college cover governmental power. The first question arising when discussing such matters refers to narrating essay, the question of the program of any attempt to fight for political power. For many people, questions of political program might seem like a luxury. For them what we need is to unite forces around simple demands, around this necessary ‘no to austerity,’ instead of endless discussions on the program.
However, there are aspects of the political program that do not represent ideological obsessions but attempts to kracke dissertation, come to terms with important material constraints for any potential left-wing politics. Essay? Or to put in simple terms there can be no left-wing governance without a left-wing program. To give perhaps the most important example, the question of the relation of Greece to your money essay, Eurozone and the European Integration project in general is not an ideological obsession from the part of some tendencies of the Greek radical Left. On the narrating, contrary, it is one of the crucial questions that any attempt at left-wing governance will face. The European Union today is not simply turning more neoliberal (especially if we consider the embedded neoliberalism of the European Integration project since the Single European Act of 1986), it is also turning into a highly undemocratic process, openly calling for limited sovereignty for countries in the European South, creating conditions of a ‘race to the bottom’ of college cover austerity, recession and unemployment, using in many instances an openly neo-colonial rhetoric on the need to “reform those lazy Southerners.” The euro is not simply a currency, but represents a whole set of institutional restraints and obstacles to any progressive policies. At the same time it is an imperialist strategy.
The euro as common currency in an economic area marked by sharp differences in productivity and essay competitiveness acted as an extra “comparative advantage” for the capitals of the hegemonic European social formations, such as Germany and as an “Iron Cage” of capitalist modernization for peripheral social formations. In a period of essay 3 economic crisis it also enhances structural imbalances, inequalities and divergences, thus contributing to the debt and the general economic crisis of narrating countries such as Greece. The Euro also forms the statement project, material ground of all forms of blackmail that any left-wing or progressive government will face in Greece. To put simply it is not possible to negotiate or take a firm stand against the austerity measures imposed upon Greece when the narrating essay, Eurogroup controls monetary policy, when the psychology, European Central Bank controls the liquidity of banks, when a country remains dependent upon loans from the ECB and the IMF. Regaining monetary sovereignty, as a form of democratic social control of an important aspect of the economy is a necessary precondition for any potential progressive solution to the Greek problem. I know that the counterargument is that a left-wing government, armed with the support and narrating aspiration of the electorate will be in a position to take a firm stand against the EU-IMF-ECB Troika, renegotiate successfully, obtain important concessions and put an end to problem statement, austerity. However, I think that this is as close to essay, a fantasy that we could get! That is why Cyprus offers an important example and a warning that we cannot avoid taking into nietzsche essay 3, account. What happened in Cyprus?
The EU-IMF-ECB Troika imposed a very aggressive austerity program. The Cypriot Parliament rejected this program, under the pressure of the people who were demonstrating in the streets. The Cypriot government went to Brussels to essay, renegotiate, taking a firm stand and demanding a better deal. Andreas Kracke Dissertation? However, it was also determined to stay within the monetary and institutional framework of the Eurozone. The result was that it got an even worse deal than the original in narrating terms of recession, austerity and unemployment. How can we be certain that a SYRIZA government determined to get rid of austerity while remaining within the Eurozone, will not get the same treatment and succumb to the same kind of blackmail? The argument that Greece is ‘too big to fail’ does not hold, since by now it is obvious that most countries, central banks and international organizations are in a position to andreas kracke, withstand the bankruptcy of a country like Greece. On the contrary, the unwillingness of the leadership of SYRIZA to even consider the possibility of a rupture with the European Integration process and the mechanism of debt-ridden austerity, leads it to narrating essay, make proposals that are not only out of touch with the reality of power relations in the international plane, such as the statement of a project, proposal for a “New Marshal Plan” for Europe, but would also lead to an even greater dependence of the essay, Greek economy on the funding from international organizations.
There is cover nothing nationalist or chauvinist in essay opting for the exit of Greece from the Eurozone. Unless we think that it is nationalist and chauvinist to fight for a rupture with the violence of neoliberalism and the imperialist character of the monetary and fiscal architecture of the Eurozone. As for the argument that it is better to wait for a pan-European movement to get rid of what highschool is sizer essay austerity, I believe that this argument misses an important aspect of social struggles in Europe, namely the uneven character of narrating their development. Not all movements are equally radicalized and politicized and adopting such a strategy of waiting for a Pan-European movement will mean that the people in Greece will endure many more years of austerity and social devastation. College Paper? There are some comrades that have suggested that opting for a return to monetary sovereignty will be equal to entering into an antagonism of competitive devaluations with Spanish or Portuguese workers. I also think that this is far from the truth. Getting Greece out of the Eurozone is not about competitive devaluations but about protecting large segments of the popular classes against narrating the systemic social violence of the free movement of capitals and commodities across the European Union, about regaining democratic social control of the monetary policy and the economy in general, and about attempting to problem statement of a project, rely on the collective effort of working people to narrating, build an alternative future instead of being prey to the embedded neoliberalism of the European Integration Project. Moreover, I think that such a process will also be a true act of internationalism. Of A Project? Wouldn't it be a message of narrating essay hope and a proof that social change is possible if social movements in a country of the European South managed to break away from the Eurozone and begun a process of social transformation? Wouldn't this be the first step in getting rid of the euro and all the neoliberal and undemocratic framework of the European Union? Wouldn't this open up the research psychology, way for new forms of cooperation based on respect for democracy, popular sovereignty and common effort for a better future?
In light of the above, recent interventions in the debates within the European Left in favour of a strategy of exit from the Eurozone, are more welcome. The decision of AKEL to consider the narrating essay, possibility of Cyprus exiting the Eurozone, the report by Heiner Flassbeck and Costas Lapavitsas [Ed.: see below for more on this report] on the crisis of the Eurozone, and the public intervention by Oscar Lafontaine in favour of a potential “Grexit,” all these represent a welcome change and open up the space for a real discussion of radical alternatives. I do not want to suggest that the question of an alternative policy for Greece is limited to questions of monetary policy. Nor am I criticizing SYRIZA in the name of some abstract ‘anti-capitalism’ like the one offered by the Greek Communist Party who talks about socialism but only in another time, since today ‘conditions are not ripe.’ What I am trying to suggest is that any possibility of an end to austerity must start with a set of apa style paper urgent measures that are immediately needed in order to avoid social disaster and at the same time open up the way for a radical transformation of narrating essay Greek society in a non-capitalist direction. These measures should include apart from the immediate exit from the Eurozone and potentially the EU, the annulment of debt, the nationalization of banks and strategic enterprises and redistribution income in favour of the forces of labour including a re-establishment of kracke dissertation full trade union rights to organize and collectively bargain. Institutionally, this process should not be conceived in narrating essay terms of remaining within the contours of existing legality (both national and European).
On the job more than money you earn, contrary it will require a new ‘Constituent Process’ and deep changes that should include limitation to capitalist ownership, the right to occupy and self-manage abandoned or closed enterprises, and new and extended forms of social and workers’ control. It is on narrating, the basis of apa style psychology paper such measures that we can really start thinking about radical changes in a socialist direction, in the sense of extended self-management, alternative forms of non-market distribution, new forms of democratic social planning, socialization of narrating essay knowledge and expertise, new forms of democratic participation at all levels of decision-making. Implementing such measures will not be easy and it will require a new collective ethics and a strong sense of statement of a project common effort and participation. That is why it is necessary to think of this challenge not in terms of governance but of a movement, of narrating essay a collective process of transformation. Satisfaction Your Job More? Moreover, only a strong movement from below, in the sense of extended forms of trade union action, of forms of popular democracy from below, of networks of solidarity, of forms of self-defence, can mount a successful resistance to all forms of formal and essay informal sabotage and counter-attacks from the apa style psychology paper, part of the forces of capital, the justice system or the repressive apparatuses of the State. All these bring forward an narrating, important question. It is not possible to deal with questions of left-wing government and its relation to the movement without opening up the question of a revolutionary strategy in the 21st century. Nietzsche Essay 3? Contrary to the position held by both SYRIZA and the Communist Party, that today there is no point in talking about revolutionary changes (in the case of SYRIZA in the name of the narrating essay, immediate need to kracke dissertation, avoid social disaster and in the case of KKE of the situation not being ripe enough), I want to stress that what has been happening in Greece in the past three years in terms of social protest and contention, of open political crisis, of people abandoning mainstream parties and politics and essay being ready to accept radical solutions, of a demand of profound social and political change, of an kracke, acceptance of the narrating, need for new social and political configuration beyond ‘actually existing neoliberalism,’ is the problem of a, closest we could get to potentially pre-revolutionary situation. Of course, the situation is in a way unripe and immature, but hasn't this been the essay, case with all sequences of major social and nietzsche essay political transformation? However, this need for a new and necessarily original revolutionary strategy should not lead us to a dogmatic reproduction of either the ‘democratic road to socialism’ position or the traditional insurrectionary conception of the revolutionary process. On the one hand we need to take into consideration that in advanced capitalist societies with developed forms of civil society institutions and extended apparatuses of hegemony it is necessary to conduct a modern version of ‘war of position,’ a complex attempt at creating forms and institutions of counter-power and counter-hegemony from below in a new and original form of a ‘dual power’ strategy.
On the other hand we need to find ways to accelerate and intensify processes of political and potentially hegemonic crisis and take advantage of any opportunity to bring reactionary governments down under the pressure of the movement and use the window of opportunity opened by the possibility of a left-wing government along with an escalation of struggles and confrontations with the logic of narrating essay capital on all levels. What is needed is an attempt to transform contemporary dynamics within Greek society into something close to an “historical block” to use Gramsci's term, not simply an electoral alliance, but the encounter between an alliance of the subaltern classes, a radical anti-capitalist program, in the sense of an alternative narrative, and new collective forms of organization and experimentation. Devising such a contemporary revolutionary strategy should also be seen as a learning process, through experimentation with current experiences of self-management, non-commodity provision of services, on direct democracy from below. However, most tendencies of the European Left do not even attempt to open up this debate, remaining entangled either in “realist” proposals for what essay, a progressive governance that will not challenge the power of capital or the current architecture of globalized capitalism, or in revolutionary fantasies about “storming the Winter Palace.” And this is the problem with SYRIZA leadership's strategy. Essay? They treat the question of governmental power as a means to bring forward progressive reforms and gradually put an end to austerity. Andreas? To this end they take for granted all the institutional constraints of the Eurozone and the bail-out loan agreements. That is why they moved from a position of complete renunciation of the loan agreements to a position of “renegotiation.” That is why they have been trying to narrating essay, develop a better understanding with representatives of big business, including media barons.
That is why there have been references from the part of SYRIZA to sound entrepreneurship and socially responsible ‘investments.’ I do not wish to what essay, deny the radicalism and the good will of many comrades in narrating SYRIZA and their commitment to socialist politics, but the truth is that the current strategy by SYRIZA is far from answering these challenges. And this means that we must not think simply in terms of electoral dynamics. We still need a strong movement; we need to reach a point where a parallel society of struggle, resistance and solidarity emerges. Paper? These struggles should not be conceived in the instrumental sense of either success or of failure. As I have already mentioned, traditional calculations of movement pressure do not apply to narrating, Greece.
We need more to kracke dissertation, think in terms of a protracted peoples’ war in which the crucial point is not whether there is ‘victory’ in narrating essay the sense of an austerity bill not passing because of a mass strike, but more in research terms of a constant attrition of the narrating, government and essay the Troika, of delays or blockages in narrating essay aspects of the austerity measures, and of a growing collective confidence within the movement that in the end we can win. Solidarity in the sense that people can be confident that through the collective practices they will avoid having their electricity cut-off, their home auctioned, that they will be able to paper cover, cater for basic needs from food, to medicine to tutorial courses for their children, is extremely important, since it brings back confidence to collective struggle and the ability to build a better future. At the same time, these collective practices must be seen also as the emergence of forms of popular power from below, as forms of an emerging contemporary form of dual power, as forms of self-defence against the aggressiveness of the government and the forces of capital. Underestimating the importance of narrating essay a strong movement and prolonged struggles means underestimating the nietzsche 3, dynamics of the class balance of forces. A prolonged period of social devastation without successful resistances does not necessarily lead to increased radicalism. More likely it will lead to despair and a collective feeling that nothing can be done. That is why political decisions regarding movements are crucial. The recent developments regarding the Secondary Education Teachers’ strike are in this sense revealing of the narrating, deficiencies of tactics of the Left.
The decision of the kracke dissertation, leadership of SYRIZA to agree on calling off the strike, instead of attempting to break the government ‘back to work order,’ was an narrating, expression not only of a deep rooted reformism but mainly of a conception of politics as electoral politics, not as an attempt to satisfaction important than money you earn essay, influence the real balance of forces. The SYRIZA leadership thought of this tactic as a way to get out of a political trap. In reality this decision only reinforced the government's rhetoric that it is in narrating essay a position to pre-emptively smash a movement. What can remain after such a confrontation are not only anger and project protest against narrating essay authoritarian measures, but also disappointment and a feeling of futility. Above all, we need to think of this whole process not simply as an attempt by a progressive or benevolent government to save society but as a mass movement for the experimentation with new forms of organization of production, education, health.
We need to make use of the collective experience and knowledge that have emerged in the movements and struggles of the andreas dissertation, past years for this experimentation that cannot be left to specialists, even from the Left. The crisis and narrating essay austerity in Greece have been a catalyst for many people, who faced with extremely aggressive policies are obliged to think differently. When the government is dismantling public education, militants in education trade unions are forced to think how we can operate schools differently. When the public health is in ruins and is kept in place only by the efforts of doctors and other health workers, then public health unions face the statement of a project, question of what it means to actually run a truly public health system oriented toward improving the quality of life. This is exactly the kind of collective experimentation that can provide as with concrete answers regarding a contemporary socialist strategy. Are there signs of narrating essay such processes in Greece today? Or have we arrived at andreas an impasse and narrating there is no other alternative than simply waiting for the next general election in satisfaction your job more essay the hope that the Left will get the mandate to form a government? I think that we are far from essay, this.
We may not have had in the past months the kind of social explosion that gain the attention of nietzsche 3 international media, but everyday struggles continue in the form of small and big battles in narrating essay various sectors, solidarity initiatives, and what highschool is sizer anti-fascist demonstrations. At the same time, things are changing in the trade union movement, the narrating, Left is on the rise in important unions such as in public education and public health and this opens up the apa style psychology, possibility for a radical reorientation. Moreover, there is an open debate regarding the question of the political program and there are signs of mass appeal of a radical anti-EU, anti-euro position, especially after the experience of Cyprus. The current dialogue between ANTARSYA, the front of the anti-capitalist Left, and other radical groups in Greece, opens up the way for a ‘third pole’ in the Greek Left that will insist on the actuality of such a radical political alternative, in narrating an attempt to change the balance of forces within the Left. What is to be done? I think that the answer, at least for all of us in apa style paper the Greek Left, in ANTARSYA and narrating other radical formations, that do not opt for a tactic of simply hoping that we will somehow push SYRIZA to the Left, and at the same time do not want to engage in a destructive and sectarian criticism (like the one coming from the part of the Greek Communist Party), is to attempt to deal with the real challenges: To elaborate on satisfaction your money you earn essay, the necessary transition program.
To work within the movement and help the coordination of narrating essay resistances, struggles and networks of solidarity, in order to make things even more difficult for the government and the Troika. To experiment with forms of self-management, self-organization and popular democracy from satisfaction job more important than money you earn, below. Therefore, we are far from the end of the movement. Narrating Essay? I think that despite the efforts from the part of the government, the Troika, the forces of capital to suppress collective practices, and despite the effort of the leadership of SYRIZA to channel this dynamic into a fruitlessly ‘realist’ strategy of renegotiating austerity, Greece is still the most advanced laboratory of struggle and radical alternatives in Europe, and paper I hope that it will soon send a message of hope to narrating, working people all over Europe. • Panagiotis Sotiris teaches social theory and paper social and political philosophy at the Department of Sociology of the University of the Aegean. This text is based on narrating, two presentations at the “Marx is a Must” Conference in Berlin (9-11 May 2013), organized by the Marx 21 network, and first published on his blog at lastingfuture.blogspot.gr. The elephant in the room or why we cannot have socialism based upon EFSF recapitalization.
The report by Heiner Flassbeck and Costas Lapavitsas on apa style research, the crisis of the Eurozone has been an important step in re-opening the euro debate within the European Left. The political significance of the report was made even more evident by the fact that it was published by the Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung, and was endorsed by the leadership of narrating Die Linke, especially after Oskar Lafontaine had also recently insisted on the need to consider the exit from the than money you earn essay, Eurozone as a potential solution for countries of the European South such as Greece. It follows the decision by AKEL the Cypriote left-wing party to propose Cyprus’ exit from the Eurozone, a proposition based upon scientific advice offered by amongst others Lapavitsas and narrating essay Flassbeck. Greek workers walk out to protest ban on teachers' strike. The report itself is not a radical or Marxist manifesto.
Although Lapavitsas has a strong Marxist background, the report is marked by Flassbeck's much more Keynesian approach. Moreover, it is not a report with an a priori hostility toward monetary union or currency coordination for Europe, nor is it filled with anticapitalist references. On the contrary it seems to take the college paper, internationalization of narrating essay trade and capital flows as granted. However, it is exactly this kind of critique from within aspects of the dominant economic paradigm that makes it even more interesting. This does not mean that it is cover not a radical critique of the dominant economic policies within the Eurozone. Rather, it is a devastating deconstruction of the contradictions, fallacies, and narrating shortcomings of the economic and financial architecture of the Eurozone. Particularly important is the problem, emphasis on the inability of inflation targets without real wage convergence to create a balanced common currency area. Moreover, the two writers highlight the direct causal connection between the imbalances in the Eurozone and trade deficits and also with increased public debt.
This makes evident the fact that European leaders insist on denying: the euro itself as common currency is part of the narrating essay, problem of the economic crisis in the European South. It is also interesting that the position the two writers take in regard to potential solutions within the Eurozone. They show convincingly that given the obvious inability to reach an actual political union in the EU it is is sizer essay not possible to have that kind of redistributive mechanisms that could tackle the problem of productivity and competitiveness divergence. At the same time they remind us that there is no point in thinking in terms of narrating essay transfers between countries because this could lead in a certain form of andreas kracke dependence of the countries receiving this kind of transfer funding. On the narrating essay, basis of these assumptions the two writers insist on the need for an orderly and prepared exit from the Eurozone and in this sense a dismantling of the current financial and monetary architecture of the Eurozone. To this end they also deconstruct the argument that such a move, which would necessarily include measures such as capital controls and restrictions to bank transactions, is not possible, by pointing to the developments in Cyprus where the EU accepted the imposition of capital controls as a means to avoid the complete implosion of the Cypriot banking system. In this sense the taboo has already been broken. In light of the paper, above it is really interesting to see the reactions of the Greek Left and especially SYRIZA regarding these positions. As with the case of the change of AKEL's adoption of the exit from the Eurozone strategy, SYRIZA leadership chose to politely refuse such proposals, despite the appeal of this position in the large segments of the electorate of the essay, Greek Left. Statement Of A? In many instances representatives of the narrating, leadership's position within SYRIZA have criticized the exit from the Eurozone as being nationalist and in opposition to class politics.
However, the problem is apa style research psychology paper that the dominant narrative of SYRIZA leadership that the main target must be pan-European cooperation of the Left and social movements aiming at a break of austerity while remaining within the Eurozone, comes in contrast with the decision of other parties of the European Left to narrating, discuss the possibility of an exit from the Eurozone. The argument from the part of SYRIZA leadership that opening the debate on cover, the exit of the Eurozone would offer pro-austerity forces the narrating, chance to put pressure on SYRIZA, alienate segments of the electorate (who remain ideologically attached to the euro), and consequently jeopardize a possible election victory, misses the main point. What Highschool? As long as the Greek Left does not challenge the euro as the central node for the current particularly European version of the neoliberal “There Is No Alternative,” the political debate will remain cornered in a discursive terrain that is essay much more suitable to systemic pro-austerity forces than to social movements. This helps pro-austerity forces, both politically and electorally. What Highschool Is Sizer Essay? In contrast, working toward the break with the narrating, Eurozone opens up the political space to work and experiment with radical economic and social alternatives that go beyond the limits of neoliberal capitalism and can help the Left emerge as an actual political alternative and not just an electoral outlet for protest. Moreover, it is not possible to have radical changes without some form of rupture with the current financial, monetary and institutional framework of the Eurozone and the dominant strategy within the EU. In the long run, everyone would agree that we cannot have socialism based upon EFSF and ECB recapitalization. • Middle class civil war in Greece: latest update and conclusions. #1 Miguel Figueroa 2013-05-28 04:50 EDT. Where have we heard this before?
Reading The Greek Crisis and the Left Response by satisfaction job more money you earn essay, Panagiotis Sotiris, one cannot but agree with its main theses: (1) the direct and inescapable connection between the deepening crisis in Greece and its continuing servitude to the EC monopolists and bankers; and (2) the need therefore for the Greek working class to sharply criticize SYRIZA's pathetic pro-Eurozone position, and make a strategic break with its (il)logic.
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Racism And Xenophobia Essay 528888. Narrating Essay. Acest subiect con?ine 0 raspunsuri are 1 voce ?i a fost actualizat ultima data de baspalisbujib acum 3 zile, 4 ore. Racism And Xenophobia Essay. In this essay I will talk about xenophobia , racism and Theory of Knowledge 23/11/10 Essay on human persecution In this essay I will talk about xenophobia , racism Related International Baccalaureate Theory of Knowledge Racism and xenophobia Essay Example for Free“Behind any conflict, whether it is in Northern Ireland, the Balkans, Sudan, genocide in Rwanda, apartheid in paper, South Africa, problems in the Middle East between The Emergence Of Xenophobia And Racism History Essay For hundred years now, modern societies have seen the essay, emergence of xenophobia and racism . Many countries have noticed the rise of new political Ielts essay on racism and xenophobia steadmanwoods.comHealth is problem statement, wealth essay in english 100 words cheats 5 paragraph essay college writing lab ib english coursework criteria youtube essay titles in mla vocabulary Essay on narrating racism and xenophobia saltwaterexperience.comDissertation printing and binding north london yoga an your important than essay concerning human understanding chapter 27 summary quizlet essay css 2015 paper data essay formula sat IELTS 9 Band Essay Xenophobia and Tuli#039;s The Academy IELTS 9 Band Essay Xenophobia and Racism can be resolved. Narrating Essay. Discuss this issue. Racism refers to the act of essay 3, considering one race superior to[ Essay ] If racism and xenophobia are attitude that we are If racism and narrating, xenophobia are attitude that we are taught, not born with, then the problems that come from them can be resolved. Discuss this view and kracke, give your own Racism Today Essay: Racism And Xenophobia We live in a civilized world and it seems that there is no place for, I would say, ancient prejudice and stereotypes that we call racism . Narrating. However racism remains an Ielts essay on racism and xenophobia rawnumbergames.com Essay title page mla generator purpose of apa style psychology, university education essay analysis masters dissertation writing services virginia history essay citation format template Too Many Americans Think Patriotism Means Racism and Too Many Americans Think Patriotism Means Racism and Xenophobia The notion that patriotism and racism are synonymous was used against us after 9/11, Essay title page mla generator purpose of university education essay analysis masters dissertation writing services virginia history essay citation format template Racism And Xenophobia Essay guaribinhaclube.comWorld Conference on Racism un.orgWebsite of the narrating, World Conference against Racism , Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and essay, Related Intolerance and related Ielts Essay On Racism And Xenophobia MusraraIelts Essay On Racism And Xenophobia Key Stage 3 Maths Homework Help Proposal Essay Sample Dissertation Write-up Fellowship Strong Thesis For A Compare And Contrast Essay If racism and xenophobia are attitude that we are taught If racism and narrating, xenophobia are attitude that we are taught, not born with, then the problems that come from nietzsche, them can be resolved.
Discuss this view and give your own Essay on racism and essay, xenophobia reviz.beArgumentative essay key points score happiness essays on paper cover the meaning of life critical essay literary definition best website to essay, buy research papers xtremepapers Xenophobia Essay Free Essays StudyModeEssays largest database of nietzsche 3, quality sample essays and research papers on narrating essay Xenophobia Essay Racism and of a project, xenophobia essay mikeandsonspainting.comDaren legal scaling your scandalize requicken swankily? owner and essay, the kidnapping of paper, boomerangs Weslie his santir smokes catalytically diamonds. botanises failed Racism And Xenophobia Ielts Essay WritingIELTS 9 Band Essay Xenophobia and Tuli#039;s The Academy IELTS 9 Band Essay Xenophobia and Racism can be resolved. Discuss this issue. Racism refers to the act of essay, PTE Essay-Xenophobia | sample essay on Xenophobia Xenophobia has accelerated rapidly in the Western countries.what solutions can be proposed by the government and individuals?PTE/IELTS Xenophobia essay . Apa Style Research Psychology Paper. Xenophobia: Racism and Different Cultures Essay Example Xenophobia is essay, certainly a big problem in modern society. Every continent, country, and kracke dissertation, citizen of the world has to face this problem every day. Racism And Xenophobia Ielts Essay WritingIELTS 9 Band Essay Xenophobia and Tuli#039;s The Academy IELTS 9 Band Essay Xenophobia and Racism can be resolved. Discuss this issue. Racism refers to the act of.
Racism And Xenophobia Essay edpinternationalafrica.com. The Emergence Of Xenophobia And Racism History Essay The Emergence Of Xenophobia And Racism History Essay . Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015. Xenophobia Essay Free Essays StudyModeEssays largest database of quality sample essays and narrating, research papers on Xenophobia Essay Xenophobia: Racism and satisfaction your than you earn essay, Different Cultures Essay Example Xenophobia is certainly a big problem in modern society. Essay. Every continent, country, and citizen of the satisfaction job more, world has to narrating, face this problem every day. Difference Between Xenophobia and Racism | Difference Xenophobia vs Racism Sometimes people think that xenophobia and racism are similar and their usage can be interchanged.
However, this is not the case as the satisfaction your job more, United against narrating essay, Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia Printed at the United Nations, New York 12-36291—July 2012—1,200 United against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance Racism and xenophobia European Commission Racism and xenophobia : the Commission rejects and condemns all forms and manifestations of racism and xenophobia Free racism Essays and Papers 123helpme.comFree racism papers, essays, and college paper cover, research papers. These results are sorted by most relevant first (ranked search). You may also sort these by color rating or essay Hot Essays: Essay on essay Xenophobia You can order a custom essay on Xenophobia now! Posted by Essay on Xenophobia ; Essay on Mass Media and Racism February (56) January (60) Xenophobia in South Africa Wikipedia Xenophobia in South Africa before 2012 They sang songs denouncing xenophobia and carried banners that read We are all Africans as Boston Globe Photo Essay ; Trebuie sa fii autentificat pentru a raspunde la acest subiect. Copyright © 2015. All Rights Reserved. FacShopping.
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Cellular and molecular pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus: lessons from animal models. © BioMed Central Ltd 2011. Published: 30 September 2011. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex disease characterized by the appearance of autoantibodies against nuclear antigens and the involvement of multiple organ systems, including the kidneys. The precise immunological events that trigger the onset of clinical manifestations of SLE are not yet well understood. Essay. However, research using various mouse strains of spontaneous and research psychology paper, inducible lupus in narrating, the last two decades has provided insights into the role of the immune system in what highschool, the pathogenesis of this disease. Essay. According to our present understanding, the immunological defects resulting in dissertation, the development of narrating, SLE can be categorized into two phases: (a) systemic autoimmunity resulting in increased serum antinuclear and antiglomerular autoantibodies and (b) immunological events that occur within the target organ and result in end organ damage. Aberrations in apa style, the innate as well as adaptive arms of the immune system both play an important role in narrating, the genesis and college paper cover, progression of lupus. Here, we will review the present understanding - as garnered from studying mouse models - about the narrating roles of various immune cells in lupus pathogenesis. Pathogenic mechanisms of systemic lupus . Than Money You Earn. Different subpopulations of narrating, immune cells interplay to directly or indirectly regulate other subpopulations by releasing different cytokines and other mediators of college, inflammation, thereby contributing to the progression of the systemic disease. The hyperactivated leukocytes as well as the essay pathogenic autoantibodies and immune complexes resulting from the systemic disease ultimately play an important role in local autoimmunity and nietzsche essay, end organ disease within target organs like the kidneys.
Ab, antibody; BAFF, B-cell activation factor; DC, dendritic cell; IC, immune complex; IFN-I, interferon-I; IL-10, interleukin-10; M?, macrophage; MHC, major histocompatibility complex; self-Ag, self-antigen; TCR, T-cell receptor; TGF-?, transforming growth factor-beta. Systemic autoimmunity in systemic lupus erythematosus: handling of self-antigens. The presence of high titers of autoantibodies against essay, nuclear antigens is the hallmark of SLE. Whereas there is college little evidence to narrating essay, indicate whether self-antigens in statement project, SLE are aberrant in sequence or structure, there is evidence that the aberrant handling of self-antigens could facilitate lupus pathogenesis. Although apoptotic bodies are normally rapidly cleared with the help of the complement and other systems, defects in this clearance system could lead to the accumulation of essay, apoptotic bodies and psychology paper, their prevalence in serum [ 1 ]. Essay. There have been limited reports that NZB/W F1 and MRL/lpr mice, which spontaneously develop a lupus-like disease, have high serum levels of nucleosomes [ 2 , 3 ]. Non-autoimmune C3H, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mouse strains, when injected with apoptotic bodies, developed serum autoantibodies similar to those seen in SLE [ 4 ]. Although these studies warrant independent confirmation, they support the what notion that apoptotic cells could harbor the essay immunogens responsible for antinuclear antibody formation. Moreover, mice with defects in genes that play an important role in the clearance of apoptotic bodies, like DNase I, serum amyloid protein P (SAP), sIgM, or tyrosine kinase c-mer, all develop SLE-like disease with elevated levels of apa style research, antinuclear antibodies [ 5 – 8 ]. These data support the hypothesis that the essay inefficient clearance of apoptotic bodies could be one factor leading to the development of SLE. The important role of the complement system and FcR in the process of clearing apoptotic materials has also been recently documented. Thus, C1q-deficient mice exhibit impaired internalization of apoptotic cells by peritoneal macrophages and develop proliferative glomerulonephritis characterized by high levels of apoptotic cell bodies [ 9 ]. Cells of the adaptive immune system as mediators of systemic autoimmunity in systemic lupus erythematosus. B lymphocytes in systemic lupus erythematosus. Autoantibodies are major contributors to end organ damage as illustrated by the glomerulonephritis associated with antinuclear and anti-glomerular antibodies, congenital heart block associated with anti-Ro antibody, and problem of a, thrombosis associated with anti-cardiolipin antibodies [ 10 ]. Essay. However, B cells can contribute to SLE pathogenesis through additional pathways.
For example, lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice that are made B cell-deficient exhibit a markedly attenuated disease. These mice have an absence of essay, autoantibodies, as expected, but also display a dramatic lack in T-cell activation. This study, by Shlomchik and colleagues [ 11 ], implied an essay essential role for B cells, but not necessarily autoantibodies, in the pathogenesis of lupus [ 11 ]. In another study, Shlomchik and colleagues [ 12 ] used MRL/lpr mice expressing a mutant immunoglobulin (Ig) that cannot be secreted, thus essentially prohibiting autoantibody generation, and showed that those mice still developed nephritis and vasculitis with associated T-cell activation. That study convincingly showed that B cells may contribute to the development of lupus in ways that are independent of autoantibodies. Apa Style Research. The additional role of B cells as antigen-presenting cells that mediate T-cell activation in lupus comes from MRL/lpr mice studies showing that B-cell deficiency leads to narrating essay, reduced CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell activation [ 13 ].
Besides secreting proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-gamma (IFN-?), B cells may secrete IL-10, which has an anti-inflammatory function. Therefore, B cells that secrete IL-10 (or B10 cells) have been called regulatory B cells and were first reported in B10.PL mice in essay 3, which IL-10-producing B cells were found to regulate the severity of experimental auto-immune encephalitis [ 14 ]. In murine lupus, IL-10 deficiency was found to contribute to more severe disease with an increase in Th1 cytokine levels [ 15 ]. A recent study using CD19 -/- NZB/W mice reported that B10 cells could induce expansion of regulatory T cells, a subset of T cells with immunosuppressive function [ 16 ]. However, data from human lupus reveal a different facet of IL-10. In the case of narrating essay, human SLE, studies suggest that IL-10 promotes rather than inhibits lupus [ 17 ]. A better understanding of the role of college paper, IL-10-producing B cells and the mechanism of action of IL-10 is narrating required to explain the differences between the murine and kracke, human data. Mouse models have helped delineate the molecular mechanisms through which self- reactive B cells might arise. Sle1 is a lupus susceptibility locus derived from the narrating essay NZM2410 mouse strain. Apa Style Paper. Using Sle1 congenic C57Bl6 mice, Kumar and colleagues [ 18 ] reported that the auto-immune-associated variant of the Ly108 gene, a member of the SLAM family of immune cell receptors which lies within the narrating Sle1 locus, leads to loss of B-cell tolerance because of impaired negative selection of autoreactive B cells at the immature B-cell stage. On the other hand, increased B-cell signaling, especially in andreas kracke dissertation, the case of narrating essay, mature peripheral B cells, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of humoral autoimmunity.
Mice that are deficient in various inhibitory molecules that dampen B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling, such as SHP-1 [ 19 ], Lyn [ 20 ], or Fc?RIIb [ 21 ], develop systemic autoimmunity. Mice over-expressing molecules that strengthen BCR signaling, such as CD19, also develop autoimmunity [ 22 ]. Recent studies have implicated a class of essay 3, immune system receptors called Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the synergistic activation of B cells by BCR and TLR signaling. Simultaneous engagement of narrating essay, BCRs that are specific for DNA by nuclear antigens that are abundant in apoptotic material and TLR9 on B cells causes activation of both BCR and TLR signaling pathways [ 23 ]. In the NZB/W and MRL/lpr mouse models of lupus, activation of your than you earn, TLR9 with a synthetic DNA ligand causes accelerated nephritis with increased anti-DNA antibody levels [ 24 ]. On the other hand, TLR9-deficient autoimmune mouse models exhibit lower levels of anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) and anti-chromatin antibody [ 25 ]. Narrating Essay. Similarly, B cells possessing BCRs specific for RNA could be synergistically activated by BCR and kracke dissertation, TLR7 signaling [ 26 ]. These findings were supported by research in the BXSB mouse model of narrating, lupus. Duplication of the TLR7 gene in of a project, the Yaa lupus susceptibility locus leads to increased gene dosage effects that contribute to the lupus-like phenotype seen in this model [ 27 ]. Defects that may lead to increased survival of essay, autoreactive B cells have also been found to contribute to the development of highschool is sizer essay, autoimmunity.
B-cell activation factor (BAFF) is narrating a major B-cell survival factor that functions particularly at the transitional B-cell stage. BAFF transgenic mice develop a lupus-like disease with expansion of the peripheral B-cell pool and heightened production of autoantibodies [ 28 ]. Increased BAFF levels are thought to infringe the andreas kracke dissertation negative selection checkpoint at the T1 transitional stage, thereby allowing the survival and essay, maturation of autoreactive B cells in the periphery and their participation in the germinal center reaction. These findings are supported by the observations that lupus-prone mice exhibit elevated serum BAFF levels and what, that administration of TACI-Ig, which acts as a soluble receptor for BAFF, is essay effective in treating murine lupus [ 29 ]. T lymphocytes in systemic lupus erythematosus. The obligatory role of T cells in lupus pathogenesis has been demonstrated by using several genetically engineered mouse models [ 30 ]. Lupus T cells are likely to contribute to what is sizer, disease through contact-dependent mechanisms (mediated by CD40L:CD40, OX40L:OX40, and so on) as well as released cytokines [ 30 ]. One important cytokine secreted by narrating, the Th1 cells is IFN-?, which plays a pivotal role in the production of pathogenic isotypes of paper, antinuclear autoantibodies in murine lupus models. Essay. Expression of IFN-? in the skin of transgenic mice leads to the production of anti-DNA and college, anti-Sm auto-antibodies [ 31 ]. A deficiency of narrating essay, IFN-? in MRL/lpr and kracke dissertation, NZB/W lupus-prone mice leads to reduced anti-DNA antibody levels [ 32 , 33 ]. Essay. In support of these findings, blocking the IFN-? receptor with monoclonal antibodies or soluble IFN-? receptor reduces disease activity in lupus-prone mice [ 34 , 35 ]. CD4 + T h17 cells are a recently described CD4 + T-cell subset that appears to mediate pathogenesis in some lupus mouse models [ 36 ]. However, it has become clear that the satisfaction job more important essay contribution of Th17 cells to autoimmunity is far more complex, depending on the disease and mouse model [ 37 ]. Studies in patients with SLE or related diseases have demonstrated that Th17 cells may have a role in essay, disease development in some, but not all, patients [ 38 ]. Essay. Given the heterogeneity of the disease, it may be possible that Th17 cells play a role in essay, lupus pathogenesis in apa style psychology, a genetically defined subset of subjects or in particular end organ manifestations and that anti-IL -17 therapy may be helpful specifically in those patients. In addition, the regulatory T cell subset appears to modulate the breakdown of T-cell tolerance in narrating, lupus [ 39 ]. 3. Clearly, we need to essay, gain a better understanding of how pathogenic T cells (Th17 cells) and regulatory T cells, perhaps in yinyang fashion, dictate disease activity in lupus. Innate immune cells as mediators of systemic autoimmunity in systemic lupus erythematosus. The important role of the satisfaction important you earn innate immune system in essay, SLE pathogenesis has only andreas dissertation, recently been appreciated.
Described below are the possible roles played by three key cell types in the innate immune system. Monocytes/macrophages from essay patients with lupus have been found to have a reduced capacity to project, phagocytose apoptotic materials [ 40 ], and their numbers were reduced in the inflammatory exudates from essay patients with SLE [ 41 ]. It was postulated, on andreas, the basis of those studies, that the defective phagocytosis of monocytes/macrophages contributed to inefficient clearing of apoptotic materials, leading to autoimmunity [ 42 ], a notion that is supported by mice lacking the narrating myeloid cell receptors, Tyro3, Axl, and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases [ 43 , 44 ]. Whereas c-mer knockout mice exhibited increased anti-dsDNA autoantibody levels without any significant renal pathology [ 43 ], Tyro3/Axl/Mer triple-knockout mice exhibited high levels of autoantibodies along with multiple end organ involvement [ 44 ]. Monocytes/macrophages can contribute to problem statement of a, disease in another important way: through the elaboration of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. This is narrating essay illustrated by macrophages from B6. Sle3 congenic mice, in your job more you earn essay, which Sle3 is a lupus susceptibility locus derived from the NZM2410 lupus-prone strain [ 45 ]. These murine studies showed that monocytes/macrophages in lupus probably have defects beyond abnormal phagocytosis and that these cells may take part in aberrant regulation of the immune system. A study by Kilmon and essay, colleagues [ 46 ] demonstrated that macrophages regulate B-cell tolerance by secreting regulatory factors like IL-6 and CD40L and that macrophages from lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice are less capable of what highschool, repressing Ig secretion coincident with reduced secretion of these repressive factors.
Collectively, these findings implicate a more significant role for monocytes/macrophages in the pathogenesis of lupus, but further studies in narrating, patients with SLE are necessary to substantiate these findings. Polymorphonuclear cells in systemic lupus erythematosus. A neutrophil-specific gene expression signature was reported to research, correlate positively with SLE disease activity in patients with SLE [ 47 ], suggesting that these cells may play an important role in narrating, SLE pathogenesis. The exact mechanism by which this occurs is not yet clear. However, a recent study demonstrated that neutrophil extracellular traps, which are networks of DNA, histones, and neutrophil proteins that function primarily to job more important you earn, trap microorganisms, may be involved in SLE pathogenesis, possibly by generating autoantigens and serving as adjuvants [ 48 ]. Narrating Essay. The role of neutrophils in murine lupus, unlike that in human lupus, is poorly studied.
Dendritic cells in systemic lupus erythematosus. Studies in mouse models have been pivotal in determining the role that dendritic cells (DCs) play in the pathogenesis of lupus. One of the earliest findings implicating the putative role of DCs in the breakdown of tolerance was that transferring DCs from normal donor mice to normal recipient mice could cause loss of tolerance in the host, leading to what is sizer essay, the appearance of anti-DNA and anticardiolipin autoantibodies [ 49 ]. Essay. A study by Chen and college, colleagues [ 50 ] showed that mice with defective DC apoptosis accumulated large numbers of DCs and exhibited chronic lymphocyte activation and systemic autoimmunity. Other studies using murine models have helped in identifying the genetic loci responsible for imparting the abnormal phenotypes seen in DCs from lupus-prone mice. One such locus is Sle3 , which is a lupus susceptibility locus derived from the NZM2410 strain of narrating essay, lupus-prone mice. C57BL/6 (B6) mice congenic for Sle3 develop moderate glomerulonephritis along with modest levels of what is sizer essay, antinuclear antibodies [ 51 ]. Moreover, the narrating essay DCs from B6.
Sle3 congenics are less susceptible to apoptosis, have a more mature phenotype, and research psychology, are more proinflammatory. They are also more efficient in narrating essay, stimulating T cells in vitro and eliciting autoantibodies in vivo compared with DCs from normal B6 mice [ 45 ]. Essay. These studies provided insights into genetic factors and immune mechanisms related to abnormal DC activation in murine lupus. Studies have also shown that DCs play an important role in SLE pathogenesis by essay, secreting potent proinflammatory cytokines, such as type I IFNs (IFN-?) [ 52 ]. Immune complexes (ICs) purified from satisfaction job more money you earn sera of patients with SLE were found to stimulate plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) to produce IFN-? [ 53 ]. Later studies revealed a possible role of TLRs as potent inducers of essay, IFN-? production by activated pDCs in what is sizer essay, lupus. Narrating Essay. IFN-? secreted by problem of a project, activated pDCs was found to directly influence B cells to produce antibodies of the narrating essay IgG subclass against soluble autoantigens in mice [ 54 ]. This cytokine also upregulated BAFF expression by nietzsche essay, monocytes and mature DCs, which promotes both the survival of autoreactive B cells and their differentiation into narrating essay, plasmablasts [ 55 ]. Together, these reciprocal events lead to a pathogenic cycle, in which both the innate and statement of a project, adaptive immune systems cooperate and feedback upon each other, eventually leading to essay, high titers of statement project, autoantibodies. Local autoimmunity in essay, systemic lupus erythematosus. SLE is an autoimmune disease that affects multiple organ systems, including the kidney, skin, heart, lung, and hematopoietic and apa style psychology paper, nervous systems. As reviewed below and illustrated in Figure 1 , the players mediating local autoimmunity and renal disease in essay, lupus can be classified broadly as (a) ICs and infiltrating cells of hematological origin and (b) resident cells of the kidneys. Role of college paper, immune complexes and narrating, infiltrating cells of hematological origin in lupus nephritis. Anti-DNA and DNA ICs were the andreas first ICs isolated from kidney elutes of narrating essay, patients with SLE and mouse models [ 56 ]. Intraperitoneal injection of andreas kracke dissertation, human and murine anti-DNA antibodies was found to trigger lupuslike kidney disease [ 57 ], establishing a direct role of these antibodies in narrating, the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis. Similarly, transgenic overexpression of Ig anti-DNA antibodies in mouse models can lead to renal pathology similar to statement project, that seen in human lupus nephritis, highlighting a causal role for autoantibodies in the development of lupus nephritis [ 58 ]. Various mechanisms have been proposed to narrating, explain how anti-DNA antibodies may lead to renal disease in satisfaction your job more important than essay, lupus [ 59 ]. Anti-DNA antibodies can form ICs with DNA/nucleosomes released from apoptotic cells.
Eventually, ICs become deposited in the kidney, leading to the initiation of a local inflammatory response through Fc?R-or complement-mediated mechanisms or both. Essay. Alternately, anti-DNA antibodies may bind to DNA/nucleosomes that have been trapped or 'planted' in the kidney glomerulus. A third mechanism suggests possible cross-reactivity between anti-DNA antibodies and local renal antigens like laminin, alpha-actinin, and heparan sulfate [ 60 ]. Other studies have shown that anti-DNA antibodies are not an absolute requirement for dissertation development of narrating, SLE. Nietzsche 3. NZM2328.Lc4 mice exhibit lupus-like disease with glomerular IC deposits and narrating essay, eventually develop fatal lupus nephritis.
These mice exhibit no anti-DNA antibody in their serum or in kidney eluates, demonstrating that anti-DNA antibodies are not essential for the development of lupus nephritis [ 61 ]. Is Sizer. Antibodies obtained from the kidney elutes of these mice reacted with various renal antigens, but none was specific for dsDNA [ 62 ]. Another study eluted Igs from renal tissues obtained from narrating essay patients with lupus at autopsy and college paper, screened the Igs against a panel of 14 different antigens, which included dsDNA, chromatin, Sm, SSA, SSB, and essay, histones [ 63 ]. Satisfaction Your Than Money Essay. These authors found that only 0.3% to narrating essay, 41.3% of total kidney-eluted IgG reacted with these antigens. Therefore, a vast majority of renal antibodies bind to statement of a project, yet-unknown antigens. In support of this idea, a study using a glomerular proteome array showed that serum from lupus mice and patients reacts with multiple nuclear and matrix-derived autoantigens [ 64 ]. Role of essay, lymphoid cells in what highschool essay, lupus nephritis. Lymphoid aggregates with T cells and B cells have been observed within the kidneys afflicted by essay, lupus nephritis, although their intrarenal roles remain to be fully appreciated. T cells also play a major role in pathogenesis of SLE. Using MRL/lpr mice, Chan and colleagues [ 12 ] showed that mice lacking secreted Ig, but having B cells with a transgenic BCR, still exhibit renal disease. In another study, Schiffer and colleagues [ 65 ] treated NZB/W F1 mice that had established nephritis with CTLA4Ig; this led to disease remission with a significant delay in mortality. Using a transgenic mouse model system, Heymann and colleagues [ 66 ] demonstrated that both cytotoxic T (Tc) cells and Th cells have direct roles in glomerulonephritis. The authors used transgenic mice expressing the problem project model antigens ovalbumin and hen egg lysozyme in glomerular epithelial cells called podocytes.
Co-injection of ovalbumin-specific transgenic CD8 + Tc and CD4 + Th cells into these mice resulted in narrating, periglomerular mononuclear infiltrates and inflammation of parietal epithelial cells, similar to lesions frequently observed in human chronic glomerulonephritis. The ovalbumin-specific CD8 + Tc cells were found to be activated and college paper, expanded in the renal lymph nodes, and narrating essay, the activation of what highschool essay, T cells in narrating, turn could be prevented by depletion of DCs. Crosstalk between tubulointerstitial DCs and Th cells resulted in intrarenal cytokine and chemokine production and in recruitment of more Tc cells, monocyte-derived DCs, and macrophages. That study was the first direct evidence that glomerular antigen-specific Tc and Th cells can induce glomerulonephritis in a process regulated by DCs. Satisfaction Your Job More Money You Earn. Although similar studies in the context of lupus nephritis are eagerly awaited, the essay above studies suggest that type IV hypersensitivity-driven mechanisms are likely to of a, be important in narrating, mediating autoimmune nephritis. Kidneys of nephritic NZM2328 mice show high levels of expression of Th1-type cytokines like IFN-? and IL-12 [ 67 ]. Administration of IFN-?, a Th1 cytokine, to NZB/W F1 mice exacerbates disease, whereas the deficiency of apa style psychology, IFN-? in MRL/lpr mice ameliorates nephritis [ 32 , 34 ]. Similarly, inhibition of IL-18, a cytokine that induces IFN-? and other Th1 cytokines, was found to cause a significant reduction in lymphoproliferation and IFN-? production and resulted in a decrease in lupus nephritis [ 68 ]. These studies reinforce the narrating concept that type IV hypersensitivity reactions may also contribute to lupus nephritis. Other studies have shown a possible role for IL-4, a Th2-type cytokine, in glomerulosclerosis in satisfaction job more important you earn essay, which transgenic overexpression of IL-4 was found to facilitate glomerulosclerosis [ 69 ]. In various studies, IL-4 was found to have a direct effect on fibroblast proliferation, collagen gene expression, and collagen synthesis [ 70 ]. Moreover, inhibition of IL-4 signaling in various lupus-prone mouse models was found to protect mice from developing advanced nephritis in the presence of anti-DNA antibody and infiltrating inflammatory cells [ 32 ]. Therefore, IL-4 appears to essay, play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of satisfaction your important than money you earn, glomerulosclerosis and chronic renal fibrosis in narrating essay, lupus by acting directly upon resident renal cells. Role of myeloid cells in lupus nephritis. Infiltration of DCs in the glomeruli and statement project, tubulointerstitial spaces of the kidneys has been reported in narrating, various murine models of nephritis, including NZB/W F1 [ 67 ], anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) [ 71 ], and mice engineered to express a foreign antigen on podocytes [ 66 ]. Research Paper. DCs may promote lupus nephritis by essay, several mechanisms.
One mechanism may be through migration of DCs to local lymph nodes and presentation of renal antigens to autoreactive lymphocytes in the local lymph nodes, thereby initiating an autoimmune response against renal autoantigens [ 72 ]. DCs may also secrete a variety of different proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines like IL-6, IL-1, IL-18, IFN-?, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and transforming growth factor-beta to what highschool is sizer essay, promote renal inflammation and fibrosis [ 73 ]. Essay. Despite these possibilities, we do not currently understand the degree to which intrarenal DCs are important for lupus pathogenesis or the paper exact mechanisms through which they operate. Similar to DCs, macrophages are recruited to the nephritic kidneys of patients with SLE and lupus-prone mice [ 74 , 75 ] and influence the essay progression of lupus nephritis. Of A Project. In a study using poly(I:C)-induced lupus nephritis in NZB/W mice, proliferative glomerulonephritis was found to be associated with renalinfiltrating macrophages and renal expression of IFN-inducible genes, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and growth factors [ 76 ]. Glomerular crescent formation and renal MMP and growth factor expression were dependent on renal macrophages that expressed IL-10, MMPs, osteopontin, and various growth factors, including platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) and narrating, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) [ 76 ]. These findings accord a potentially important role for macrophages as mediators of aggressive nephritis in problem of a project, lupus by driving the expression of various cytokines and growth factors in the kidney. Essay. Although macrophage depletion or transfer studies have not been reported in spontaneous lupus nephritis, this role has been examined further in a related murine nephritis model that shares pathogenic pathways with spontaneous lupus nephritis [ 77 ]: anti-GBM-induced nephritis. In the latter model, depletion and adoptive transfer studies have demonstrated a critical role for macrophages in the pathogenesis of what is sizer essay, nephritis [ 78 , 79 ]. By implanting renal tubular epithelial cells genetically modified to produce colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) under the renal capsule of MRL/lpr mice, Kelley and colleagues [ 80 ] showed that CSF-1 and TNF-? released by tubular epithelial cells were responsible for promoting renal pathology by fostering macrophage accumulation. In a study using NZB/W lupus-prone mice, Schiffer and colleagues [ 75 ] identified an activated type II macrophage population as a key marker for proteinuria onset and disease remission and suggested that therapy for lupus nephritis include strategies that prevent both activation of monocytes and their migration to the kidney.
Neutrophils, another myeloid cell subtype, have also been shown to infiltrate nephritic kidneys and contribute to the pathogenesis of experimental nephritis [ 81 ], although their role in essay, lupus nephritis is less well defined. Andreas. Neutrophils release various proinflammatory cytokines [ 82 ] as well as proteases and reactive oxygen species that lead to acute inflammation and renal tissue injury [ 83 ]. Further studies in murine models are clearly warranted. Role of resident renal cells in lupus nephritis. It is clear that many intrinsic renal cells, including podocytes and narrating essay, tubular epithelial cells, have the capacity to apa style research, costimulate intrarenal T cells via ICAM-I, MHC-II, B-7, and/or CD40-mediated mechanisms [ 84 – 86 ] or by releasing pathogenic cytokines [ 87 ]. However, the extent to which these intrarenal costimulatory mechanisms and cytokines are operative in spontaneous lupus nephritis remains unknown. On the other hand, the notion that intrinsic renal cells could be essential in narrating, mediating antibody-mediated nephritis is supported by bone marrow transfer or kidney transplant studies in mice challenged with anti-GBM sera [ 88 – 90 ]. These studies have defined the roles of MHC-II, INF-?, and important than essay, Fn14 expression on intrinsic renal cells in mediating nephritis. Overall, we have a very limited understanding of the role that intrinsic renal cells play in narrating, spontaneous lupus nephritis.
As discussed in 3, this review, mouse models have proven to be indispensable for narrating essay understanding the kracke immunological and essay, molecular basis of systemic autoimmunity in andreas dissertation, lupus. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that local autoimmunity in target organs and the responses that target organs play are equally important in disease pathogenesis. Narrating Essay. Murine models are also proving to be instrumental in helping us unravel the intricate mechanisms that underlie the end organ responses in lupus, although the specific roles of andreas kracke dissertation, various cell types warrant systematic investigation. Mouse models have also enhanced our understanding of the narrating essay respective roles of various cells and molecules in the innate immune system and the interplay between the innate and adaptive immune systems in lupus pathogenesis. The challenge ahead is to better define the cellular and problem statement, molecular players orchestrating lupus and to translate our improved understanding of lupus pathogenesis into narrating essay, better rationalized therapeutics targeting selected cells or molecules (or both) that facilitate lupus. Autoimmune Basis of nietzsche essay 3, Rheumatic Diseases. This article is part of a series on Systemic lupus erythematosus , edited by David Pisetsky, which can be found online at essay http://arthritis-research.com/series/lupus. This series forms part of highschool is sizer essay, a special collection of narrating, reviews covering major autoimmune rheumatic diseases, available at: http://arthritis-research.com/series/abrd. B-cell activation factor. glomerular basement membrane. New Zealand Black.
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Sample ACT Writing Prompt #038; Essays. Click through the tabs below to read SIX different sample ACT essays for this prompt. Each has a different score, and an explanation for that score at the end. See how you can go from a zero to a hero by essay learning what makes the perfect ACT essay. “School’s out for apa style summer!” How many of us have stated this sentence in June while happily beginning a summer of fun activities? All students desire the small taste of freedom that comes during the summer months, but we must admit that what we want isn’t always the best thing for essay us.
Few students will admit this, but having an extra few months every year to complete our education would be beneficial to young people entering a world that is more global and paper, competitive than ever. With the narrating essay, nine months that are currently provided, students find it difficult to apa style research psychology paper complete their goals before they leave high school. Being accepted to a college requires planning and effort which requires time that is difficult to come by during the busy school year. By extending the essay, school year, students will be given the kracke, precious time they need in order to truly prepare for the ‘real world’. Colleges look closely at narrating how students utilize their time in high school. Do students do well in their courses?
Are students afraid of taking difficult courses? Are students ‘well-rounded’ with extracurricular activities? Many students may desire to take leadership roles in multiple organizations, but are unable to satisfaction your job more important than you earn essay due to time constraints. With an narrating essay extra few months each year, students will be able to fulfill all of these requirements. They will be able to essay take more courses to complete globally while participating in a wider variety of after school activities. With all of the pressures facing teenagers today, many of us struggle to keep a high grade point average. It is narrating essay very difficult to andreas kracke dissertation be involved with outside activities while maintaining academic excellence. Essay! However, colleges do not take this into consideration when considering the growing number of applicants that come across their desks each year.
Many students who are from other nations such as Japan and China spend much more time in school, and are therefore at an advantage when being compared to American students. Students in nietzsche essay 3 our country need to step up to essay the global plate and use all twelve months of the year to achieve their goals. Academics aside, students often struggle to achieve their personal goals within a nine month school year. A student may face a choice between an AP Calculus course and a music course. Which looks more impressive on a transcript? The student will sacrifice their personal interest in order to look more impressive to colleges and universities.
This may lead to andreas students having higher levels of stress and becoming burnt out. High school is a turning point for many people. It can either be a foundation for a successful life or the beginning of a life of disappointment and deferred dreams. A few extra months of education each year may make all the difference. With the narrating, additional time, students can take both the courses they want and the courses they need while having more time to work at a reasonable pace and to paper reduce stress and pressure. Teenagers work hard to narrating build the foundation for their future, and they need as much time as possible to ensure their success. This essay reflects effective skill in responding to the task. Statement Of A! The writer takes a stance on the issue and offers a critical context for discussion. The writer also looks at the underlying cultural influences regarding the issue and offers clear examples of narrating essay these. The argument is problem of a clearly supported by both general and specific examples.
The organization of the narrating, essay is clear and logical, with effective use of transitions throughout. The introduction and conclusion are effective, well developed and captivating to project the reader. Language and vocabulary usage are excellent, and there are few mistakes to distract the essay, reader. Blank test, illegible, not in English, off-topic. In this essay I will be writing about how year long schools are a bad idea.
Students already have to paper go to school for much too long. School is a place where students can learn about things that will help them in essay life and students are also able to socialize with others during the school year. Summer vacation is the only thing that people look forward too, and even teachers are happy when the school year is over. Going on vacation helps students to do better in school and to graduate on time. Nietzsche Essay 3! My friends and I have a lot of fun during the summer but we also get jobs to earn money so that we can do the essay, fun activities that we like to do.
Some parents don’t like that students get to get the summers off but our schools have been that way for problem statement of a many years and I just don’t think that nothing needs to change. This essay shows little skill in replying to the task. While the essay, writer does take a stance on is sizer essay their opinion in the opening sentence, they fail to use any logical argument to support their thesis. There are many different ideas and thoughts scattered throughout the narrating, essay without using any logical structure or progression. There are leaps between each subject that is addressed and there are no transitions or discernible organization to the essay. The student repeats different ideas over and over in lieu of explaining them.
If you ask any student if they would enjoy going to school all year, the essay, vast majority would say no. I would be one of the few that would say yes, not because I would enjoy losing my vacation, but because I would want to make sure that I have more time to prepare for the real world after I graduate high school. Along with this, I feel that we waste a lot of time preparing for the tests that we have to take at essay the end of the apa style, year, and this might make up for the time that we lose when we are doing that. High school students today have to enter a world where there are not very many jobs. Students need to learn more in narrating essay school and become smarter so that they can get the jobs since many more people are going against them to get these jobs. Even if students go to college, many of them aren’t ready and are shocked when they enter college. Maybe if we went to school during the summer, we could learn what we need to learn so that we will be ready. We waste so much time learning how to take the state tests every year that we basically waste several months every year, so we should make up the time by learning in research psychology the summer.
Also, most other jobs in the real world happen all year, so we should just go ahead and get used to that anyway. The writer shows inconsistent skill in narrating essay addressing the task. Although there are clear ideas and apa style psychology paper, arguments made, they are rather thin and are not given sufficient explanation throughout the essay. There is some organizational structure and logical progression, but the narrating, conclusion is minimal and not clearly separated from the discussion of the other arguments in the essay. Transitions are present but are minimal and simplistic. Sentence structure and andreas kracke dissertation, word choice shows some variety. There are minimal language usage errors to distract the narrating, reader. Experts debate changing the school calendar to year-round schools. Some experts believe that this helps students not to waste time during the summer so that they can learn all the things that they need to learn.
Other experts feel that the problem, students of today are already too busy and need a break in the summer to rest and get ready for the next school year. Narrating Essay! Both sides have strong points but it is my opinion that we should keep the apa style psychology paper, summer vacation in the school calendar. I agree that high school should keep the summer vacation because many students will loose interest in narrating essay school if they aren’t given a break to rest and job more important than essay, get ready for the following year. School is very busy for students with both educational and extracurricular activities, and essay, if students don’t get to 3 rest sometimes, they will get burned out and will do worst at school instead of better. Many students already loose their interest in narrating school and drop out before they finish, and I think that taking away summer vacation would just make that problem worse instead of better. I also feel that it is essay important to have summer vacations so that students can do things in the real world instead of just inside of a school building.
Most students get jobs over narrating essay the summer so that they can save money to go to college or to buy cars or other things that they want to buy themselves. Some parents can’t afford to buy their kids lots of stuff that they need so it helps when the apa style paper, kids can work and buy it for narrating essay themselves. Some students also get to go on vacation to other places in the world and meet other people and paper cover, they can learn lots from that instead of just learning from books inside of school. It just seems to me that going to school all year is way too long for most people. It is hard enough to narrating make it through the school year the way it is and adding three more months will just be to much for some people.
Students would give up and drop out or fail if they had to stay in school all that time. The writer shows some skill in the writing task. The writer takes a position on the issue and offers arguments and examples to highschool is sizer essay support their claims. The student repeats the prompt in the introduction of the essay, but does not offer any counter arguments in the body of the work. Discussion of each idea is limited to essay general statements that are never illustrated by specific reasons, examples, or details. The writer does, however, stay on topic and keeps a logical progression to their arguments. Transitions are used, but there are no meaningful connections between the paragraphs of the essay. There are clear introductions and conclusions but they are underdeveloped, repeating either the given writing prompt or ideas that were just stated in what is sizer the body of the essay. Language use shows some variety, but there are some distracting usage errors.
Educators debate the usefulness of a summer vacation in todays changing world. Essay! Those who support a year round schedule feel that students will be given more time to prepare for college and for a more competitive job field, while those against it feel that students will become burnt out andreas kracke, without a break and will perform more poorly than before due to feeling overwhelmed. There are advantages and narrating essay, disadvantages to each side of the argument, but I feel that having a 12 month school year would be counterintuitive for many reasons, such as a loss of interest and motivation, loss of real life experiences and the fact that three extra months of learning will not solve the bigger issues that face our educational system. Firstly, students don’t really learn the whole time they are in school with the current schedule. Every spring, students and teachers get burnt out and just do the minimum amount of work required to get through to the end of the school year.
The last week of school is often spent just watching movies or doing nothing at all. College! With an extended school year this attitude will persist for months instead of a few weeks, and nothing will get accomplished anyway. Secondly, students will lose the opportunity to learn things during the summer. Yes, it is possible to learn outside of narrating essay school! Many students get jobs during the summer in order to help with expenses. This helps kids to learn responsibility as well as helping them to of a try different professions so that they can decide what they want to do with their lives. Narrating Essay! Some students also use the summer to what is sizer travel with there families and learn more about different places and cultures. Lastly, extending the school year just seems like a ‘quick fix’ solution to bigger issues in essay the American school system. Tacking three months onto the school year isn’t going to fix the dropout rates or inclining test scores. It may even worsen these problems due to the drop in both teacher and student morale.
In conclusion, nine month long school years are more than long enough for students to 3 learn the things that they need to learn in order to succeed. The problems that students face will only narrating essay be worsened by kracke a year-long school calendar. We have had the same school calendar for many decades and many people have managed to learn and succeed without attending school over the summer, so why would we think that students today are any different? The student displays adequate skill in responding to narrating essay the task. The writer takes a position and provides clear examples to support their arguments.
The writer addresses some counter-arguments to their own position, which shows some complexity and depth to their ideas. The development of ideas is logical and adequate, and focus on the original issue is maintained throughout the essay. Cover! The organization is clear but predictable, and transitions between the paragraphs are overly obvious and simplistic. The introduction and conclusion are clear and somewhat developed. Language and word choice show some variety and proficiency. Essay! However, there are some distracting errors in word usage. Demand for highschool is sizer essay excellence in both academics and extracurricular activities are forcing high school students to work their fingers to the bone in order to reach the high standards that are applied to them in today’s society.
This is hardly surprising in a society which admires those who make the most money and obtain the highest achievements. Having students attend school through the summer would give more opportunities to take courses which interest them while relieving some of the narrating essay, stress that they face and helping the college cover, young people of essay today to prioritize their wants and needs accordingly. Many schools offer an abundance of interesting courses, but many students, particularly college bound students, do not have the satisfaction your job more important than, opportunity to take these courses. Essay! Instead, they are pressured to take courses which will be required for satisfaction your money you earn college as opposed to being able to learn something that grabs there interest. College admissions are more competitive than ever, so students will take difficult and more ‘impressive’ courses in order to have a leg up instead of being able to learn about narrating things that they enjoy. Life for teenagers today is more stressful than ever. We have parents and teachers who ask about our college and career paths starting in elementary school. Stress is a real problem for problem statement many young people today. They have to consider many things: Where should I go to college? How will I pay for narrating college?
What should I choose for satisfaction essay my career? All of these questions are very stressful and can cause students to turn to unhealthy habits such as drugs and alcohol in order to cope. By adding a few extra months to the school year, students would have many more options and narrating essay, choices, and this would help to andreas dissertation decrease the essay, stress that they face in a 9 month school year. Nobody seems to have enough time available in order to complete what they want to complete. Students have no time for family, friends, relaxing or perusing hobbies that they enjoy. Instead, they must concentrate on school and how to look impressive to colleges in order to obtain admissions and highschool is sizer, scholarships. Even when young people do take some time to relax, adults often assume that we are ‘lazy young people’ who don’t know how to work hard! While some teenagers are lazy (just the same as there are lazy adults!), they also need to know that some relaxation is important for physical and mental health.
While some people may think that this is essay achieved through a three month summer vacation, they should realize that most teenagers just take on jobs or internships to earn money instead of just relaxing… and before they know it, they are back in the stressful school environment. Being in nietzsche essay 3 school year round can help students prioritize their sanity by narrating slowing down and taking things at a reasonable pace instead of squeezing everything into 9 months. With such high standards for young people today, isn’t it fair that they should have a few extra months a year in order to get everything done and, heaven forbid, have a bit of fun and relaxation? Having year round schooling will help students to work at a more leisurely pace to complete their courses and nietzsche 3, prepare for college or the world of work. They will be able to essay learn about satisfaction than money things that interest them instead of just what they ‘should’ learn for college, and they will be able to have more time to relax and learn how to prioritize their health and mental well being. Having year round schooling will benefit students for years to come.
This essay takes a stance and offers explanation within a larger context of today’s society and narrating, culture. The essay demonstrates understanding of the complexities of the argument by taking many different perspectives into satisfaction your money you earn, account without unnerving the argument made by the writer. The development of the essay is logical and fluid. The essay provides both general ideas and specific examples to narrating support the thesis. Some ideas are developed fully and critical conclusions are made. Transitions are well crafted and used appropriately. Language usage is generally clear, but there are some distracting mistakes with homonyms. Vocabulary is complex and correctly used. Good Luck ACT is the free, complete guide to the ACT exam.
We give you detailed information on all the different types of questions on the test, as well as strategies to 3 excel in narrating each section. You can also take our free ACT practice test to apa style psychology paper see how prepared you are. This site is written by Erica Newsome, an narrating experienced public educator in both the United States and problem statement, Canada. She has spent her career helping secondary students excel and narrating, prepare for college. ACT® is the registered trademark of ACT, Inc.
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